« ZurückWeiter »
"to find tie portion of the power employed which is used in
te P' we have, as above
■in. 0 + <?)
Y = 2Q x --: •
Now if P b« the driving pressure on a smooth wedge harm" the same angle, which exerts the same pressure, li, as the rough wedge, we have, iuaju>x f> = 0 m the above
P = 2(J sin. i.
Dividing the Utter by the former wo obtain
P sin. i cos. i
P' sin. (i + ^j
Example IS—A wrought iron wedge whose angle of cleavage is 7" is forced into a mass of oak. It is required to find what fraction of the driving pressure is consumed by friction, the angle of friction being 31° SO7.
i = 8" 39', t> = 31° 80/
— = 0 09 nearly, or P' = IIP
produce the ns sec that although the efficacy of the wedge is due to friction, still in this, as in every other case, friction diminishes the effects of forces applied to machines.
We shall now pass to the dynamical theory of the action of tic wedge, and snopose lhat the blow is caused by a given weight r falling ihrough a given number of feet h. This weight at the instant of striking the back of the wedge has accumulated in it an amount of work or energy represented by P h, or, if v be the velocity in feet per second of P al the instant of striking the wedge, the number of units of work stored up in it is represented by the well known formulu P x r' »'■"
— since ft = —. Now this energy is expended in over2j 2o"
comiag the tendency of the resisting surfaces to collapse, in overcoming the friction, in compressing lioth the weight itself and the wedge, and in giving motion to each.
Or, representing the useful work gained, which is equal to 5Q x L> E by U, we have
P t» sin. i cos. <p
U = x •
ig sin. l» + $)
Since U = 5Q. x D E. and U is a definite amount of useful work, when 1) E is very small Q will lie very great. This accounts for the enormous resistances which the wedge can overcome when driven by blows.
In the equation
Work employed = P ft,
it is clear that we can increase the work done by increasing P or by increasing ft. that is, by increasing Ilia weight of the hammer, or by increasing its velocity, but it is found in practice that a better result is obtained by incrcasiog the velocity than bv increasing the weight. This has been accounted for by supposing that a rapid blow causes a tremor of the substances, and momenta; ily destroys the friction.
1 shall now conclude this article with the following example:— . , „ , ...
Example 12.—The ends of an iron girder, 30 tons weight, resting on two granite piers, are simultaneously raised hy means of wrought iron wedges, in the form of a right-angled triangle whose height is lin. These wedges are driven home bv 2i blows each of a hummer weighing 1411).. and which is moving at the rate of Hift. per second at the instant of striking the wedge. Find how much work is expended on prejudicial resistances, including friction, Sw.
The number of units of work developed hy one hammer in the 25 blows is equal to
40 x 40
25 x 14 x = 8750
S x 32
Now if there were no prejudicial resistances, this amount or work should have rained a weight of U times tins number of foot pounds, or 1U.VJ00 to the height of lin. (which lathe height the girder is raised), but from the question each wedge onlv raises 15 tuns or o.WUb. to the heiglit1 of one inch, therefore the work lost by triction, &c., is 10500 0 - S3606 = 714001b. raised lin. or li'JM foot pounds, or about ij of the total work expended.
Ex . Express as a decimal .'
Here write down the whole number and numerator as a wlmlenumber,thus5 and 4.counting theuumber otnougldtia he denominator, one. then mark otf cue figure from the right as a decimal, thus, 54. 15
Ex. Express as a decimal.
1000 As above, write 15, tho number of noughts is three, therefore mark off three places from the right. There are, however, only two, and we must prclix a nought, as -015, to make three.
Ex. Express ■ as a decimal,
1000 2510015 is'he answer, t 36. It will thus be Been that a decimal is simply a fraction with a denomination, 10, or some power of It); this denominator never being written but always understoodAnother fact should also lie noticed, viz., that unlike a wholo number, to add noughts to ilie right of decimals does not
niter their value, thus "1 remains equivalent to — even when
10 written -1O0O0O, but if we aid noughts to the left the value
is altered, thus '1 = —.but '01 = ——, Sec, Sec.
fTo Br continued.)
MATHEMATICS. Br C. H. W. Bioos. CHAPTER III.
'Continued from page 5 8 Units.
Or, in words, ten times the force required to produce pressure Q is expended in overcoming friction. We thns
j 33. | | | | | | | | . In the number 1111 to tho left
of the vertical line above we observe that as the value of the tens, place tis ten times that of the units, and that of the hundreds ten times that of tens, and so on, conversely tho value of the units' place it one-tenth that of the tens', one-hundredth that of the hundreds', and so on. Now, if we write digits to the right of the units' place, and agree that the law just noticed shall hold for the value represented by them, it is plain that the tirsl to the right of the units will he ouc oiietenth of the unit, the second will be one one-hundredth, and so on—* e., a series of ones written after the units' place will
1 1 1 represent the fraction! one —, one , one . Sic.
In iig. 14, let the dotted Hues A' B' C represent the position of the wedge ABC after it has received a blow. Now, as the resisting surfaces are supposed to move in a horizontal directum only, if D be the point of application of the mutual rjonnai pressure before the blow, D' must be the corresponding point after, therefore the normal resistance, which we shall call Q, has been overcome through the space D E in its direction, therefore the work expended on Q is equal to Q x DE. Alio, in consequence of the blow, the point Don the wedge has been moved to H (vertically under D), therefore the ■pace passed over by the rubbing surface in the direction in tchtchfrictimartt is equal to E II, but E H = D E cot. i, aince i. 11 U = i, therefore the work expanded on friction is equal to a Q x 1) E cot. i, and neglecting the mutual collision of the weight and wedge, Ac, we must have
where the nnmber of noughts succeeding the one in the denominator is the same as the number of places to the rijht of the units'place. A. period called the decimal point is placed after the unit's hgure to show tit what point tne Pactional part of the number begins. Thus Wi means one whole number and two tenths plus rive hundredths—i.e., twenty
35 31 five hundredths'. -035 means . Conversely must
751 be represented decimally, thus, •00011, and thus 751,
whence the following rule—
4 34 Toexpressadeciuialfractionintlieformofavulgarfraction. For the numerator set down the digits of the decimal fraction as if thev formed the whole number, and for the denominator set down one followed by as many ciphers as there are places in the decimal.
Ex. K.tpress^'yl us a vulgar fraction.
It must be remembered lhat it whole number is a whole number whether expressed attached to a decimal or uilgar fraction.
Then 1st we have the whole number 2
Ii"nd „ the decimal "51
Which setdown 2il
Underline and write 100
one followed by two noughts, because there arc two places of decimals iu the given number.
3rd. The whole answer being , or 2 .
Ex. Express -0010101 as a vulgar fraction.
Here write 1010L us a whole number.
353 = the answer.
100 Ex. Express 55 as a vulgar fraction.
sin i cos.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
[Wo do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our correspondents. The Kditob respectfully requests that nil communications should be drawn, up as briefly as possible.] *.* All communications should be addressed to tho
Kditob of the English Mechanic, :u, Tuvlstock
street, t'oveni. Garden, W.C.
All cheques and Post Office Orders to be made payable to J. l'ASSMORE KDWARD9.
I would have every one write what he knows, and as much as lie knows, but no more; nud that not In this only, but In all other subjects: For such a pertou may have some particular knowledge and experience uf the nature of such a persou or such a fountain, that, as to other things, knows no more than what everybody does, and yet to keep a clutter with ihis little pitta'nee of Ms, will undertake to write the wholo body of pliysieks: a vice from whence great inconveniences derive their original. —Montaigne'* Essays.
Sir —The interest manifested by your readers in tho above'subject induces tne lo send you the specification of Jlr. H. W. Cook, of Ovlngtou-equare, London, describing his recent improvements In the construction of turret clocks. Striker.
Tlio object of the invention is to dispense with a large portion of the oidinnry clock-work gearing. with its attendant expense, and, in fact to elimrnate from the clock all the wheels which come before that which nctunlly drives the hands. This gearing in a clock of the ordlnnry construction, but actuated according to this invention, will consist of three wheels — namely. Brat, one which goes round once an hour; second, the escapement wheel; and, third, a wheel connecting the other two. The wheels and driving gear are arranged iu the manner shown in the accompanying drawing, In which Fl^'. 1 represents an elevation of a turret clock constructed according to the Improvements, and provided with striking gear j Fig. ■.' Is a side view of tho same. It will be seen that to the axles of the central wheel o (on the axle of which the hour hand is mounted) is applied a water wheel, which Is driven by a flow of water from a suitable reservoir above. This water wheel inny be of any convenient construction, but the form most suitable for this purpose, und which is shown in the drawings, consists of lour or more pipes, 6 ft, radiating from a centre b\ and furnished with small buckets b> V, at their extremities. These pipes are each provided with a tap or cock, on the solndle of which is mounted a tnppet wheel c c, so arranged that as the arms ot the wheel revolve In the direction of the arrows 11, one of tho arms of the tappet wheel c is brought against a pin d so placed that it will turn on the taps c at a certain point as the wheel goes round in tho direction of the arrows 1, 1. Water will then pass down the i>ipo c from the reservoir above to tho centre 6', and from thnuce up the arm b into the bucket (A The flow of the water down the pipe c into the bucket is stopped as soon as the bucket iu quostlou is full by the tappet wheel c of the tap coming against auothcr pin d' which will turn off the tup and stop the water from flowing into the bucket, iiy this arrungement the splashing of an ordinary water wheel is nvoided, and a very regular pressure is obtained. The hour wheel a gears into a piuion on the axle of tho wheel/. The wheel f gears into a pinion on tho axle of the escapement wheel h. A pinion on the axle b' gears iuto nnd drives the wheel i, on the face of which are plus 2 ^,'whlch ns tho wheel i rotates lift up the tail of a lever j, the other end of which is connected by a wire to one end of a lever 1, which Is connected at its opposite end by a wire to a lever I below, having its fulcrum at 3. As the tell of the lever (Is raised it will draw the catch I Into the position shown by dots, and will (by releasing the pin i on tho lever «) allow me other pin 5 to drop on the back of the catch t. t<oyr when the pin l on the wheel; passes the tall of tho lever j the latter will fall back into the position shown, and tuo pin 5 being released from the catch t will allow the lever u to drop down until stopped by a pin o at the end of the double levor v r>. on which It will rest In the position shown by dots aid by means of the wire «'; this lever » will turn on the tap s, and allow
water to pus down the pipe s1 into the arme о and buckets ol of a second water wheel for actuating the M i iking part of the mechanism.
lu applylngthls invention totbeetrikingmovement. the advantages are very great, first, because the weight here employed is greater than that required to actuate the clock itself; and, secondly, because in this case two trains of wheels are eliminated. The inventor applies the power of a water wheel to the cammed wet n, which consists of three cams, as shown by dots in Fig. 1. These cams, as they are rotated by the action of the tubular arms о and buckets o\ act on the tail of the lever », which by the intervention of the wire j»1 iifte the hammer of the bell in the turret above. As the water wheel о will only revolve at a steady pace, the regulating fans usually employed in the striking gear of ordinary turret clocks may be dispensed with. The only wheel required in this arrangement, with the exception of the cam wheel n for lifting the hammer through the lever/» and wire/»1 U a ratchet wheel q to drive the lockisg plate r. The ratchet wheel q has three teeth, and is mounted on the same shaft as the cam wheel n, and therefore at every third of a revolution moves the locking plate t one tooth. It will be evident that so long as thu arms о of the large water wheel continue to move round they will carry round with them the cam wheel n, and will consequently act on the hammer lever /», as already explained, and also on the ratchet wheel q, which will drive the locking plate г one tooth for every stroke of the hammer on ihe bell. The striking will therefore continue until one of the twelve pints 7 7, on the face of the locking plate r comes against the tail r1 of the lever v, on which the lever и reste. The pin 7 as it moves forward will puth back the tail i1 of the lever, and thus cause the pin 0 to raise the lever м into the position shown in the drawl ug, an thus allow the counterbalance lever a1 on the cock a to turn off iho water from the arm о and buckets o1, and rhereby trop the cams я and ratchet q until one of the plus й oí the wheel ¡ comes round again at the cud of the hour and turns out the water again in the pipe «'.
Wheu there is any difficulty about introducing a water wheel large enough ю act in the manner above described, or where complicated movements such as chimes are required, the dis advantages of this system can be obtained by mskiug the weight and drum of any ordinary clock of power sufficient to strike twelve o'clock with its chimes, if any, and then arranging a small water wheel to wind up the striking movement alter every tfrre that it has acted. Thus, for instance, In a non-chiming clock, where it is necessary at present to store up power sufficient to
strike 720 times, under this plan only sufficient power is required to strike twelve, thus diminishing the strength and solidity requisite in constructing the clock.
THE SUPPOSED PLANET VULCAN.
Sir,—To the list of observers which appeared In the English Mechanic of thelstinst, should be added the names of the Kev. Fred. Howled, F.R.A.S., and Messrs. Thomas Petty and W. K. liland.
The weather has, f i irtunately, up to the present t a me, been exceedingly favourable for solar observations. There have been, and are now, several magnificent groups of spots visible on the sun. Four of these spots have been distinctly visible to the naked eye. At fih , on Mars :tl, I saw with great distinctness the two groups and large isolated spot near the W, limb, and am pretty certain that another cluster situated on the
'Л О .AM. /t. IS. AM .
E. edge of the disc. was also visible. On March 28, at sunrise, Mr. H. Ormbhcr, of Manchester, discovered three of the groups without telescopic aid. and Mr. E. It. Noble, of Burton- on-Trent, writes that on March 25, 26, 27, 28. and 30, he distinctly saw one or more of the spots with the naked eye. It may be appropriate here to give some measures of the size of the largest spot visible. Mr. T. W. Backhouse, of Sunderland, writes that on the 24th March it was 46,000 miles long, and the principal nucleus 19,000, On the 27th it was 45,000 miles long and 36,000 m Uta wide. It thou con tai o ed two umbrte,each 8500m, long. On the 1st April it was 48,000m. long (in a direction nearly parallel with the Urabj and 31,000tn. wide. Its northern umbra iras
8000m. long and 7000m. wide. The above spot ita versed the sun's northern hemisphere, and was visible from March 23 to April 4 Inclusive. Several other large spots have been visible. On March 24 Mr. Backhouse measure the largest spot of a cluster in the S.E. quadrant, and found It was 36,000m. long.
Observers have noticed several rapid changes in the form of some of the spots. Mr. E. B. Knobel remarked a phenomenon of this nature on March 26. He says: —" I began to observe the sun at about 10.40 B.BL, and
fruve my attention almost entirely to examining the large spot then visible in the sun's northern hemisphere. I made a sketch of it, which I completed by a few minutes after 11 олп. At 11.10 a.m. the sun wee obscured by clouds, which cleared off at 11.15 G.M.T. I immediately directed my attention to this spot, and woe astonished to observe a change had taken place in the bridge across the large umbra. A bright patch seemed to have broken out in the middle of the umbra, which then appeared as in Fig. 2. The moment I had the spot in the field of the telescope it caught my attention, and I felt confident at the time it had not presented that aspect when it had clouded over five minutes before. I should say the bridge was much brighter than the penumbra. I hope other observers liare noticed the same phenomenon." The following are the sketches of the spot referred to:— Several other observers have observed somewhat similar phenomena.
No planetary body, or any strange appearance whatever, has been visible on the disc of the sun, or it would have been detected immediately.
I find, on observing the sun this morning with my tin. metallic reflector, that an immense group of spota have just appeared on the E.N.E. edge of the disc The photosphere in the region of this group is greatly disturbed, aud there are numerous faculx visible. From the present appearance of this cluster. 1 imagine it will be of greater dimensions than any other group recently visible. If the weathercoutluues favourable, I will forward you sketches of the appearance of this group, and will duly send you particulars of further observations. William F. Denning, Hon. Sec.. Observing Astronomical Society Ashley-road, Bristol, April 5.
SITAND'S IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM
Sir,—The following description of Shand'e recent improvements in steam pumping and tire euginesmay not prove uninteresting: —
Mr. Shand claims that they enable him to obtain by
simple and direct means an uniform action In hU pump and perfect equilibrium of all the parts In motion, that le to say, he obtained a continuous flow through suction inlets and delivery outlets, very desirable when used as a steam fire engine, and In effect resembling ■ rotary action. Greater thoroughfares through the valves wre also obtained than can be by the uduai means in equal areas of barrel and bucket. The steam pumping engine is composed of three steam cylinders arranged in line with each other, and the pistons or each attached through its rod directly to a ram aud bucket, each of which works in one of three pump barrels, also in line opposite the cylinder;*. In the attachments of the pi-ton rods to their respective rams a slot is formed, or what is generally known as a slotted crosshead, into which work the journals of a three-throw or equilateral crank, the shaft of which having three eccentrics fitted thereto, each actuating a slid- valve to admit and discharge tbesteara working the pistons, nil the working parts are thus made to balance each other. For compactness the three-throw crank may I<c worked by means of slotted cross heads, but ordinary connecting rods may bo used for this purpura. Kach pump barrel is connected at bottom to out? suction chamber, and at rnp to one pump head, by which the aupclv and the delivery is made common to all three pumps, producing the uniformity before named, rendering the action aoft, unaccompanied by the violent thud nnd vibration produced by *he ordinary reciprocating pump when speedily driven. The steam and exhaust pipes of the cylinders are also connected each Into one, thus constituting but one engine and pump, with continuous instead of the jerking and intermittent action usual in the ordinary pumps. The suction and delivery valves are usually composed of a number of vulcanised Indfa-rubber discs fixed over as many gratings, the outline of each grating being circular, these being formed in a fiat plate (also a disc) and forming the foot valve or bucket, and of suitable diameter to the barrels. The size of the rubber disc is by this arrangement limited, as being circles within the boundary of a larger circle the valves can be made no larger than to touch each other.
The seats are of a pyramidal fonn, the Inclined faces of which allow of larger circular gratings than can be obtained In the flat valve seat of dlse form before described. By these means the thoroughfares through the gratings are increased and r.u increased flow of water through the suction and delivery valves is obtained.
^eT-1 i« a front elevation, In whlc!i are ahown the slotted crnsa head ami the connecting rod arrangements. Fig. 2 is an end elevation with the frame broken away to show the arrangement of cross head; and Fig. 3 Is an end elevation, partly in section, showing the arraugemeut of couuectlng jod and the pyramidal valve seats.
A are the steam cylinders, the pistons of which are connected directly to the rams 11 by the two piston rods C In the connecting rod arrangement, and by the single piston rod D and the foot piece £ in the slotted •POM bead arrangement. The couuectlng rods F or the slotted croas heads G transmit motion to the threethrow or equilateral cranka II, producing a rotary
motion of the crank shaft I, on which are fixed the
three eccentrics J for working the steam slide vales.
Attached to the ram B U the bucket K, in which the gratings of the pyramidal valve seats are shown, also
the India-rubber valves In section with their guards. L is one of tho foot valves, ahown In section, also of thcpyramidal form aud fitted to the bottom of <nch pump barrel; M the inlet to motion chamber N from which each pump la supplied; <> the pump barrels; P the pump head receiving the delivery of each pump; Qthe discharge outlets, of which there mav be one or several, as required. Fireman.
TUB TELESCUrE, Ac.
Sib,—A 4ln. object glass which will show the nth Star in the trapezium of (_)' Orlouis needs no encomium oi mlue to m 'ke the owner most legitimately proud of it. I can only tell Mr. Alston (p. 40), that had he paid Dullmeyer (whom I take to bo our first living object glass maker). BO guineas for a 41 n. objective, it could not have possibly doue more than his " Wray." I scarcely know n more severe test In the whole Heavens than Lhe rtth Star in the trapezium of Uriou for an instrument of the size he refets to.
I can give " G *' (2271), p. 45. littlo or no Information as to what has become of Kitchener's instruments; which are scattered all over the country. It may. however, nsslst him in tracing the "Beauclerc" telescope, if I tell him that It was advertised for sale for £130, by the Kev. A. F. Fadley, of Lincoln, In the Tunes for February 9th, 1861; who bought It, or whether It was ever disposed of at all, I cannot say.
Mr. J. H. Ward (2275), same page, will find glas* of a very dark neutral tint, or ol that hu<? known to Opticians, as " Louden Smoke," the most pleasant to 086 aa an eye-cap in viewing the Sun. He must be careful, though, either to employ the "Holgson" reflector (english 31 ecu Ante. Vol. IX , p. 180), or to constrict the aperture of hli telescope to 2Iu., or less. Otherwise he will find hi* dark glass crack at once.
"\V. H. 1*. " (2287) can do nothing with his telescope Lenses are not like trained Boldiers, they wou't stand fire.
"Astronomer " f2S15), p. 4fi, is delightfully vague In the absence of any details as to aperture, &c., I can
only conceive that his little telescope is a very good O'le, aud his bigger Instrument an exceedingly bad* one.
"II. A.C. " (2347), alKo on p. 4fi. Is apparently speaking of a reflecting telescope, albeit he says nothing directly to Indicate that such Is the case. He further omits to state whether It has a vertical motion upon trunnion*, or in fact (save by an ambiguous reference to its being "raised or lowered bv means of two nuts") whether it has any vertical motion at all. ABsumiug, however, pro hoc vice, that he can move it in a truly vertical direction, he must stretch a perpendicular spider line across the centre of the field of his eye-piece; and then obtaining his exact local time, calculate In the way exemplified on p. 2, the precise time of trausit of any star near the horizon. He must then bisect this star by his wire, just before Its culmination, aud, moving tho whole instrument bodily after it. stop at the calculated In-ntant of its appulse to the Meridian. His telescope vrill be then as nearly due North and South as ever he is likely to get It, and he may now lower It aud Bee what terrestrial object forms a meridian mark.
To set the Instrument east and west, he may describe a circle on the ground, having the longest leg of his triangle as a ceutre. and the distance between ft and either of the others for a radius. If now be wilt notice where this shorterleg touches the o'rttra when the instrument Is In the Meridian, aud will covet round i he exact quarter of the circle from such pusitiou, he will have obviously shifted the telescope, cither iuto an easterly or westerly position, according to the direction in which he has travelled round the circle.
As for his device for looking at the sun, it 1b nothing In the world but the " Hodgson" reflector referred to above. It is the best aud sutest way Juere is of examining solar detail.
His third query, albeit very indirectly a telescopic one. I may a« well answer here by saying that N. 1*. D. may be converted Info declination as follows. When it does not exceed 03°, subtract it from 9u°, and tha remainder will bo North Declination ; when it does exceed l»0°, subtract 0U° from it, the remainder will be South Declination.
For example the N. P. T>. of a star is 47° 10', what is its declination? U0° - 47° 10' = 42- 50' Dec. North.
Or. what Is the Declination of a star whose N. F. D. Is 105° 12'/, 105° I*'- 00° = l.V 12'Dec South.
An unexpected fine night has enabled me to redeem my promise to lo.>k at t, Ursa; Majoris w.th Alcor and their neighbours. In preceding column is a sketch of the field of view of a 4Jln. telescope with a power of 74, when directed to Mizar. I mu?t, however, exprYssly caution "Jupiter.** or any one else, not to accept the apparent magnitude* of the small stars indicated as correct I do not think that yonr engraver could possibly cut some of them without making tho punctures so minute as to till with ink In the process of printing. My querist must therefore regard ray diagram merely as an eye map of the positlou of tho points of light which were visible when I mads it.
With regard to the letter of "« Ursa Mlnoris" (n. 59), I --'m just in this difficulty, that ray T<Uh Vol. of the English Mechanic Is now in the binder's baud* So that I have no means of referring to the reply to him to which he adverts. Ou this account his reference to "24 Lyncis'Ms a puzzle to me; 4 and 14 Lyncls are both pretty test objects, each about V apart, but 24 and 31 are unlcnowu to mo as doubles. What "the first Star on 'F.R.A.S.'s' list" was, I have not the most distant conception cither, in the absence of such list from the cause specified. Your correspondent ought certainly to divide the closer pair t Equulel with the Optical means he possesses ; its components are now just over 1* fiom each other. The Star '• about IS' (roally 11") to the right nnd below' ■ it is the third component of the triple asterism.
The list of object* resolved by "a Ursa; Mlnoris," is creditable to his instrument, albeit it contains some of various values as tests
—Apropos of the flih Star in the trapezium of $ Orionis, 1 am disposed, as I have before stated in your columns,|to put a fin. Achromatic as the smallest instrument with which, under the mo»t favourable circumstances, this exceedingly difficult object cau be glimpsed. If however .Mr. Cooke's 3fin. did show it, such telescope must have been unique as a production of its manufacturer. I should perhaps add, in fairness that suspicion exists of this Star's variability.
I never Intended to indicate that tho Satellites of Uranus were invisible In anything less than a aft. mirror. Some one whose lottor bore internal evidence that he was iu possession of a 3in object glass, or something of that sort, asked what maynifging power was necessary to observe these mourn 1' t jestingly inquired in return if he had a In. mirror, that he put tho question? I am quite familiar with all that Arago has written pa the subject, and know the story •f Lamont aud the llio. Merz refractor, probably very nearly as well as "o Visa" himself. 1 will try and be more serious for the future.
Mr. Baguley, p. 63, asks me for some tests for a Sin. refractor. He may try y Leonls, 19 Leonis, J Ureae Majoris, u Leonis, 127 P.XIII Virginia or i liobtis, for separating power. All these are easy objects. He will find more dioVult ones in 156 P. XIII Ursse Majoris, 70P.X1V tjibra;, v5 Scorpil, or X Ophiucb). For a trial of his light-grasping power he can look at 13 P.V1II Caucrl.ef P.V1I1 Cancri, 15Hydra, t Ursse Majoris, 0 HydrtEor y JJrsa: Majoris. The comes toy Crateris will be just beyond his capability. He may also attempt the resolution of that gorgeous mass of stars 13 M Uerculis. 1 shall De happy to learn what success he has had iu the resolution of these few' objects; and shall be glad to supply hiin with a supplementary list, should he be successful with tho one I now give him.
I suspect that" Neptune" (2436), p. 70, is merely laughing at me. He has, according to his own showing, ^ot hold of a flint disc of abnormally high dispersive power, but what its exact index is of course 1 must be ignorant. He tells me the focal length of the crown, and that of tho whole combination, and he professes to have such stupendous faith iu my mathematical juggling as to suppose that I can from this compute the curves he requires "in a few lines.'' I do not know whether "Neptune" has ever calculated the curves for an object glass himself ; but I cun assure him that I have, af> initio, and 1 made a vow when I had finished, that 1 would never voluntarily wade through such a dreary waste of figures again. To get out accurately, the four surfaces of an achromatic combiuut ion of the size of your correspondent's, would involve, imprimis, the most accurate knowledge of tho refractive and ilispersive indices of the materials to be employed; and then amass of elaborate calcul a tiou which 1 really have neither the time nor the inclination to face. It is not like a terrestrial telescope, or other small instrument, in which Sir John Herschel's simple formula can be employed: it Is a serious undertaking, as " Neptune " may satisfy himself by reference to any standard book on optics. A Fellow Of The Koyal Astronomical Societt.
Sir,—" Not a F.R. A.S." (2425), p. 70 is slightly confusing two different things. All lie has to do is to calculate his own local mean time accurately, and then by adding 8m. 7s. to it he will obtain the Greenwich mean time at that instant. Tho addition of 13Is. is to the apparent Klght Ascension of the Suu at his local mean noon, be;'use the Karth turns from West to East, and In the interval between tho Greenwich Meridian coming uuder the Sun. and the arrival of that of yonr correspondent there, the Sun himself will have travelled a little way in the Ecliptic, and have increased his Might Ascension by the 133s.
Au example scarcely seems necessary, but for perspicuity 1 give one. worked out at length. What will be the Greenwich .Moan Time nt 6h. 11m. 50-39s. Local Sideral time in Longitude 8m. 7s. W., on the 15 April? Turning first to p. 63 of the "Nautical Almanac," wo find
h. m. s. Sidereal time at Greenwich .Mean Noon 1 30 40 06 Add proportional part of 1)8565 1"33
Sidereal time at local Mean Noon 1 33 47 30 h. in. s. Then from 0 14 50-39 take.. .. 1 33 47 39
There remains 4 41 3 00 Tho Sidereal hours, minutes, aud seconds, since Mean Noon.
Converting this into Solar time, by the aid of the table atp. 506, thus :—
h. in. s. h. m. s.
41 = 40 68-2831
3 = 21)018
I have assumed that my querist's longitude is 8m. 7s. in Mean Time west of Greenwich. If it be 8m. 7s. sidereal time, he must convert this into mean time, which he will fins' to be Sin. 57s., and add that.
I can only reply to Mr. W. F. Swallow (2301), p. 68. that 1 have nothing to explain, modify or retract with reference to what I wrote with regard to tho gnomon (/oc. cit.), in your list volume. Mr. Swallow asserts that the length of the shadow of a gnomon at the time of the equinox is not au arithmetical mean between the two lengths of the same shadow at the Solstices; and I say that it is. Utrum horum mavis accipe. A Fellow or The Royal Astronomical Society.
. Wo get 4 40 10-9507 Local Mean
h. m. s. time, and finally If to this 4 40 16-90 we add 8 7 00
we obtain 4 48 23 90 the Greenwich Mean Time at our supposed place of observation at the assumed Sideral Time on the day specified.
Sin, I lower my sword to Sir. Proctor. I see the force of his objection with reference to ray determination not to argue under any circumstances whatever; and can quite conceive that too rigid' an adherence to such determination may often render me liable to misconstruction. Pro hoc rice then, I candidly admit that my spectroscopic illustration was a most unfortunate one, and my use of the words "a vrioti," where I Bhould have said, and only mettnt, "at the first blush," certaiuly calculated to couvey the impression that I was enunciating, what I bolleved to be, a scientific truth. There is less excuse for me, because I was familar with thy form iu which the Astronomer Royal bad stated his difficulty, and the immediate and convincing reply that was given to him; but I wauted au illustration and, it seems,could only furnish one iu this slipshod lorni. I should be very sorry that it should go forth to the world that 1 believed that the dispersiou of tho two dissimilar spectra, might have theoretically been expected togo ou, paripaxsu. although on reading may own words over (litera scripta manet), they certainly appear to couvey that idea.
There is agentleman signing himself "Veritas,"who has hououredine with a considerable amou ut of attention for some w^oks pa*X. It may perhaps save him the expenditure of a greal deal of paper and Injft if J refer him again to the article " Veuus on the iota's Face," which ho* formnd the text from which he has been preachlug. If he will honour nap by reading' it once more, he will find that I absolutely reEudlate rigid accuracy in my figures, niy aole object avlng been to render apprehensible, in the most popular form that I could devise, the priucipte on which the measurements described, are made. To have gone into all the details and refinements of calculation would have been to have ^expanded what filled some 0 or 7 columns of the English Mechanic. into a thin octavo volume. Onco for all, then, I u>ed round numbers everywhere, aud it is of no use "Veritas "foundiug any theory upon them.
Thanks.—Permit me to thank Messrs. " Saul Rymea " and G. E. Crick, p. 44, for their kindness iu so promptly answering my question as to engraving on slate. 1 have further t ■• thank Sir. Leicester for the trouble he has taken to reply to me ou p. 60. 1 rather fear, though, that the process which he describes is beyond the reach of a mere amateur. A Fellow Of Thc Royal Astronomical Society.
THE SUN'S DISTANCE FROM THE EARTH.
Sip,—The following information I copy from Vol. LllI, page 1,of thc Phil. Trims, lor the year 17di, with comment, for the notice of your correspondent, "S. 15.," in your number lor April 1st, 1S7U, p. 38 : —
"Of the Sun's Distance from the Earth, deduced from Mr. Short's Observations relating to the Horizontal Parallax of tho Sun. Bv Peter Daval, Esq., V.P. of R.S. To James Barrow, V.P, of It.S.
According to Mr. Short, tho mean horizontal parallax of the sun is 8* 05. Now, this parallax 1b the angle which the semi-diameter of the earth subtends, as seon from the sun. Therefore, as S"05 is to 360" (the whole periphery of a circle), so is the semi-dismoterof the earth to the periphery of the earth round the sun. Hut as 8'05 is very nearly the 149820th part of SOU", as may be easily proved by division, according to the latest observations, the mean semi-diameter of the earth is 3958 English miles, which being multiplied by 149,830, produces 59.5.011,308 miles for the circumference of the orbit of the earth. The distance of the earth from the sun is the semi-diameter of this orbit; and the periphery o! tlio circle is to its scmidiameter very nearly as <>,«3,18o to 1, Therefore, If we divide 593,011,308 by 0,383,180, the quotient, which is very nearly 94.380,08.5, will give tho mean distance of the earth from the suu In iiugllsh miles.
As the orbit of the earth is au elli pse, not a circle, the distance of the earth from the suu will bo greater in its aphelion, aud less iu its perihelion, than here assigned.
The result obtained will depend, of course, upon the true valuo of theimoan horizontal parallax. R. 11.
THE COLOURS OF JUPITER. Sin,—I beg to reply to Mr. Purklss's letter in your last issue; at the same time I may be permitted tol:iforin him that 1 have not the slightest wish to enter Into a long discussion on the points iu question. If I have erred In making it a question of colour iustcad of relative brightness, I am quite willing to stand corlectcd. I cannot agree with Air. Purkiss that large apertures and high powers do not enable us to discriminate delicate gradations of light aud shade as well as of colour. The fact that this is tlio case is abundantly proved by the detail shown iu a corroct drawing of the planet with a large aperture of either object glass or speculum, and by the utter absence of such detail in drawings made with small telescopes. The simple explanation of the fact that tho belts actually appear darker in a small than in a large telescope is that in a large instrument we get sufficient pow^r to perceivo the belts diversified with many irregularities of light aud shade, nod hence they do not appear to be such a dense dark nmss as when viewed in an instrument iu which thero is uot sufficient power to reveal these details, aud which conse
quently simply shows the belts as dark dense bands across the planet's disc.
Mr. Purkiss dissents from tho opinion that no pigments or materials with which we are acquainted cau be made to accurately represent tho differences which really exist, but such is really the case, and, as au instance of this kind of difficulty as applied to the delineation of terrestrial objects, we may mention that an artist who introduced a Illy Into one of bis pictures" was compelled to represent It in different depths of grey, but still preserved the relative purity of the flower in question, although it would obviously be untruthful to call a lily grey, aud the requisite force of contrast was only obtained by sacrificing truth to effcyct, by unduly darkening the rest of the picture.
Mr. Purkiss thinks I am in error in stating that Mr. Browning's drawing is over-ooloured, and adds his own opinion that the error lays in the other direction, for, aceordiug to his humble opinion, the colour was eveu more vivid than shown in the drawing. This is in direct contradiction to Mr Browning's own words, quoted iu Mr. Denning's letter, where he distinctly Bays.—" Tlio coloured print taken from my drawing is decidedly over-coloured, the yellow aud red are too bright, nnd the ashy blue, or firey, far too dark." And Mr. Purkiss, in thanking Mr. Denning for h's reply, says :— "It is concise and appropriate, and every tiling which could be desired." Surely such evident contradictions in the writings of a gentleman of his eminence iu optics and astronomy deserve explanation.
On another point I need some little enlightenment. Whero can we see paintings which n«t only equal, but surpass Nature herself?—In which there is preserved throughout such a glowing luminosity as to far exceed the brightest tints of thc landscape? I do uot profess to be a judge of paintings, but I have spent many a happy hour iu contemplating scenes of beauty portrayed un cuuvas with marvellous fidelity, but could not venture to assert that the gorgeous sunset of the artist equalled, much less exceeded, the real beauty with which tie great orfe of day gilds tho western heavens as be slowly sinks to rest ou a bed of clouds.
Mr. Purkiss complains that tor skilful draughtsmen practice astronomy, and an jdifhcuiticB are made of things which ought to be comparatively easy. Now if celestial drawing is so easy, why uot favour us with Bome deliuoatlooB of obiects observed with mirrors of his own manufacture, aince lie states their definition to be excellent, anal I have no reasou to doubt for one moment their superior quality. It would, however, bean additional a?itisfactiou to read the testimony of some other observers who are working with his'specula. Charles Gbover.
COVERING THE KEYS OF TIANOFORTES, ORGANS, AND HARMONIUMS.
Sia,—" Progress," No. 2342, inquires if his worn harmonium keys can be laced—i.e., re-covered with enamel. Many patents for covering tho keys of musical iustruments with glass and enamel, have been taken out, but tboBe materials have never como into general use, and almost every one prefers ivory for the purpose.
Re-covering keys with natural ivory is a daily practice aud auy keyinakor will do it for "Progress," and a suitable cousideratiou. Perhaps " Progress '* would progress fastest if he sent his keys to Messrs. Urooks, supposing he would be satisfied with natural ivory. I don't think he will find any one who will undertake to cover them with enamel.
Artificial ivory has been made of tolerable quality by the French, but by far the best specimens 1 have seen were the productions of Mr. 11. J. Brown, who although best known as a public writer and poet, was by hereditary descent a comb maker, lie made excellent combs of his artificial ivory, the composition of which he kept secret, but 1 think a chemise might give a shrewd guess at its component parts.
lieucy iirowu was the mau tlio late W. J. Fox alluded to iu his article iu the Westminster Review on "The Poets of the People." After mentioning Ebenezer Elliot, he wrote of Henry Brown :— 'There is a man who makes combs in Whitechaple," and compared him to Crabbo, giving deserved praise to his teally beautiful pecni " Sunday." which, with his " Mechanic's Saturday Night," and his "Saint Monday," graphically portrayed tho working mau of that period. Of course "yo working man" is now quite a dilfercnt being, he having oeen educated into a civilised, refined, intellectual, and moral Christian, who is quite iuneccnt of " Old Tom," nnd unacquainted, practically, with the meauiug of the words " pot of beer."
The Hahmomous Blacksmith.
COMFORT FOR TRAVELLERS BY RAILROAD AND STEAMER IN AMERICA.
Sir,—English railway directors are not greatly celebrated lor tho care they exhibit for the comfort of passengers; perhaps if they exhibited more care for their passengers' comfort than thoy do it would hardly be appreciated by thc majority of travellers, especially if it were accompanied by an increase iu tbe lares, lor however Britons may wish u> be wellserved for nothing, they, as a rule, prefer being served badly without paymuut, to being well served and paying a fair price for it, and this rule holds good not only in the mutter of railway travelling, but also in the administration of justice (1 shoild have written lam. They ore not invariably identical, or our great uupaid, which is only another name for our "reatly inefficient, would not be so popular with that "numerous class who fancy that a thing which costs nothing must necessarily be cheap, which is usually tho reverse ol true.) *
Ou some Eugllsh railways first-class passengers can obmlu tbe luxury of foot warmers in winter; but as our climate-tho experience of the last six mouths i.otwithstuinliug-is not quite so extreme as those of Sweden aud North America, of course it don't matter
the mass of travellers who, as they go second and third class, do travel with cold toes, tor the feelln"s of such •• common poople " cant be of much importance, uotwithstaudtug that their fares arc, perhaps in
mo» Instances, the only ones which yield a profit ; for \ it is the» opinion of some experienced truffle manager» that first-class passengers are often carried at a loss On American railways the practice of heating the cars to winter i» universal, so not only can the passengers warm their noses (and their toe-it», as the Frenchman de-i"nated his pedal extremities), hut if I am rightly informed the cars are now also cooled in summer, it is »utcd, by allowing solid carbonic acid ю evaporate, and considering thet a temperature of 90° in the shade is not uncommon in the Southern States, this must be a great luxury for travellers, nor will it iu future beconfiuesl to those who travel on land, for It is stated lu the Food Journal that it is to tie extended to those who go down to the sea in (steam I ships.
A steamer trading between New York and Galveston is flt ted with apparatus'for condensing carbonic acid *nd in a rc'-nt experiment, its cabin. Gtlft long, xlft wide, and 13ft. high, hail Its temperature reduced from *i V. to 3ô below zero tu eight minutes. It is not stated if any living beings remained in the cabin during this experiment, but I fear if they did the effect would have been to induce coma, for it le obvious they would have been compelled to inhale an atmosphere containing an abnormal proportion of carbonic acid, and this, however coadneivo to sleep «nd anesthesia. is hardly conducive to longevity. That carbonic arid In the gaseous state might be employed economically in the treatment of paupers and criminals may be qnite true, as I stated in my former communication on the "relief of the poor and the ratepayers, but itis quite unsuitable for those who can "pny their way," and may be expected to pay their way iu their tarea more thin once, for it would render them quite incapable of paying twice, which is just the thing traffic managers desire, aud term development oí pasaenger traffic.
We have imported several American inventions to our advantage, and I think the present is pre-eminently the time to import this refreshing, or rather refrigerating, mi», for it might be applied most advantageously at i he prescat time to further tho progress of national edaeition by cooling that religious fervour which. straut'C to »ay, exhibits itself In a Christian bud by prcveutiug little children from being taught the three It's, political cconemy, and their duties to their neighbours. Of course if wo continue to bring them up in Цпогапсе we continue to manufacture thieves and piuuers, whether we intend It or not We cau hardly expect to gather grapes from thistles, for in morals а« ш horticulture, verily аз <je sow so shall yt reap The Harmonious Blacksmith.
Sib,—During a long sojourn in the United States, and whiledwelliugin the South, I partook daily, and largely, of hominy, a very wholesome and strengthening food, well known to Southern residents. I had uever tasted this food before, and discarding rice altogether, which is nlso largely eaten, look to hominy almost entirely; and siuce my return to England 1 have doue my best to produce a simllir article for my own use, but have not yet obtained the exact thing; and I now venture to ask our American friends to be kind enough to inform me how the article is prepared. I may mention that the instructions given in the numerous recipe bonks for the making of it are not reliable, and I should therefore prefer to havo the information from a States man. one who has had practical experience in prepnring it. The mill which I use grinds the graiu into five qualities of flour, and in the making of hominy I take the coarsest, including the bran, and the next two qualities to that, and mix them. A sufficient quantity is then soaked in water for two, or three, or four days in winter, but for one day only in summer, or It miRht become »our. Boiling it in a certain quantity of water for 15 or 20 minutes, stirring it all the time, it is then allowed to thicken gradually on the hob, as near to the uro as possible, and it there remains, sometimes for hour«, until it thickens and most of the water has bcou thrown off by steam. It must be frequently stirred, for it soon bums. When cold it becomes somewhat hard, like pudding, and is most nutritious, since it contains the very qualities spoken of by Liebig, and which are cast away by unwise people as dross. I could give much information as to the best way of using it, but it requires beef, pork, or ham fat, and is excellent with rabbit or fowl fricasseed. It cau be eaten iu various ways, and in making it palatable people must study their own appetites Its effects on the stomach and bowels are admirable, and most people like it better if a lew bread-crumbs be mixed with it.
This is, however, not the hominy as prepared In the South of the United States, although perhaps a near approach to it; and I should therefore be glad to hear from a States man on the subject, who can give me reliable information as to the niodm operandi, and who is as fond of buckwheat cakes, hominy, and fresh corn cobs as Тлотли.
suitable for carriages. *c. but cortainly is by no means admissible as a driving wheel.
As a singular coincidence I also notice, illustrated on page Bl of the saum number, a device of mine, whilst at Cardiff In lSfil, but one which does not auswor in practice, by reason of the impossibility of keeping one's balance, and also on account of the strain both on tho ancles and on tho wheels through the weight falling on oue side, Instead of directly over tho wheel. Neither do I bellove these single wheel skate» havo over been used as shown in your illustration.
Edmund M. T. Tvdkman, ft, Mlghell-street,
AMATEUR FARMING, *C.
Sir,—Now there is such an improvement In our Mechanic, I think it would not be a bad idea to placo a coluinu (as a trial) to questions and answers respecting the breeding, koepuig, and rearing of horses, cattle, pigs, agricultural Implements, &c, as lam sure a good many of our readers have hobbies ol that kind, as well as lathes, organs, Лс ; but before I «ay any того, 1 should like to hear other opinions on it. as I am sure it would take well In the country, and «ven In the towns. R- ^- !*■
[Perhaps our correspondent would bo good enough to set the ball rolling. We will placo some врасо at his disposal.—Ed. ü.m.]
TO MILLERS. Sin,,—It gives me great pleasure to find that so many of our dusty tribe are becoming readers of the Enolibu MbcnAsic, and that a few of tbem are also correspondents. I should rejoice greatly to see the lauer multiplied. It would be the means in an indirect way oí promoting its circulation among the tormer, a class of men to which a scientific paper liait no charms if it did not treat upon their particular branch of business.
In No. litó. A. Stoneman has published hie "notion" to the world respecting millstone balancing, s notion to me quiieuew, and I believe he will find the universal experience of all practical millers, as well as the laws o/ oentrifngal action or force, to the reverse of his по/ion. notwithstanding his own to the contrary, lie says "that a standing and running balance are the ваше." As he has expressed his willingness to learn, a few hints from one twelvemonths his senior, may be of some service to prove the impracticability of this ossumptio'i. It is certainly new to me that millers have been looking to the face of the stones to find out the cause of tho dragging. Most millers know perfectly well that the едпве is not in the face, but In the unequal distribution of burr and plaster. The specific gravity of each being as 1 to 2, some burrs are a third heavier, consequently, when the stone has obtained its proper velocity, the centrifugal action or lorce of these two species, causes the apparent waving or, es it Is termed, " beingout of balance." It will exhibit this symptom when at perfect standing balance, and I call such to be when a pound weight will turn the ceuttes. It is also quito new to me to find that lbs- level of the bedstone has anything to do with balancing the runner, providing the neck Is In g< -oil order. We do noi shut our eyes to the fact that the bedstone must be perfectly level, but this bas nothing to do with balancing, which is done nioet effectually by a belt running over pulleys attached to the spindles by bolts, the same being in two halves. As A further illustration of what I have stated above, to save space. 1 refer him to a diagram (Intentionally somewbat exaggerated/ by Mr. Smith, on page 588, No. 257. Vol. X. A careful study thereof will, 1 think, throw his " HOtion " qni te out of balance.
Now a word about wire Hour-dressing machines. Mr: Sharps- has sent us a description of onefhe once had. which dressed the modest quantity of six sacks (2t>st- each) per hour. A machine of the вате dimensions as his, with revolving cylinder and external brunies, Gin. fell, covered with five sheets of flour wire. the internal brushes runuing 520 revolutions, will eres* 20 sacks per hour—average produce, 75 per cent. 1 don't know how many machines there are in lrehiud. but I know one in England that does what I have stated above. auU tho quality of its work will cora pore favourably with some of that of the silk marhine, which I presume he would recommend Mr. Scoit to pat down in his mill ; I would also advise him to do so in preference to the wire, lis work is finer, ami take« tauter In the market. Titos. Evans.
Sir,—As there have been several discussions about China grass lately iu your paper. I think that the following extract from a notification by the GovernorGeneral of ludia In Council will be interesting to many of your readers :— Minnehaha.
"The Government of India, after communication with various agricultural aud horticultural societies in India, and with persons Interested iu the subject, has arrived at the conclusion that the only real obstacle to the development of ав extensive trade in the fibre of rheeaorChiuagraseis the want of suitable machinery for separating the fibre and bark from the etem, and the fibre from the bark, the cost of effecting such separation bv manual labour being great. The demand for the fibre Is now large, and no doubt might beextended with reduced prices, and there is a practicably unlimited extent of country in India where the plant could be grown. The requirements of the case appear to be some machinery or process capable of producing, with the aid of animal, wator.or steam power, a ton of fibre of a quality which shall average in value not less than £50 per ton in the English market, at a total cost, all processes of manufacture nod allowance for wear and tear included, of not inore than £1."> per ton. Tho said processes are to be understoed to include all the operations pcrlorroeil nflcr the cutting and transport of the plant to the place of manufacture, to the completion of the manufacture of fibre of the quality above described. The machinery must be simr.le, strong, durable, and cheap, and should be suited for election at or near the plantations, as tho refuse is very useful as manure for continued cultivation. T» stimulate, tho iuvention or adaptation ol such machinery or process, the Government of India hereby offers a prize of £5ПЮ for the machine and process that best fulfils all the requirements named above. Rewards of moderate amount will be given for really meritorious inventions, even though falling to meet entirely all the condltlous named."
Sin.—Yonr correspondent, "A Stoneman," quoting from my letter, asks me to explain how " stones working well out of sUuidlog balance only prisves that thuy are m running balance." 1 did not mean to convey that l*?cau«e tbey are ont of standing balance, that then-fore tbey must be in ruuuing balance. But "Salisbury Miller" asked how It Is that stones work well although beiug out of standing balance. I concluded that if they "tcorkctl tcc/i," tbey must be in running balance; bat I vary much doubt that they would be lound out oí stauding balnnc-j if properly tested. J. Shabi'e.
Sir,—In the last impression of "our Mechanic" I observe an advertisement by "The 'Phantom' Voloce and Carriage Wheel Co., Limited (Reynolds aud May's Patent)," wherein is set forth as a new Invention a wheel of a precisely similar kind to the one I published in your journal four years ago, and which you will find on page SM, No. <üs of Vol. III., illustrated under the heading "The Spider Wheel." It was constructed for me by my brother—of Bedford— In 1NH, who also afterwards made a velocipede upon the sume principle, the first, 1 believe, that was ever constructed with pattens fixed dirrrlli/ on ths crank».
The form of wheel under discussion—i.e., on the susl>ensory principle, was finally abandoned by us ou account of several defect« that appear to be Inseparable from it.
1st. It was found to have a tendency to flatten at the spokes after a short time using.
2nd. The wires being necessarily drawn np ' taut, the slightest blow was certain to break them—ample evidence of which was afforded by a countryman, in examining the machine, putting his foot through several of the »pokes.
3rd. The passing of the wires, or hooks, through the felloes or rim of the wheel was found greatly to weaken it, and to lead to the first-named defect, however carefully made; and
4th. What altogether coudemued it for uso as а crmil: wheel or moving power was that lacking the rigidity of the ordinary wheel, there was. a springiness in moving it by the cranks when loaded that caused a considerable loss of power in driving it. Otherwise it is very elegant in appearance, and u wheel that will bear an Immense weight, and I should say—barring the 2ud defect mentioned above—would be lound very
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS, &C. Sir,—Mr Somorville and others, who have addressed queries torn -■, may think perhaps Г have forgotten tbem; such, however, is not the case. I have been exceedingly busy, and nownvrrng a little spare time, I send tho answers to their queries.
Estimation of Ferrocyanogeti in Tea—A good ¿cueral sample of the tea should be taken, and of course, examined qualitatively. If Prnuian Hue be present, take one ounce or so of the tea, add warm water in a flask, aud shako well for a few minutes, strain oft the leaves, ami let iho rest settle, pour off a groat deal of the water, add a solution of caustic potash, and then acidify with hydrochloric acid. Make a solution of potassium permanganate by dissolving :(lfi2 grains In 1000 grains of water ; talsts tobe added M the above acidified solution until a faint pink coloration is produced. Now, the amount of Prussian Мне cannot be determined from the amount of solution usod, as the organic matter present consumes a certain quantity. A second determination must be made of the amount of ferricyanogen which exists in the solution ; this may be effected by adding iodide of potassium, allowing the liquid to stand for some time, ant) then neutralising the solution with sodium carbonate. The amount of Iodine which is liberated is then determined by dissolving 12 * grains of sodium hyposulphite in 1(>0U grains of water; each 10 grain division of the burette will equal 0122 grains of ferrocyanlde of potassium, from which the amount of fetrjoyanogon or Prussian blue can easily be calculated. Starch solution must be used as an indicator. Tho determination of the ferrocyanogen-should never be made by burning the tea, and estimating the amount of iron found in the ash. Sulphate of Iron is olten used for blackening speut leaves ; in such a case, the iron which naturally would occur as sulphate, would erroneously be set down as existing iu Prussian blue. The eulphnio may be dete-ted by its roactlen with barium chloride.
Estimation of Organic. Nitrogen, Carbon, *c, iu water.—I shall not give all the luluutls:, but only those details which will load to a good general result.
Take two pints (32 oz.) of the water, add to It In a glass flisk half an ounce of a solution of sulphurous acid, boil for five minutes, and transfer to an evaporating basin, evapoiate steadily, nnd finish off in a drvhr'oven to prevent loss by spirting. Mix the dry residue with oxide of copper and Chromat« of lead, and transfer it to a warm combustion tube, fill up with warm oxide of copper, and eud by placing some clean copper flliugs iu the anterior portion of the tube. This pari of the tube is now connected with a Sprengel pump and the nlr drawn out ; the end of ¡the pump le then placed under the end of a graduated tube (this may cither be graduated into со. inches or cb. centimetres, the latter Is much to be preferred), 50c. centimetres graduated into 250 parts. Heat is then applied to the copper, aud gradually carried back until all the tube Is at a full red heat ; when no more gas Is given off, work the pump again to abstract any gas which may remain in the tubes, and let the receiver cool down to the temperature of the laboratory. Its volume is observed, and the temperature and pressure also noted. The height of the column of mercury having been taken in mllhmetres(or Inches) above the level Iu the trough the amount must be subtracted from tho height of the barometer; Ibis will give the pressure to which the gas is subjected, which must be calculated to 0« С and 7<Wmni. A moistened ball of potash (or a concentrated solution), must then be introduced into the gas to absorb the carbon dioxide, the amount of absorption being read oft" as this lattor gas, makiug the necessary correction for the teuslou of the aqueous vapour with which the gas is saturated. A bubble or two of oxygen Is then added to detect the presence of nitric oxide, and pyrog.illic acid solution is added to absorb the excess. The pressure and temperature being noted, the volume of carbon dioxide is known, from which the amount of organic carbon by weight cau easily beobtalnod.
The amount of ammonia present in the water must now he estimated by comparison with a standard solution coloured by Nessler's re-agent.
The amount of gas left in the tube Is calculated to 0' С and riiomm., aud the weight found. The weight of nitrogen iu the ammonia Is subtracted from the
weight of the gas, and sot down as organio nitrogen. The amounts ot carbon on<l of nitrogen, If multiplied by five, give tho organic carbon and organic nitrogen per gallon. This is Frankland's process, but as practised by him the receiving apparatus Is much more exact, though, us hero slated, the process will give good results. The cut on next page shows the apparatus iu full work.