The Atomic Theory

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C. Kegan Paul & Company, 1880 - 388 Seiten

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Seite 22 - Manchester, and compare it with what it was at the close of the last and the commencement of the present century, we shall find that at that period the useful and industrial arts were comparatively of little importance.
Seite 313 - It is beat which sets the atoms in motion; they have absorbed heat in separating from each other, since the rupture of the molecular equilibrium which marks the end of the state of combination has required the consumption of a certain quantity of heat. The heat thus absorbed has restored to the atoms the energy which they possessed before combination, and which represents affinity. This heat is lost again whenever the atoms, passing into the sphere of action of other atoms, fix the latter in some...
Seite 162 - In some cases they are too great, as in the first group, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine ; in others too slight, as we have just remarked, for the last terms of the third group. Though it may be generally true that the properties of bodies are subject to periodic modifications with the increase of their atomic weights, the law of these modifications escapes our observation, and seems to be of a complicated nature ; for, on the one hand, the atomic weights of successive elements vary within...
Seite 201 - The subtraction of an atom of hydrogen develops a force in this residue C3H7, in virtue of which it is impelled to combine again with this hydrogen atom of which it has been deprived, or with some equivalent to it, and on the other hand, this same force makes it ready to supply the place of an atom of hydrogen wherever it is wanting. Again, the loss of three atoms of hydrogen creates in the residue C3H6 = C3H8— H3 a force by which it is ready to replace three atoms of hydrogen.
Seite 80 - C2Hg, of olefiant gas, C4Hg, which Berzelius had employed were halved and made to represent 2 volumes. Here lies the true progress. It will be interesting to recall the considerations which led Gerhardt to propose this reform in the notation of Berzelius. Regarding a molecule of water as formed of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen, and carbonic acid as containing 1 atom of carbon and 2 atoms of oxygen, he was struck, in the attentive study of the reactions of organic chemistry, by the fact...
Seite 93 - Sodium . . Strontium. . . Sulphur . . . Tantalum. . . . Tellurium. .. . Thallium. . . . Thorium Tin Titanium Tungsten .... Uranium Vanadium. . . Yttrium. . Zinc Zirconium.
Seite 308 - They are indestructible and indivisible by physical and chemical forces, for which they act, in some manner, as points of application. The diversity of matter results from primordial differences, perpetually existing in the very essence of these atoms and in the qualities which are the manifestation of them. Atoms attract each other, and this atomic attraction is affinity. It is doubtless a form of universal attraction, but it differs from it in that, if it is obedient to the influence of mass, it...
Seite 92 - Antimony Argon Arsenic Barium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Columbium...
Seite 11 - ... the first who attempted to establish the truth of this assumption, by an experimental investigation of a phenomenon which had already excited attention, namely, that when two neutral salts mutually decompose each other, the resulting compounds are also neutral. He showed that the relative proportions of alkalies and earths which saturate a given quantity of the same acid, are the same for all other acids ; if nitrate of lime, for instance, be decomposed by sulphate of potash, the nitrate of potash...
Seite 329 - London, 1876. and distinct from all others, not only in its own substance, but in its mass and its mode of motion — qualities which it will preserve for ever. These portions are atoms. In the perfect medium which contains them all, none of them can change or disappear, none of them can be formed spontaneously. Everywhere atoms of the same kind are constituted after the came fashion, and are endowed with the same properties.

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