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The mightiest of thy greatest enemies, I With Cain go wanderthrough the shade of night,
! hat blood should sprinkleme, to make me grow: A deed of slander, with thy fatal hand,
5 Come, mourn with me for what I do lament, Upon my head, and all this famous land. [deed. And put on sullen black incontinent; Exton. From your own mouth, my lord, did I this P'll make a voyage to the Holy Land, Boling. They love not poison, that do poison need, To wash this blood off from my guilty hand :Nor do I thee: though I did wish him dead, 1 March sadly after ; grace my mournings here, I hate the murderer, love him murdered. 10 In weeping after this untimely bier. The guilt of conscience take thou for thy labour,
(Ereunt omnes. But neither my good word, nor princely favour: 1
PERSONS REPRESENTE D.
King HENRY the Fourth.
Sir WALTER BLUNT. HENRY, Prince of Wales,
Sir JOHN FALSTAFR.
sons to the King. John, Duke of Lancaster, so
POINS. Earl of WORCESTER.
GADSHILL. Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND.
Lady Percy, wife to Hotspur, sister to MorARCHIBALD, Earl of Douglas.
timer, OWEN GLENDOWER.
Lady Mortimer, daughter to Glendower, and Sir Richard VERNON.
wife to Mortimer. Earl of WESTMORELAND.
IQuickly, hostess of a tavern in Eastcheap.
S CE N E I.
I To be commenc'd in stronds afar remote.
No more the thirsty entrance of this soil
Shall daub her lips with her own children's blood: Enter King Henry, Earl of Westmoreland, Sir | No more shall trenching war channel her fields, Walter Blunt, and others.
15 Nor bruise her flowrets with the armed hoofs K. Hen. So shaken as we are, so wan with care, Of hostile paces: those opposed eyes,
Find we a time for frighted peace to Which, like the meteors of a troubled heaven, pant,
All of one nature, of one substance bred, And breathe short-winded accents of new broils! Did lately meet in the intestine shock
'The transactions contained in this historical drama are comprised within the period of about ten months: for the action commences with the news brought of Hotspur having defeated the Scots under Archibald earl Douglas at Holmedon, (or Halidown-hill), which battle was fought on Holyrood-day (the 14th of September) 1402; and it closes with the defeat and death of Hotspur at Shrewsbury: which engagenient happened on Saturday the 21st of July (the eve of St. Mary Magdalen) in the year 1 403. Dr. Johnson remarks, that “Shakspeare has apparently designed a regular connection of these dramatic histories from Richard the Second to Henry the Fifth. King Henry, at the end of Richard the Second, declares his purpose to visit the Holy Land, which he resumes in this speech. The complaint made by king Henry in the last act of Richard the Second, of the wildness of his son, prepares the reader for the frolicks which are here to be recounted, and the characters which are now to be exhibited.” ? Mr. Steevens says, it should be Prince John of Lancaster, and adds, that the persons of the . drama were originally collected by Mr. Rowe, who has given the title of Duke of Lancaster to Prince John, a mistake which Shakspeare has been no where guilty of in the first part of this play, though in the second he has fallen into the same error. K. Henry IV. was himself the last person that ever bore the title of Duke of Lancaster. But all his sons ('till they had peerages, as Clarence, Bedford, Gloucester) were distinguished by the name of the royal house, as John of Lancaster, Humphry of Lancaster, &c. and in that proper style, the present John (who became afterwards so illustrious by the title of Duke of Bedford) is always mentioned in the play before us.
And furious close of civil butchery.
The earl of Douglas is discomfited; Shall now, in mutual, well-beseeining ranks, Ten thousand bold Scots, two-and-twenty koights, March all one way; and be no more oppos'd Balk'd in their own blood, did Sir Walter se Against acquaintance, kindred, and allies : JOn Holmedon's plains: Ofprisoners, Hotspur toi The edge of war, like an ill-sheathed knife, 5 Mordake the earl of Fife, and eldest son No more shall cut his master. Therefore, friends, To beaten Douglas; and the earls As far as to the sepulchre of Christ,
JOf Athol, Murray, Angus, and Monteith. (Whose soldier now, under whose blessed cross and is not this an honourable spoil ? We are impressed and engag'd to fight)
A gallant prize: ha, cousin, is it not?
" mak'st me sin
115 A son, who is the theme of lovour's tongue; But this our purpose is a twelve-month old, Amongst a grove, the very straightest plaut; And bootless 'tis to tell you—we will go,
Who is sweet fortune's minion, and her pride : Therefore we meet not now::--Then let me hear Whilst I, by looking on the praise of him, Of you, my gentle cousin Westmoreland,
See riot and dishonour stain the brow What yesternight our council did decree, 20 Of my young Harry. O, that it could be pror'd, In forwarding this dear expedience?
That some night-tripping fairy had exchang'd West. My liege, this haste was bot in question, Ir. cradle-cloths our children where they lay, And many limits of the charge set down
And callid mine-Percy, his-Plantagenet ! But yesternight: when, all athwart there came Then would I have his Harry, and he mine. A post from Wales, loaden with heavy news; 25 But let him from my thoughts: What think you, Whose worst was that the noble Mortimer,
coz', Leading the men of Herefordshire to tight
Of this young Percy's pride? The prisoners, Against the irregular and wild Glendower,
Which he in this adventure hath surpriz'd, Was by the rude hands of that Welchman taken, To his own use he keeps'; and sends ine word, And a thousand of his people butchered: 130 I shall have none but Mordake earl of Fife. Upon whose dead corps there was such misuse, West. This is his uncle's teaching, this is Wor. Such beastly, shameless transformation,
Malevolent to you in all aspects; (cester, By those Weishwomen done, as may not be, Which makes him prune himself, and bristle up Without much shame, retold or spoken of. [broil! The crest of youth against your dignity.
K.Henry. It seems then that the tiding of this 35 K. Henry. But I have sent for him to answer this; Brake off our business for the Holy Land. [lord; And, for this cause, awhile we must neglect
West. This, match'd with other, did, my gracious Our holy purpose to Jerusalem.
Cousin, on Wednesday next our council we
Than out of anger can be uttered.
West. I will, my liege. . [Ereunt. Where they did spend a sad and bloody hour;
An apartment belonging to the Prince, For he that cought it, in the very beat
Enter Henry, Prince of Wales, and Sir John Falster Anci priile of their contention did take horse, r al. Now, Hal, what time of day is it, lad : Unceria 1) of the issue any way. [friend, P. Henry. Thou art so tat-witted, with drinking
Killary Here is a clear and true-industrious 50 of old sack, and unbuttoning thee after supper, and Sir Walter Blunt, new-lighted from his horse, sleeping upon benches after noon, that thou liast Stain’d with the variation of each soil
Jorgotten to demand that truly which thou would'st Bellist that lluimedon and this seat of ours; truly know. What a devil hast thou io do with And hebat brought us smooth and welcome news. The time of the day. unless hours were cups of sack
Mr. Steesens proposes to read load for lery. ?i. e. expedition. Limits for estimates. Holinshed in his listory of Scotland says, “ This Harry Percy was surnamed, for his ofien pricking, Tinryllotspur, as one that seldom times rested, if there were anie service to be done abroad."
Archibald Douglas, carl Douglas. “A balk signifies a bunk or hill. Balk'd in their own blood, may therefore mean, lay in heups or hillocks, in their own blood. 'Mr. Tollet observes, that by the law b'arms, every man who had taken any captive, whose redemption did not exceed ten thousand crowns, diad hiin clearly for binnself, either to acquit or ransom, at his pleasure. Whom (Mr. Steevens adds) Percy could not refuse to the king, as being a prince of the blood royal, (son to the duke of Albany, biotber to king Robert III.) and whom Henry might justly claim by his acknowledged military presogative. Dr. Johnson says, to prune and to plume, spoken of a bird, is the same,
Ang and minutes capons, and clocks the tongues of thy quips, and thy quiddities? what a plague have bawds, and dials the signs of leaping-houses, and I to do with a buil jerkin? the blessed sun hiniself a fair hot wench in flame.) | P. Henry. Why, what a pox have I to do with colour'd taffata; I see noreason, why thou should'stl my hostess of the tavern? be so superfluous to demand the time of the day. 5 Fal. Well, thou hast call'd her to a reckoning,
Fal. Indeed you come near me now, Hal: for many a time and oft. we, that take purses, go by the moon and seven | P. Henry. Did lever call thee to pay thy part? stars; and not by Phæbus, -he, that wund'ring Fal. No; I'll give thee ty due, thou hast paid knight so fair. And, I pray thee, sweet wag, all there. when thou art king, -as, God save thy grace, 10 P. Henry. Yea, and elsewhere, so far as my coin (majesty, I should say; for grace thou wilt have would stretch; and, where it would not, I have none.)
lus'd my credit. P. Henry. What! none?
| Pal. Yea, and so us'd it, that, were it not hereapFal. No, by my troth; not so much as will Iparent that thou art heir apparent,-But, I pr'yserve to be prologue to an egg and butter. 115 thee, sweet wag, shall there be gallows standing in
P. Henry. Well, how then? come roundly, England when ihou art king? and resolution thus roundly,
1 fobb'd as it is, with the rusty curb of old father anFul. Marry, then, sweat wag, when thou art tick the law? Do not thou, when thou art king, king, let not us, that are squires of the night Thang a thief. body, be call'd thieves of the day's beauty'; let 4201 P. Henry. No; thou shalt. be-Diana's foresters, gentlemen of the shade, Fal. Shall I? ( rare! By the Lord, I'll be a minions of the moon: And let men say, we be brave judge. men of good government; being goverried as the P. Ilinry. Thou judgest false already: I mean, sea is, by our noble and chaste mistress the moon, thou shalt have the hanging of the thieves, and so under whose countenance we-steal.
125 become a rare hangman. P. Henry. Thou say'st well; and it holds welll Fal. Well, Hal, well; and in some sort it jumps too: for the fortune of us, that are the moon's with my humour, as well as waiting in the court, men, doth ebb and flow like the sea; being go-l I can tell you. verned as the sea is, by the moon. As for proof, P. Henry. For obtaining of suits"? Dow: A purse of gold most resolutely snatch'd on 30 Fal. Yea, for obtaining of suits'; whereof the Monday night, and most dissolutely spent on Tues- hangman hath no lean wardrobe. 'Sblood, I am as day morning; got with swearing-lay by> ; auch melancholy as a gib° cat, or a lugg'd bear. spent with crying-bring in : now, in as low an P. Henry. Or an ole lion; or a lover's lute. ebb as the foot of the ladder; and, by and by, in Ful. Yea, or the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe. as high a flow as the ridge of the gallows. 35 P. Henry. What say'st thou to a hare', or the
Fal. By the Lord, thou say'st true, lad. And is melancholy of Moor-ditche ? not my hostess of the tavern a most sweet wenchil tul. Thou hast the most unsavoury similies; and
P. Henry. As the honey of Hybla, my old lad of art, indeed, the most comparative', rascalliest,the castle'. And is not a butf jerkin a most sweet sweet young prince --But, Hal, I prythee, trouble robe of durance?
140 me no more with vanity. I would to God, thou Fal, How now, how now, mad wag? what, in land I knew where a commodity of good names
Mr. Steevens is of opinion, that our poet, by the expression thieres of the day's beauty, meant only “Let not us who are body squires to the night, i.e. adorn the night, be calleda disgrace to the day." He afterwards adds, that a squire of the body signified originally, the attendant on aknight: the person who bore bis head-piece, spear, and shield; and that it became afterwards the cant term for a pinip. ?i. e. swearing at the passengers they robbed, lay by your arms; or rather, lay by was a phrase that then signified stand still, addressed to those who were preparing to rush forward. Warburton, in commenting upon this passage, says, “ This alludes to the name Shakspeare first gave to this buttoon character, which was sir John Oldcastle ; and when he changed the name he forgot to strike out this expression that alluded to it. The reason of the change was this: One sir John Oldcastle having suffered in the time of Henry the Fifth for the opinions of Wicklitf, it gave offence, and therefore the poet altered it to Falstaff.” Mr. Steevens, however, has, we think, very fully and satisfactorily proved that sir John Oldcastle was not a character ever introduced by Sbakspeare, nor did he ever occupy the place of Falstaff. The play in which Oldcastle's name occurs, was not, according to Mr. Steevens, the work of our poet, but a despicable piece, prior to that of Shakspeare, full of ribaldry and impiety from the beginning to the end; and was probably the play sneeringly alluded to in the epilogue to the Second Part of Henry IV.-for Oldcastle died å muriyr. The sheriff's officers of those times were clad in buff. The meaning therefore of this answer of the Prince to Falstails question is, “ whether it will
not be a sweet thing to go to prison by running in debt to this sweet wench.” Shakspeare here · quibbles upon the word suit. The prince uses it to mean a petition; Falstaff, to imply a suit of cloaths.
The cloaths of the offender being a perquisite of the executioner. i. e. an old he-cat, Gilbert, or Gib, being the name formerly appropriated to a cat of the male species. 'Dr. Johnson says, that “ a hare may be considered as melancholy, because she is upon her forin always solitary: and according to the physick of the times, the flesh of it was supposed to generate melancholy. • Alluding, perhaps, to the melancholy appearance of its staguant water. 'i. e, the most quick at comparisons.
were were to be bought : An old lord of the council Igood fellowship in thee, nor thou cam'st not of rated me the other day in the street, about you, sir; the blood royal, if thou dar'st not stand for ten but I mark'd bini not: and yet he talk'd very shillings. wisely; but I regarded him not: and yet he | P. Henry. Well then, once in my days I'll be a talk'd wisely, and in the streets too.
5 mad-cap. P. Herry. Thou didst well ; for wisdom cries Fal. Why, that's well said. out in the streets, and no man regards it.
P. Henry. Well, come what will, I'll tarry at Fal. O, thou hast damnable iteration'; and art, Thome. indeed, able to corrupt a saint. Thou hast done Fal. By the Lord, I'll be a traitor then, when much harın upon me, Hal,--God forgive thee for 10 thou art king. it! Before I knew thee, Hal, I knew nothing: P. Henry. I care not. and now am I, if a man should speak truly, littlel | Poins. Sir John, I pr'ythee, leave the prince better than one of the wicked. I must give over and me alone; I will lay him down sucb reasou: this life, and I will give it over; by the Lord, and for this adventure, that he shall go. I do not, I am a villain; I'll be damn'd for never 15 Fal. Well, may'st thou have the spirit of per. a king's son in Christendoin.
suasion, and he the ears of profiting, that what P. Henry. Where shall we take a purse to- thou speak’st may move, and what he hears may morrow, Jack?
be believed, that the true prince may (for recrea. Fal. Where thou wilt, lad, l'll make one; an 1 ltion sake) prove a false thief; for the poor abuses do not, call me villain, and baffle’ me.
20 of the time want countenance. Farewd: You P. Henry. I see a good amendment of life in shall find me in East-cheap. thee; from praying, to purse-taking.
1 P. Henry. Farewei, thou latter spring! faretrel, Ful, Why, Hal, is my vocation, Hal; 'tis nol All-hallown' summer!
Erit Falstar. sin for a man to labour in bis vocation. Poins! Poins. Now, my good sweet honey lord, ride Now shall we know, if Gadshill have set a match.25 with us to-morrow; I have a jest to execute, that O, if men were to be sav'd by merit, what hole in I cannot manage alone. Falstaff, Bardolph, Peto, hell were hot enough for him?
and Gadshill, shall rob those men that we have Enter Poins.
already way-laid ; yourself and I will not be This is the most omnipotent villain,that ever cry'd, there and when they have the booty, if you and Stand, to a true man.
301 do not rob them, cut this head froin iny P. Henry. Good morrow, Ned.
shoulders. Poins. Good morrow, sweet Hal.-What savs! P. Henry. But how shall we part with them in monsieur Remorse? What says Sir John Sack-and- setting forth? Sugar? Jack, how agrees the devil and thee about Poins. Why, we will set forth before or after thy soul, that thou soldest him on Good-Friday 35/them, and appoint them a place of meeting, wherelast, for a cup of Madeira, and a cold capon's leg? in it is at our pleasure to fail; and then will they
P. Henry, Sir John stands to his work, the devill adventure upon the exploit themselves: which shall have his bargain; for he was never yet al they shall have no sovner atchieved, but we'll set breaker of proverbs, He will give the devil his due. upon them.
Poin. Then art thou damn'd, for keeping thy 401 P. Henry. Ay, but, 'tis likely that they will word with the devil.
Jknow us, by our horses, by our habits, and by P. Henry. Else he had been damn'd for cozen
se he had been damn'd for cozen- Jevery other appointment, to be ourselves. ing the devil.
| Poins. Tut! our horses they shall not see, I'll Poins. But my ladi, my lads, to-morrow morn- tie them in the wood; our visors we will change, ing, by four o'clock, early at Gads-bill: There are 45 after we leave them; and, sirrah, I have cases of pilgrims going to Canterbury with rich offerings, buckram for the nonce*, to immask our noted and traders riding to Loudon with fat purses: 1 Joutward garments. have visors for you all, you have horses for your l. P. Henry. But, I doubt, they will be too hard selves: Gadshill lies to-night in Rochester; I havel for us. bespoke supper to-nworrow night in East-cheap : 50 Poins. Well, for two of them, I know them to we inay do it as secure as sleep: If you will go, I be as true-bred cowards as ever turn'd back; and will stutt your purses full of crowns; if you will not, Jor the third, if he light longer than he sees reason, tarry at home, and be hang'd.
T i'll forswear arms. The virtue of this jest will be, ful. Hear ye, Yedward; if I tarry at home, the incomprehensible lies that this same fat rogue and go not, I'll hang you for going.
55 will tell us, when we meet at supper: how thirty, Poins. You will, chops?
at least, he fought with ; what wards, what blows; Ful. Hal, wilt thou make one?
what extremities he endured; and in the reproof P. Henry. Who, I rob? I a thief? Not I, by of this lies the jest. my faith.
| P. Henry. Well, I'll go with thee: provide us Fal. There's neither honesty, manhood, nor 6olall things necessary, and meet me tv-morrow night
"The meaning, according to Dr. Johnson, is, thou hast a wicked trick of repeating and applying holy text; aliuding to the prince having said in the preceding speech, wisdom cries out, &c. See diote?, p. 415. '1. e. All-saints' day, which is the first of November. Shakspeare's allusion is designed to ridicule an uld man with youthful passion. *i. e. for the occasion. si. e. confutation.