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"For the Landgrave of Hessen (being then but a young Prince) desired that I might be heard, and he said openly unto me, Sir! is your cause just and upright? Then I beseech God to assist you. Now, being in Worms, I wrote to Sglapion, and desired him to make a step unto me, but he would not. Then being called, I appeared in the Senate House before the Council and State of the whole Empire, where the Emperor, the Princes Electors in person, were assembled.
"Then Doctor Eck (the Bishop of Tryer's Fiscall) began, and said unto me,-Martine, thou art called hither to give answer, whether thou acknowledgest these writings to be thy books or no? (the books lay on a table which he shewed unto me.) I answered, and said, I believe they be mine. But Hierome Schurfe presently thereupon said, Let the titles of them be read. Now when the same were read, then I said, Yea, they are mine. Then he said, Will you revoke them? I answered and said, Most gracious Lord and Emperor, some of my books are books of controversies, wherein I touch my adversaries, some on the contrarie are books of doctrine, the same I neither can nor will revoke; but if in case I have in my books of controversies been too violent against any man, then I am content therein to be better directed, and for that end, I desire respite of time; then they gave me time, one day and one night. The next day I was cited by the bishops and others, who were appointed to deal with me touching my revocation. Then I said, God's word is not my word, therefore I know not how to give it away; but whatsoever is besides the same, therein I will shew obedience. Then Marquis Joachim said unto me, Sir, Martin, so far as I understand, you are content to be instructed (excepting onely) what the holy writ may concern. I said, Yea. Then they pressed me to refer the cause to his Imperial Majestie; I said, I durst not presume to do so. Then they said, Do you not think that we are also Christians, who with all care and diligence would finish and end such causes? you ought to put so much trust and confidence in us, that we would conclude uprightly. To that I answered, and said, I dare not trust you so far, that you should conclude against your selves, who even now have cast and condemned me, being under safe conduct; yet nevertheless that ye may see what I will do, I will yield up into your hands my safe conduct and refuse it, do with me what ye please; then all the Princes said, Truly he offereth enough, if not too much. Afterwards they said, Yield unto us yet in some articles. I said, in God's name, such articles as concern not the Holie Scriptures, I will not stand against. Presently hereupon, two Bishops went to the Emperor and shewed him, that I had revoked. Then the Emperor sent another Bishop unto me, to know if I had referred the cause to him, and to the Empire? I said, I had neither done it nor intended so to do. In this sort (said Luther) did I alone resist so many, insomuch that my Doctor and divers others of my friends were much offended and vexed by reason of my constancie, yea, some of them said, if I had referred the Articles to their consideration, they would have yielded and given waie to those Articles which in the Council at Costnitz had been condemned. Then came Cocleus upon me, and said,-Sir, Martin, If you will yield up your
safe conduct, then I will enter into dispute with you. I for my part (said Luther) in my simplicitie would have accepted thereof. But Hieronimus Schurfe earnestly entreated me, not to do the same, and in derision and scornful sort, he answered Cocleus, and said, O brave offer, if a man were so foolish as to entertain it!
"Then came a Doctor unto me, belonging to the Marquis of Baden, assaying, with a strain of high carried words, to move me, admonished me, and said,-Truly (Sr Martin) you are bound to do much, and to yield for the sake of fraternal love, and to the end peace and tranquillitie among the people may be preserved, lest tumults and insurrections should be occasioned and raised. Besides, it were also greatly befitting you to shew obedience to the Imperial Majestie, and diligently to beware of causing offenses in the world; therefore I would advise you to revoke. Whereupon (said Luther) I said, For the sake of brotherly love and amitie I could and would do much, so far, that it were not against the faith and honor of Christ. When all these (said Luther) had made their vain assaults, then the Chancellor of Tryer said unto me,-Martin Luther, you are disobedient to the Imperial Majestie, therefore you have leave and licence to depart again with your safe conduct. In this sort departed I again from Worms, with a great deal of gentleness and courtesie, to the wondring of the whole Christian world, insomuch that the Papists wished they had left me at home. Afterwards that abominable Édict of proscribing was there at Worms put in execution after my departure, which gave occasion to every man to revenge himself upon his enemies, under the name and title of Protestant heresie. But the tyrants were not long after constrained to recal the same again."—p. 344-5-6.
ART. IX.-Fragmenta Regalia, written by Sir Robert Naunton,
Sir Robert Naunton, the author of this pamphlet, received his education at Cambridge, and in 1601 was elected Public Orator of that University. Having attracted the notice of James the First, by a speech which he delivered before him, he made his first step in court preferment, having the situation of Master of Requests conferred upon him. He was subsequently made Secretary of State, and lastly, Master of the Court of Wards. He died in the year 1635.
The object of our present attention consists of observations on Queen Elizabeth, her times and favourites, of whom the author gives a brief description and character, which, being the result either of personal observation or derived from the best authority, and delineated by one who was himself admitted into
the secrets of court policy, could hardly fail to be interesting. Elizabeth, reigning at a period when the waters of innovation were in constant and uneasy motion, found it necessary to assemble around her throne the subtilest spirits of the age, to assist in her councils-and the bravest and most manly, to serve in her wars and grace her court. Her reign was certainly 'golden' in one sense-it produced a rich harvest of noble Englishmen, characterised by a singular union of martial virtues with literary accomplishments-the joint offspring of Mars and Minerva-proud in honour, stout of heart, and strong of limb, noble-minded, valiant, and wise.
The Queen loved a soldier in her heart, particularly when he combined warlike qualifications with a handsome person and a courtly demeanor; but, that she was not guided in the choice of her favourites by the latter alone will be obvious from this gallery of the portraits of her servants, which have every appearance of being executed by an impartial and judicious hand.
There are, in the whole, twenty-two characters, exclusive of that of the Queen, and the preliminary observations, which occupy a fourth part of the tract. An occurrence in which the Earl of Leicester was concerned is adduced as a proof that the Queen's servants were favourites, and not minions, and acted rather by her judgement than their own wills.
"The principall note of her raigne will be, that she ruled much by faction and parties which she herself both made, upheld and weakened, as her own great judgement advised, for I do dissent from the common, and received opinion, that my Lord of Leicester, was absolute and above all in her grace; and though I come somewhat short of the knowledge of these times, yet that I might not erre nor shoot at randome, I know it from assured intelligence that it was not so; for proof whereof, amongst many that I could present I will both relate a story and therein a knowne truth, and it was thus: Bowyer the Gentleman of the Black-Rod, being charged by her express command, to looke precisely to all admissions into the Privy-Chamber, one day stayed a very gay Captaine, (and a follower of my Lord of Leicester) from entrance, for that he was neither well knowne, nor a sworne servant to the Queen; At which repulse, the Gentleman bearing high on my Lord's favor, told him that he might perchance procure him a discharge. Leicester coming to the contestation sayd publikely, which was none of his wonted speeches, that he was a knave, and should not long continue in his office, and so turning about to goe to the Queen, Bowyer (who was a bould Gentleman and well beloved) stept before him, and fell at her Majestie's feet, related the story, and humbly craved her grace's pleasure, whether my Lord of Leicester was King, or her Majesty, Queen; whereunto she replied (with her wonted oath) God's death, my Lord, I have wished you well, but my favour is not so locked up for you, that others shall not participate thereof, for I have
many servants unto whom I have and will at my pleasure bequeathe my favor, and likewise resume the same, and if you thinke to rule here, I will take course to see you forthcoming: I will have here but one Mistress and no Master and look that no ill happen to him, least it be severely requited at your hands; which so quailed my Lord of Leicester, that his fained humilitie was long after one of his best vertues."
Naunton places Leicester at the head of his collection, who is succeeded by Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, of whom he gives the following character.
"His cor-rivall was Thomas Radcliffe, Earle of Sussex, who in his constellation was his direct opposite, for indeed he was one of the Queene's Martialists, and did her very good service in Ireland, at her first accession, till she recalled him to the Court, where she made him her Lord Chamberlaine; but he playd not his Game with that cunning and dexteritie, as the Earle of Leicester did, who was much the fairer courtier, though Sussex was thought much the honester man, and far the better souldier, but he lay too open on his guard; he was a goodly Gentleman, and of a brave and noble nature, true and constant to his friends and servants; he was also of a very ancient and noble lyneage, honoured through many discents, through the tytle of the Fitzwalters. Moreover there was such an antipathy in his nature, to that of Leicester, that being together in Court and both in high imployments, they grew to a direct frowardnesse, and were in continuall opposition, the one setting the watch, the other the guard, each on the others actions and motions, for my Lord of Sussex was of a great spirit, which backt with the Queene's speciall favor and support, by a great and ancient inheritance, could not brooke the other's empire, insomuch as the Queene upon sundry occasions had somewhat to do to appease and atone them, untill death parted the competition, and left the place to Leicester, who was not long alone without his rivall in grace, and command and to conclude this favorite, it is confidently affirmed, that lying in his last sicknesse, he gave this caveat to his friends.
"I am now passing into another world, and I must leave you to your fortunes, and the Queene's grace and goodness; but beware of the Gipsey, meaning Leicester, for he will be too hard for you all, you know not the beast so well as I do."
We next come to Mr. Secretary Cecil, afterwards Lord Burleigh, who succeeded the old Marquis of Winchester,* as
* Of whose accommodating disposition Naunton gives us this ac
"Pawlet, Marquess of Winchester and Lord Treasurer, had served then four Princes in as various and changeable times and seasons, that I may well say, no time nor age hath yeelded the like president; this man being noted to grow high in her favor (as his place and experience required) was questioned by an intimate friend of his, how he had stood up for thirty years together, amidst the change, and ruines of so many chancellors and great personages; why, quoth the
Lord Treasurer. Of this "subtle and active spirit," we extract the following account.
"He stood not by the way of constellation, but was wholly intentive to the service of his Mistress; and his dexterity, experience and merit therein, challenged a roome in the Queene's favor, which eclipsed the others overseeming greatnesse, and made it appear that there were others steered, and stood at the Helme besides himselfe, and more stars in the firmament of grace, than Ursa Major.
"He was sent to Cambridge, and then to the Innes of Court, and so came to serve the Duke of Sommerset, in the time of his protectorship, as Secretary, and having a pregnancie to high inclinations, he came by degrees, to a higher conversation, with the chiefest affaires of state and councells, but on the fall of the Duke, he stood some years in umbrage, and without imployment, till the state found they needed his abilities, and although we finde not that he was taken into any place, during Marie's raigne, unless (as some say) towards the last, yet the councel severall times made use of him, and on the Queen's entrance, he was admitted Secretary of State; afterwards he was made Master of the Court of Wards, then Lord Treasurer, a person of most excellent abilities, and indeed the Queen began to need and seek out men of both garbs, and so I conclude to rank this great Instrument of state amongst the Togati, for he had not to do with the sword, more than as the great pay-master, and contriver of the War, which shortly followed, wherein he accomplished much, through his theoricall knowledge at home, and his intelligence abroad, by unlocking of the councels of the Queene's enemies."
Of Sir Nicholas Bacon, a short character is given, and a slight mention made of his illustrious son.
"And now I come to another of the Togati, Sir Nicholas Bacon, an arch-piece of wit, and of wisdom; he was a Gentleman, and a man of law, and of great knowledge therein, whereby together with his other parts of learning, and dexteritie, he was promoted to be keeper of the great seale, and being of kin to the treasurer Burleigh, and having also the help of his hand to bring him to the Queene's great favor, for he was abundantly facetious, which took much with the Queen, when it suited with the season, and he was well able to judge of the times: he had a very quaint saying, and he used it often to good purpose, that he
Marquess, Ortus sum ex salice, non ex quercu, I am made of pliable willow, not of the stubborn Oak; and truely it seems the old man had taught them all, especially William, Earl of Pembrooke, for they two were alwaies of the King's Religion, and alwaies zealous professors of these it is sayd, that being both younger brothers, yet of noble houses, they spent what was left them, and came on trust to the Court, where upon the bare stocke of their wits they began to traffique for themselves, and prospered so well, that they got, spent, and left, more than any Subjects from the Norman conquest, to their own times whereupon it hath been pretily spoken, that they lived in a time of dissolution."