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forces from Ireland and the Western Isles, and in one aut Milesiis fabulis sunt apriora quam historiæ, ea action gained a victory over the king's army. In this omitto.'— Rerum Scot. Hist. Lib. vii. battle Malcolm, a Scottish nobleman (who was lieuten. Milion also enuinerates the subject among those he ant to Duncan in Luchaber) was slain. Afterwards considered well suited for tragedy, but it appears that Macbeth and Banquo were appointed to the command he would have attempted to preserve the unity of time of the army; and Macdonwali, being obliged to take by placing the relation of the murder of Duncan in the refuge in a castle in Lochaber, first slew his wife and mouth of his ghost. children, and then himself. Macbeth, on entering the Macbeth is one of the latest, and unquestionably one castle, finding his dead body, ordered his head to be cut of the noble:t efforts of Shakspeare's gevius. Equally off and carried to the king, at the castle of Bertha, and impressive in the closet and on the stage, where to wil. his body to be hung on a high tree.

ness iis representation has been justly pronounced the Al a subsequent period, in the last year of Duncan's first of all dramatic enjoyments.' Malone places the reign, Sueno, king of Norway, landed a powerful army date of ils composition in 1606, and it has been supposed in Fife, for the purpose of invading Scotland. Duncan to convey a dexterous and delicate compliment to James immediately assembled an army to oppose him, and the first, who derived his lineage from Banquo, and first gave the command of two divisions of it to Macbeth and united the threefold sceptre of England, Scotland, and Banquo, putting himself at the head of a third. Sueno Ireland. At the same time the monarch's prejudices on was successful in one baule, but in a second was routed; the subject of demonology were flattered by the choice and, after a great slaughter of his troops, he escaped of the story. with ten persons only, and fled back to Norway. It was once thought that Shakspeare derived somo Though there was an interval of time between the re. hints for his scenes of incantation from The Witch, a bellion of Macdonwald and the invasion of Sueno, tragicomedy, by John Middleton, which, after lying Shakspeare has woven these two actions together, and long in manuscript, was published about thirty years immediately after Sueno's defeat the preseni play com. since by Isaac Reed; but Malone* has with consideramences.

ble ingenuity shown that Middleton's drama was most It is remarkable that Buchanan has pointed out Mac- probably written subsequently to Macbeth. beth's history as a subject for the stage.

• Multa hic fabuloso quidam nostrorum aflingunt; sed quia thealris * See the chronological order of the plays in the late

Variorum Edition, by Mr. Boswell, vol. ii. p. 420.

PERSONS REPRESENTED. Duncan, King of Scotland.

SEYTON, an Officer attending on Macbeth. MALCOLM,

Son to Macduff. his Sons. DONALBAIN,

An English Doctor. A Scotch Doctor.
MACBETH,

A Soldier. A Porter. An old Man.
Generals of the King's Army.
Banquo,

LADY MACBETH,'
MACDUFF,

LADY MACDUFF. Lenox,

Gentlewoman attending on Lady Macbeth.
Rosse,

Hecate, and three Witches.?
MENTEITH,
Noblemen of Scotland.

Lords, Gentlemen, Officers, Soldiers, Murderers, ANGUS,

Attendants, and Messengers.
CATHNESS,
FLEANCE, Son to Banquo.

The Ghost of Banquo, and several other Apparitions. SIWARD, Earl of Northumberland, General of the SCENE, in the end of the Fourth Act, lies in EngEnglish Forces.

land; through the rest of the play, in Scotland; Young SIWARD, his Son.

and cluesy at Macbeth's Castle.

ACT I.

Fair is foul, and foul is fair:

Hover through the fog and filthy air. SCENE I. An open Place. Thunder and Light

[Witches vanish. ning. Enter three Witches.

SCENE II. A Camp near Fores. Alarum within. I Witch.

Enter King DUNCAN, Malcolm, DonALBAIN, When shall we three meet again

LENOx, with Attendants, meeting a bleeding Sol

dier." In thunder, lightning, or in rain? 2 Witch. When the hurlyburly's: done,

Dun. What bloody man is that? He can report, When the battle's lost and won.

As seemeth by his plight, of the revolt 3 Witch. That will be ere set of sun.

The newest state. 1 Witch. Where the place ?

Mal.

This is the sergeant, 2 Witch.

Upon the heath: Who, like a good and hardy soldier, fought 3 Witch. There to meet with Macbeth.

'Gainst my captivity :-Hail, brave friend! I Witch. I come, Graymalkin!

Say to the king the knowledge of the broil, AU. Paddock calls :-Anon.

As thou didst leave it. I Lady Macbeth's name was Gruach filia Bodhe, ac.

we invent, devise, fayne, and make a name imitating cording to Lord Hailes. Andrew of Wintown, in his the sound of that it signilyeth, as hurlyburly, for an up Cronykil, informs us that she was the widow of Dun.

rore and tumultuous stirre.' So iv "Barei's Alvearie, can; a circumstance with which Shakspeare was of 1573 : But harke yonder: what hurlyburly or noyse is course unacquainted.

yonile: what sturre ruilling or bruite is that?!—The 2 As the play now stands, in Act iv. Sc. 1, three other witches could not mean when the storm was done, but witches make their appearance.

when the tumult of the battle was over; for they are 3.When the hurlyburly's done.' In Adagia Scotica,

to meet again in lightning, thunder, and rain: their cleor A Collection of Scotch Proverbs and Proverbialment was a storm. Phrases; collected by R. B.; very useful and delight

4 Upron observes, that, to understand this passage, ful. Lond. 12o. 1668:

we should suppose one familiar calling with the voice

of a cal, and another with the croaking of a toad. A • Little kens the wife that sits by the fire How the wind blows cold in hurle burle swyre."

poddock most generally seeins to have signified a load,

though it sometimes means a frog. What we now cali 1. e. in the tempestuous mountain-top,' says Mr. a toadstool was anciently called a paddock-stool Todd, in a note on Spenser ; to which Mr. Boswell gives õ The first folio reads captain. his assent, and says, this sense seems agreeable to the 6 Sergeants, in ancient times, were not the petty witch's answer.' 'But Peacham, in his Garden of Elo. officers now distinguished by that ritle, but men perform quence, 1577, shows that this was not the ancient ac. ing one kind of feudal military service, in rank next to ceptation of the word among us : 'Onomatopeia, when I esquires.

won.

Sold. Doubtful it stood;

Enter Rosse.
As two spent swimmers, that do cling together, Who comes here?
And choke their art. The merciless Macdonwald Mal.

The worthy thane of Rosse. (Worthy to be a rebel; for to that?

Len. What a haste looks through his eyes! So The multiplying villanies of nature

should he look, Do swarm upon him), from the western isles

That seems to speak things strange. 10 Of Kernes and Gallowglasses is supplied ;2

Rosse.

God save the king! And fortune, on his damned quarrys smiling,

Dun. Whence cam'st thou, worthy thane ? Show'd like a rebel's whore. But all's too weak: Rosse.

From Fife, great king. For brave Macbeth (well he deserves that name), Where the Norweyan banners flout the sky," Disdaining fortune, with his brandish'd steel, And fan our people cold. Which smok”d with bloody execution,

Norway himself, with terrible numbers, Like valour's minion,

Assisted by that most disloyal traitor Carv'd out his passage, till he fac'd the slave;

The thane of Cawdor, 'gan a dismal conflict: And: ne'er shook hands, nor bade farewell to him, Till that Bellona's bridegroom, la lapp'd in proof Till he unseam'd him from the nave to the chaps, Confronted him with self-comparisons," And fix'd his head upon our battlements.

Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm, Dun. O, valiant cousin! worthy gentleman! Curbing his lavish spirit: And, to conclude,

Sold. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection The victory fell on us;Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders break;8 Dun.

Great happiness! So from that spring, whence comfort seem'd to come, Rosse. That now Discomfort swells. Mark, king of Scotland, mark : Sweno,14 the Norways' king, craves composition; No sooner justice had, with valour arm’d,

Nor would we deign him burial of his men, Compellid ihese skipping Kernes to irust their heels, Till he disbursed, at Saint Colmes' Inch, But the Norweyan lord, surveying vantage, Ten thousand dollars to our general use. With furbish'd arms, and new supplies of men, Dun. No more that thane of Cawdor shall deceive Began a fresh assault.

Our bosom interest:-Go, pronounce his present Dun. Dismay'd not this

death, Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo?

And with his former title greet Macbeth. Sold.

Yes;

Rosse, I'll see it done. As sparrows, eagles; or the hare, the lion.

Dun. What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath If I say sooth,' I must report, they were

(Exeunt. As cannons overcharg’d with double cracks;8 So they

SCENE III. A Heath. Thunder. Enter the Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe:

three Witches. Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds, Or memorize another Golgotha,

1 Witch. Where hast thou been, sister? I cannot tell :

2 Witch. Killing swine.

3 Witch. Sister, where thou? But I am faint, my gashes cry for help. Dun. So well thy words become thee, as thy And mounch'd, and mounch'd, and mounch'd :

1 Witch. A sailor's wife had chestnuts in her lap, wounds; They smack of honour both :-Go, get him sur-Aroint thee, 16 witch? the rump-fed ronyon!' cries.

Give me, quoth I :
goons.
[Exit Soldier, attended.

Her husband's to Aleppo gone, master o' the Tiger:
But in a sieve I'll thither sail,

18 i Vide Tyrwhitl's Glossary to Chaucer, v. for; and Pegge's Anecdotes of the English Language, p. 205. into the text by mistake, and that the tine originally For to that means no more than for that, or cause that stoodThe late editions erroneously point this passage, and as "That now the Norway's king craves composition.! erroneously explain it. I follow the punctuation of the It was surely not necessary for Rosse to tell Duncan the first folio.

name of his old enemy, the king of Norway. 9 i. e. supplied with armed troops so named. of 15 Colmes' is here a dissyllable. Colmes: Inch, now and with are indiscriminately used by our ancierit called Inchcomb, is a sinali island, lying in the Firth of writers. Galloroglasses were heavy-armed foot-soldiers Edinburgh, with an abbey upon it dedicated to St. Co. of Ireland and the western isles : Kernes were the lumb. Inch or inse, in Erse, signifies an island. lighter armed troops.

16 The etymology of this imprecation is yet to seek. 3 ‘But fortune on his damned quarry smiling.”—Thus Rynt ye, for oul with ye! stand off! is still used in the old copies. It was altered at Johnson's suggestion Cheshire, where there is also a proverbial saying, Lo quarrel, which is approved and defended by Sleevens Rynt , witch, quoth Besse Locket to her mother. and Malone. But the old copy needs no alteration. Tooke thought it was from roynous, and might signify Quarry means the squadron, escadre, or square body, a scab or scale on thee! Oihers have derived it from into which Macdonwald's troops were formed, better to the rouan-tree, or witch-hazle, the wood of which was receive the charge; through which Macbeth carved believed to be a powerful charm against witchcraft; and out his passage ill he faced the slavc.'

every careful house wife had a churn-staff made of it. 4 The meaning is, that Fortune, while she smiled on This superstition is as old as Pliny's time, who asserts him, deceived him.

that 'a serpent will rather creep into the fire than over 3 The old copy reads which

a twig of ash.' The French have a phrase of somewhat 6 S W. D'Avenant's reading of this passage, in his similar sound and import-Arry.arant, away there, alteration of the play, is a tolerable coinment on it: ho!!-Mr. Douce thinks that aroint thee will be found But then this daybreak of our victory

to have a Saxon origin. Serv'd but to light us into other dangers,

17 'Rump-fed ronyon,' a scabby or mangy woman, That spring from whence our hopes did seem to rise.' fed on offals; the rumps being formerly part of the Break is not in the first folio.

emoluments or kitchen fees of the cooks in great houses 7 Truth.

Is In The Discovery of Witchcraft, by Reginald Scott, 8 That is, reports.

1584, he says it was believed that witches could sail in 9 i. e. make another Golgotha as memorable as the an egg-shell, a cockle, or muscle-shell, through and first.

under the tempestuous seas.' And in another pamphlet, 10 “That seems about to speak strange things.' * Declaring the damnable Life of Doctor Fiaŋ, a notable 11 So in King John :

Sorcerer, who was buried at Edenborough in Januarie Mocking the air with colours idly spread.' Jast, 1591,- All they together went to sea, each one in 12 By Bellona's bridegroom Shakspeare means Mac- a riddle or cive, and went in the same very substan. beth. Lapp'd in proof is defended by armour of proof. tially, with flaggons of wine making merrie, and drink.

13 Confronted him with self-comparisons. By him is ing by the way in the same riddles or cives,' &c. meant Norway, and by self-comparisons is meant that Sir' W. D'Avenant, in his Albovine, 1629, says he gave him as good as he brought, showed that he was He sits like a witch sailing in a siede.' his equal.

It was the belief of the times, that though a witch could 14 li appears probable, as Steevens suggests, that assume the form of any animal she pleased, the tais Sueno was only a marginal reference, which has crepe I would still be wanting.

none :

more:

And, like a rat without a tail,

Are ye fantastical, or that indeed I'll do, I'll do, and I'll do.

Which outwardly ye show? My noble partner 2 Witch. I'll give thee a wind.'

You greet with present grace, and great prediction 1 Witch. Thou art kind.

Of noble having, and of royal hope, 3 Witch. And I another.

That he seems raptiu withal; to me you speak not: 1 Witch. I myself have all the other;

If you can look into the seeds of time,
And the very ports they blow,

And
say,

which grain will grow, and which will not; All the quariers that they know

Speak then to me, who peither beg, nor fear, l' the shipman's card.2

Your favours, nor your hate. I will drain him dry as hay:

1 Witch. Hail! Sleep shall, neither night nor day,

2 Witch. Hail! Hang upon his pent-house lid;

3 Witch. Hail ! He shall live a man forbid :3

i Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. Weary sev'n-nights, nine times nine,

2 Witch. Not so happy, yet much happier. Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine : *

3 Witch. Thou shalt gei kings, though thou be Though his bark cannot be lost, Yet it shall be tempest-loss'd."

So, all hail, Macbeth, and Banquo! Look what I have.

1 Witch. Banquo, and Macbeth, all hail ! 2 Witch. Show me, show me.

Mach. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me 1 Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumh, Wreck'd, as homeward he did come. [Drum within. By Sinel's' death, I know, I am thane of Glamis; 3 Witch. A drum, a drum;

But how of Cawdor ? the thane of Cawdor lives, Macbeth doth come.

A prosperous gentleman; and to be king All. The weird sisters, hand in hand,

Stands not within the prospect of belief, Posters of the sea and land,

No more than to be Cawdor. Say, from whence Thus do go about, about;

You owe this strange intelligence? or why Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine,

Upon this blasted heath you stop our way And thrice again, to make up nine :

With such prophetic greeting 1-Speak, I charge Peace !-the charm's wound up.

you.

(Witches vanish.

Ban. The earth hath bubbles, as the water has, Enter Macbeth and BANQUO.

And these are of them :-Whither are they vaMacb. So foul and fair a day I have not seen.

nish'd ? Ban. How far is't call'd to Fores?-What are Macb. Into the air: and what seem'd corporal, these,

melted So wither’d, and so wild in their attire ;

As breath into the wind.—'Would, they had staid ! That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth, Ban. Were such things here, as we do speak And yet are on't ? Live you ? or are you aught

about? That man may question? You seem to understand or have we eaten of the insane root, la me,

That takes the reason prisoner? By each at once her choppy finger laying

Macb. Your children shall be kings. Upon her skinny lips :-You should be women,

Вап. ,

You shall be king. And yet your beards forbid me to interpret

Macb. And thane of Cawdor too; went it not so? That you are so.

Ban. To the selfsame tune, and words. Who's Mach. Speak, if you can ;-What are you?

here ? 1 Witch.' Allhail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane

Enter Rosse and ANGUS. of Glamis !" 2 Wich. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane The news of thy success : and when he reads

Rosse. The king hath happily receiv'd, Macbeth, of Cawdor! 3 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! that shalt be king Thy personal venture in the rebels' fight, hereafter.

His wonders and his praises do contend, Ban. Good sir, why do you start; and seem to Which should be thine, or his : Silenc'd with that, 13 fear

In viewing o'er the rest o' the selfsame day, Things that do sound so fair?-I'the name of truth, He finds thee in the stout Norweyan ranks,

Nothing afеard of what thyself didst make, 1 This free gift of a wind is to be considered as an Strange images of death. As thick as tale, 14 act of sisterly friendship; for witches were supposed to sell them.

7 The thaneship of Glamis was the ancient inheri. 2 i. e. the sailor's chart ; carte-marine.

tance of Macbeth's family. The castle where they 3 Forbid, i. e, foresp-ken, unhappy, charmed or be lived is still standing, and was lately the magnificent re. witchell. The explanation of Theobald and Johnson, sidence of the earl of Strathmore. Gray has given a "interdicted or under a curse,' is erroneous. A forbo particular description of it in a Letter to Dr. Wharton. din fellow, Scotice, still signities an unhappy one. 8 i. e. creatures of fantasy or imagination.

+ This mischief was supposed to be put in execution 9 Estate, fortune. by means of a waxen figure. Holinshed, speaking of the 10 Rupe is rapturously affected; ertra se raptus. witchcraft pracused to destroy King Duff, says that they 11 Sinel.' The late Dr. Beallie conjectured that the found one of the witches roasting, upon a wooden real name of this family was Sinane, and that Dunsi. broach, an image of wax at the fire, resembling in each nane, or the hill of Sinane from thence derived its name. feature the king's person, &c. for as tbe image did 12 The insune root was probably henbane. In Bat. waste afore the fire, so did the bodlie of ene king break man's Commentary on Bartholome de Propriet. Rerum, forth in sweat: and as for the words of the inchant a book with which Shakspeare was familiar, is the ment, they served to keepe him still waking from sleepe.' following passage :- Henbane is called insana, mad, This may serve to explain the foregoing passage : for the use thereof is perillous ; for if it be eate or 'Sleep shall, neither night nor day,

dronke it breedeth madnesse, or slow lykenesse of Hang upon his fent-house lid."

slerpe. Therefore this hearb is called commonly mi. 5 In the pamphlet about Dr. Fian, already quoted-rilidiurn, for it taketh away wit and reason.”. • Againe it is confessed, that the said christened cat was 13 i. e. admiration of your deeds, and a desire to do the cause of the Kinge's majestie's shippe, at his them justice by public commendation, contend in his coming forth of Denmarke, had a contrarie irinde to mind for pre-emitience: he is silenced with wonder. the rest of his shippes then being in his companie.'- 14 i. e. posts arrived as first as they could be counted. "And furiher the said witch declared, that his inajestie Thicke (says Baret,) that cometh otten and thicke had never come safely from the sea, if his faith had not together: creber, frequens, frequent, souvent renant." prevailed above their intentions. To this circumstance, And again. Crebritas literaruin, the often sending, or perhaps, Shakspeare's allusion is sufficiently plain. thicke coming of letters. Thicke breathing, anhelitus

8 The old copy has leyıurit, evidently by inistake. creber.' Shakspeare iwice uses 'to speak thick' for Weird, from the Saxon, a riich, Shakspeare found in to speak quick.' To tale or tell is to score or mumber. Holinshed. Gawin Douglas, in his translation of Vir. Rowe, not understanding this passage, altered it to as gil, renders the parce by weird sisters.

quick as huil.?

Came' post with post; and every one did bear Macb. If chance will have me king, why, chanco, Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence,

may crown me, And pour'd them down before him.

Without my

stir. Ang.

We are sent,
Ban.

New honours come upon him
To give thee, from our royal master, thanks; Like our strange garments; cleave not to their
Only to herald thee into his sight, not pay thee.

mould, Rosse. And, for an earnest of a greater honour,

But with the aid of use, He bade me, from him, call thee thane of Cawdor: Macb.

Come what come may; In which addition, hail, most worthy thane! Time and the hour runs through the roughest day. For it is thine.

Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we siay upon your leisure. Ban.

What,.can the devil speak true ? Mucb. Give me your favour :12-my dull brain Macb. The thane of Ćawdor lives? Why do you

was wrought dress me

With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your pains, In borrow'd robes ?

Are register d where every day I turn Ang.

Who was the thane, lives yet; The leaf to read them -Let us toward the king. But under heavy judgment bears that life

Think upon what hath chanc'd : and, at more times, Which he deserves to lose. Whether he was com- The interim having weigh'd it, 13 let us speak bin'd

Our free hearts each to other. With those of Norway, or did line the rebel

Ban.

Very gladly. With hidden help and vantage; or that with both Macb. Till then, enough.-Come, friends. He labour'd in his country's wreck, I know not;

(Exeunt. But treasons capital, confess'd, and prov'd,

SCENE IV. Fores. A Room in the Palace. Have overthrown him. Macb. Glamis, and thane of Cawdor;

Flourish. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONAL

BAIN, LEnox, and Attendants. The greatest is behind.—Thanks for your pains. Do you not hope your children shall be kings, Dun. Is execution done on Cawdor? Are not When those that gave the thane of Cawdor to me, Those in commission yet return’d ? Promis'd no less to them?

Mal.

My liege, Ban.

That, trusted home,? They are not yet come back. But I have spoke Might yet enkindle you unto the crown,

With one thai saw him die : who did report, Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange : That very frankly he confess'd his treasons; And of entimes, to win us to our harm,

Implor'd your highness' pardon; and set forth The instruments of darkness tell us truths; A deep repentance : nothing in his life Win us with honest trifles, 10 betray us

Became him, like the leaving it; he died In deepest consequence.

As one that had been studied in his death, 1* Cousins, a word, I pray you.

To throw away the dearest thing he ow'd, is Macb.

Two truths are told, As 'twere a careless trifle.

Din. As happy prologues to the swelling act*

There's no art, of the imperial theme. – I thank you, gentlemen.- To find the mind's construction in the face ? 16 This supernatural solicitings

He was a gentleman on whom I built Cannot be ill; cannot be good :-If ill,

An absolute trust.-0 worthiest cousin! Why hath it given me earnest of success,

Enter MACBETII, BANQUO, Rosse, and ANGUS. Commencing in a truth ? I am thane of Cawdor :

The sin of my ingratitude even now
If good, why do I yield to that suggestion
Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair,

Was heavy on me: Thou art so far before,

That swiftest wing of recompense is slow And make my seated' heart knock at my ribs,

To overtake thee. 'Would, thou hadst less deserv'd; Against the use of nature ? Present fears

That the proportion both of thanks and payment Are less than horrible imaginings : 8

Might have been mine ! only I have left to say, My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical,

More is thy due than more than all can pay.' Shakes so my single state of man, that function

Macb. The service and the loyalty I owe, Is smother'd'in surmise ;'° and nothing is,

In doing it, pays itself. Your highness' part But what is not.'1 Ban. Look, how our partner's rapt. Are to your throne and state, children, and servants;

Is to receive our duties : and our duties

Which do but what they should, by doing every | Came post.' The old copy reads can. Rowe

thing made the emendation.

Safe toward your love and honour. 18 2 i. e. entirely, thoroughly relied on.

3 Enkindle means 'encourage you to expect the as it has been here interpreted. Vide Hamlet, Act v. crown.'

Sc. 2. 4 * As happy prologues to the swelling act.' So in 13 'The interim having weigh'd it.' The interim is the prologue to King Henry V.:

probably here used adverbially— You having weighed princes to act,

it in the interim.' And monarchs to behold the swelling scene.' 14 Studied in his death is well instructed in the art of 5 i. e, incitement.

dying. The behaviour of the thane of Cawdor cor6 Suggestion, temptation.

responds in almost every circumstance with that of the 7 Seated, firmly placed, fixed.

unfortunate earl of Essex, as related by Stowe, p. 793 Present fears

His asking the queen's forgiveness, his confession, re. Are less than horrible imaginings.'

pentance, and concern about behaving with propriety So in The Tragedie of Crasu9, by Lord Sterline, 1604: on the scaffold, are minutely described by that histori.

. For as the shadow seems more monstrous still an.' Steevens thinks that an allusion was intended Than doth the substance whence it bath the being, to the severity of that justice which deprived the age So th' apprehension of approaching ill

of one of its greatest ornaments, and Southampton, Seems greater than itself, whilsl fears are lying' Shakspeare's patron, of his dearest friend 9 By his single state of man, Macbeth means his 15 Oud, owned, possessed. simple condition of human nature. Single soul, for a 16 We cannot construe the disposition of the mind by simple or weak guileless person, was the phraseology the lineaments of the face. of the poet's time. Simplicity and singlencss were 17 i. e. I owe thee more than all ; nay, more than all synonymous.

which I can say or do will requite. 10 that function

18 'Safe toward your love and honour.' Sir William Is smother'd in surmise.'

Blackstone would read :The powers of action are oppressed by conjecture.

Safe toward you love and honour 11. But what is not. Shakspeare has something like which he explains thus : Our duties are your child. this sentiment in The Merchant of Venice :-

ren, and servants or vassals to your throne and state Where every something, being blent together, who do but what they should, by doing every thing with Turns to a wild of nothing.'

a saving of their love and honour toward you. He 12 Futour is countenance, good will, and not pardon, says that it has reference to the old feudal simple ho

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Dun. Welcome hither :

title, before, these weird sisters saluted me, and referI have begun to plant thee, and will labour red me to the coming on of time, with, Hail

, king that To make thee full of growing.'-Noble Banquo, shalt be! This have I thought good to deliver thee, That hast no less deserv’d, nor must be known my dearest partner of greatness ; that thou mightest No less to have done so, let me enfold thee, not lose the dues of rejoicing, by being ignorant of And hold thee 10 my heart.

what greatness is promised thee. Lay it to thy heart, Вип.

There if I grow,

and farewell. The harvest is your own.

Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be Dun.

My plenteous joys, What thou art promis'd:-Yet do I fear thy nature. TVanton in fulness, seck to hide ihemselves It is too full o' the milk of human kindness, In drops of sorrow.2-Sins, kinsmen, thanes, To catch the nearest way: Thou would'st be great; And you whose places are the nearesi, know, Art not without ambition ; but without We wil establi-h our estate upon

The illness should attend it. What thou would'st Our ellest, Malcolm; whom we name hereafter,

highly, The prince of Cunoberland :) which honour must That would'st thou holily; would'st not play false, Noi, unaccompanied, invest hiin only,

And yet would'st wrongly win; thou’dst have, great But signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine

Glamis, On all deservers.-From hence to Inverness, That which cries, Thus thou must do, if thou have it : And bind us further to you.

And that which rather thou dosl fear to do, Macb. The rest is labour, which is not us'd for Than wishest should be undone." Hie thee hither you:

That I may pour my spirits in thine car;
I'll be myself the harbinger, and make joyful And chastise with the valour of my tongue
The hearing of my wife with your approach; All that impedes thee from the golden round,
So, humbly take my leave.

Which fale and metaphysical aid doth seem
Dun.

My worthy Cawdor! To have thee crown'do withal. -What is your Mach. The prince of Cumberland !---That is a tidings? step,

Enter an Attendant. On which I must fall down, or else o'erleap,

(Aside. Attend. The king comes here to-night. For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires !

Lady M.

Thou'rt mad to say it: Let not light see my black and deep desires :

Is not thy master with him ? who, wer't so, The eye wink at the hand! yet let that be,

Would have inform'd for preparation. Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see. (Erit. Attend. So please you, it is true; our thane is Dun. True, worthy Banquo; he is full so valiant;a

coming : And in his cominendations I ain fed ;

One of my fellows had the speed of him;, It is a banquet to me. Let us after him,

Who, almost dead for breath, had scarcely more Whose care is gone before to bid us welcome:

Than would make

up
his

message. It is a peerless kinsman. (Flourish. Exeunt. Lady M.

Give him tending,

He brings great news. The raven himself is hoarse, SCENE V. Inverness. A Room in Macbeth's

[Erit Attendant. Castle. Enter Lady Macbeth, reading a Letter.

That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan

Under my battlements. Come, come, you spirits Lady M. They met me in the day of success; and That tend on mortal'o thoughts, unsex me here ; I have learned by the perfectest report, they have And fill me, froin the crown to the toe, top-full more in them than mortal knowledge. When I burned or direst cruelty! make thick my blood, in desire to question them further, they made them. Stop up the access and passage to remorse; selves—air, into which they vanisherl

. Whiles I stood That no compunctious visitings of nature rapt in the wonder of it, came missives from the Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between king, who all-hailed me, Thane of Cawdor; by which The effect, and it!" Come to my woman's breasts, maga, which when done to a subject was always ac 7 Thou would'st have that [i. e. the crown) which companied with a saving clause-- sauf le fou que jeo cries unto thee, thou must do thus, if thou would'st doy u rostre seignor le roy;' which he thinks suis well have it, and thou must do that which rather,"&c. The with the situation of Macbeth, now beginning to waver difficulty of this passage in Italics seems to have arisen in his allegiance. Malone and Steevens seem to favour from its not having been considered as all uttered by this explanation : but sufe may merely mean respect the object of Macbeth's ambition. Malone is the author ful, lojul ; like the old French word sauf. Shakspeare of this regulation, and furnished the explanation. has used the old French phrase, sauf cotre honneur, 8 · That I may pour my spirits in thine ear.' So in several times in King Henry V.

Lord Surline's Julius Cæsar, 1607 : 1 i. e. exuberant.

• Thou in my bosom used 10 pour thy spright.' 2 In drops of sorrow.'

9 Which fate and metaphysical aid, &c.; i. e. 81- lachrymas nen sponte cadentes

pernalural aid. We find metaphysics explained ffudit, gemicusque expressit pectore loto ; things supernatural in the old dictionaries. To hare on aliter manifesta potens abscondere mentis

thee croin'd,' is to desire that you should be crown'd. Gaudia, quain lachrymis.' Lucan, lib. ix.

10 " That tend on mortal thoughts.' Mortal and deadly 3 Holinshed says, “Duncan having two sons, &c. were synonymous in Shakspeare's time. In another he made the elder of them, called Malcolm, prince of part of this play we have the mortal sword,' and .mor. Cumberland, as it was thereby lo appoint him his suc. Iul murders.' We have mortal war,' and 'mortal cessor in his kingdome imincdiatelie after his decease. hatred.' In Nashe's Pierce Pennilesse is a particular Macbeth sorely troubled here with, for that he saw by description of these spirits, and of their office.

"Tho this means his hope sore hindered (where, by the old second kind of devils, which he most employeth, are laws of the realine the ordinance was, that is he that those northern Martii, called the spirits of revenge, should succeed were not of able age to take the charge and the authors of massacres, and seedsmen of mis upon himself, he that was next of blood unto him chief; for they have commission to incense men to should be admitted, he began to take counsel how he rapines, sacrilege, theft, murder, wrath, fury, and all might usurpe the kingdoine by force, having a just manner of cruelties: and they command certain of the quarrel so to doe (as he tooke the matter) for that Dun southern spirits to wait upon them, as also great Arioch, cane did what in hin lay to defraud him of all manner that is termed the spirit of revenge.' of title and claime, which he might in time to come pre 11 Lady Macbeth's purpose was to be effected by tend, unto the crowne.'

action. 'To keep peace between the effect and pur. 4 'True, worthy Banquo,' &c. We must imagine pose," means to delay the execution of her purpose, to that while Macbeth was uttering the six preceding prevent its proceeding to effect.' Sir Wm. Davenant'a lines, Duncan and Banquo had been conferring apart. strange alteration of this play sometimes affords a rea. Macheth's conduct appears to have been their subject; sonably good commentary upon it. Thus in the present and to some encomium supposed to have been bestowed instance : on him by Banguo, the reply of Duncan refers.

-make thick 5 The perfeciest report is the best intelligence.

My blood, stop all passage to remorse; 6 Missives, messengers.

That no relapses into mercy may

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