Monoplanes and Biplanes, Their Design, Construction and Operation

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Munn, Incorporated, 1911 - 331 Seiten

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Seite 1 - Sir, said he, you have seen but a small part of what the mechanic sciences can perform. I have been long of opinion, that instead of the tardy conveyance of ships and chariots, man might use the swifter migration of wings ; that the fields of air are open to knowledge, and that only ignorance and idleness need crawl upon the ground.
Seite 265 - ... diminishes, Wilbur Wright states that, the angle of incidence is fixed by the, area, weight, and speed alone. It varies directly as the weight, and inversely as the area and speed, although not in exact ratio. Faraud concludes that small angles are the most efficient for all aeroplanes. There is for each type a most efficient angle of incidence, or point where the power expended for flight is least. In flying, the incidence should be kept constant at this angle in order to obtain the highest...
Seite 47 - ... supporting powers when the angle of incidence becomes negative, ie, below the horizontal. The air pressure P becomes a propelling force at angles exceeding 3 degrees up to 30 degrees. As Chanute pointed out, this does not mean that there is no horizontal component, or drift, of the normal pressure N under these conditions, but that, at certain angles, the tangential pressure T, which would be parallel to the surface and only produce friction in the case of a flat plane, acts on a curved surface...
Seite 46 - ... perpendicular to the surface and, as already pointed out, the ratio of lift to drift is, therefore, as the cosine to the sine of the angle of incidence. The angle of incidence is the angle at which the plane is inclined to the air current. But in curved surfaces, Fig. 20, as first shown by Lilienthal, the pressure is not uniformly normal to the chord of the arc, but is Fig. 20. Resolution of Force Diagram for a Curved Plane considerably inclined forward of the perpendicular, with the result that...
Seite 46 - ... Plane considerably inclined forward of the perpendicular, with the result that the lift is increased and the drift decreased. He stated it as follows : When a wing with an arched surface is struck by the wind at an angle a with a velocity V, there will be generated a pressure P, which is not normal, but is the resultant of a force N, normal to the chord, and of another force T, tangential to the chord.
Seite 37 - Although the frequency is independent of orientation, the signal amplitude is proportional to the square of the sine of the angle between the...
Seite 51 - Ratio of Lift to Drift. The ratio of lift to drift is of great importance in the design of aeroplanes, and the surface having the greatest ratio under working conditions is the most efficient from an aerodynamic standpoint, ie, it carries the greatest weight with the least power.
Seite 25 - ... 0031 Eiffel was among the first to recognize two sources of inaccuracy — the neglect of the consideration of separate air filaments which vary at different points on the surface, and the cyclonic action of the air due to a revolving source. His experiments were carried out on the Eiffel Tower. The surface was attached to a carriage by springs, the pressure being recorded on a blackened cylinder. The carriage was allowed to fall vertically about 312 feet and was constrained in its motion by...
Seite 64 - ... the rear. The phenomena are due to the fact that at small angles the wind strikes the forward part of the surface on the upper side instead of the lower, and thus this part altogether...

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