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to reform the People of Hippo, and Cefarea.

DEMOSTHENES likewise follow'd this Rule of true Eloquence. *“ O Athenians ! (faid he) do not fancy that « PHILIP is like a Deity, affur'd of « Succefs in all his Attempts. Among « those who seem devoted to his Interest, « there are foune that hate, and dread, cc and

envy
him -.

But your Negligence and Sloth puts all things to a « ftand --Confider, Ο Αthenians, to what “ Condition ye are reduc'd. This wicked “ Man is gone so far as to leave you no “ Choice betwixt Vigilance and Inacti

vity. « vity. They say he threatens you; and “ talks arrogantly. He is not content

* Μη και ως τώ νομίζετ' εκείνα τα παρόντα πεπηγέ. ναι αeάγμα τα αθάνατα, αλλά μισεί πς εκείνον, και δίδεν, 8 άνδρες Αθηναίοι, και φθονεϊ, και η πάνυ νδν σοκέντων οικείως εχειν αυτω- κατέθηκε με τοι ταύτα πάντα νω έκ έχοντα αποσesφίω δια τίω υμετέραν βegδυτήτα και ραθυμίαν - ορατι 8, και άνδρες Αθηναίοι, το φράγμα δι σριελήλυθεν ασελγείας ανθρωπG-,δς έδ' αιρεσιν υμών δί. δωσι ή σεάαν ή άγειν ήσυχίαν,αλλ' απαλά και λόγος αθη φάνες, ώς φασι, λέγει, και εκ διός τε βειν έχων α κατέσegπ. ται, μένειν ότι τέτων, αλλ' αει η ωeoσoκιβως), και κύκλω πανταχή μέλλοντας υμάς και καθημερες εισοιχίζετα. Πότ' όν ο άνδρες Αθεναίοι, ποπ άχυή ωeάξετε επειδαν η γένης, επειδαν νή Δία αναγκη πς ή και νυν και ή χρη τα κγνομενα ηγείσθαι, εγω γδ διμαι τοίς ελάθι. ρους μικρης αναγκην τίω ωeαγμάτων αχώην

): βέλετε, είπε μοι, οϊόντες και πυνθάνεται και τίω αγραν, λέγ9 π καινόν και γένοιτο γδ αν η καινόπρον ή Μακιδων ανήρ 'Αθηναίες καταπολεμη, και τα 80 Ελλήνων διοικών και τέθνηκε ΦίλιππG; μα Δί αλλ' αθενεί τη ' υμών διαφέρει και και αν έτG- ο πίθη, ταχέως υμείς έπες Φίλιππον ποιήσετε

DEMOSTHENE S in PHIL. I.

now with what he has already conquer'd: He forms new Projects every

day; and lays Snares for you on all « Sides, while you continue still back

ward and slothful. When then, O 66 Athenians! when is it that

ye

will “ do what ye ought to do? When will

ye attempt something? When will

Necessity determine you to act? What c6 must we think of what is now a-do

ing? In iny Opinion, no Necessity “ can be more argent upon a free People

than what arises from the Shame of « their past ill Conduct. Will ye

still “ wander about in publick Places, in« quiring after News ? What stranger « News can there be, than that a Man “ of Macedon subdues the Athenians, “ and governs all Greece? Is PHILIP « dead? says one: No, says another, he “ is only fick. What avails it, which « he is for if he were dead, you wou'd “ foon raise up another Philip.” Here Good-Sense speaks without any other

Ornament than its native Force. The Orator makes the Truth plain to all the People : he awakens them : he fpurs thein on to Action : he shews them their impending Ruin. Every thing is spoken for the common Good; not a Word to fhew his own Wit : there is no glittering Thought: all tends to instruct, and move the People.

Indeed the Romans began very late to follow the Example of the Greeks, in improving polite Learning. Graijs ingenium, Graijs dedit ore rotundo

Ho R. de Musa loqui, præter laudem nulius avaris.

7.323 --Romani pueri longis rationibus affem Discunt in partes centum deducere

The Romans were employ'd about their Laws and Rights; about War, and Husbandry, and Commerce : which gave VIRGIL occasion to say,

Ar. Poet.

Æn. via Excudent alij Spirantia mollius æra :

V. 848. Credo equidem ; vivos ducent de marmore vultus. Orabunt caufas melius : Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento : tibi erunt artes :

SALUST finely describes the Manners of antient Rome even while he owns that she neglected Literature. *“ The “ most prudent (says he) were always “ the busyest. No-one exercis'd his Wit

inore

* Prudentiffimus quisque negotiofus maximè erat. Ingenium nemo fine corpore exercebat. Optimus quisque facere, quam dicere ; sua ab alijs benefacta laudari, quam ipse aliorum narrare malebat.

SAL. Bell. Carib.

“ more than his Body. The worthyest 6 Persons chose rather to act wisely, than " to declaim : and to have their brave “ Deeds applauded by others; rather « than to bury themselves in recording “ their Neighbour's good Adions.

We must acknowledge however, according to Livy's Testimony, that a strong and popular Eloquence was well cultivated at Rome in the days of MANLIUS. This Man who had fav'd the Capitol from the Gauls, try'd to stir-up the People to Sedition. *“ How long “ (said he will ye be ignorant of your

Strength ; whích Nature discovers to " the very Beasts ? Count at least how many ye are

I shou'd think ye “ wou'd fight more resolutely for Liber

ty, than those Men for Doininion --“ How long will all of

you depend on me to the utmost, &c.” This powerful Orator perswaded all the People to pardon him, stretching out his Hands towards the Capitol which he had formerly sav’d. Nor cou'd his Death be obtain'd of the Mul

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titude,

* Quoufque tandem ignorabilis vires vestras, quas natura ne belluas quidem ignorare voluit ? Numerate faltem quot ipsi fitis Tamen acrius crederem, vos pro libertate

quam

illos pro dominatione certaturos Quoufque me circumspectabitis ? Ego quidem nulli veltrum deero

TIT. Livi L. vj. ch. 18.

titude, till he was carry'd into a facred Wood; whence he cou'd no longer shew them the Capitol. *“ The Tribunes “ found (says Liyy) that seeing the

People's Minds were so strongly pre" possest with the Merit of MANLIUS, « it wou'd be impossible to perswade them “ he was really guilty, unless they cou'd

carry them out of the Sight of the Ca

pitol which reminded them of his glo66 rious Service Then his Crime 6 appear'd.”

Every one knows what Troubles Eloquence

the Greeks. At Rome CATALINE's Oratory brought the Republick to the Brink of Ruin. But that Eloquence tended only to perswade People and to move their Pallions. Wit was never employ'd in it. A florid Declaimer cou'd have had no Influence in publick Affairs.

Nothing can be more artless than BRUTUS when he fwrites to CICERO

occasion'd among

Q

with

Apparuit Tribunis, nifi oculos quoque hominum liberassent a tanti memoria decoris numquam fore in præoccupatis beneficio animis, vero crimini locum Ibi crimen yaluit - TIT. Liv. L. vj. ch. xx

† Particulam litterarum tuarum quas misisti OCTAvio legi At dolore, quantum animo maximum capere poffum eadem illa pars epistolae fcriptæ ad Octavium de nobis, affecit. Sic enim illi gratias agis de Republica, tam fuppliciter, ac demiffe (quid fcribam puder conditionis, ac fortunæ ; fed tamen fcribendum ett :

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