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Master. But afterwards, because of the pressing Necessities and Shortness of Life, Tully insists only upon those Parts of Knowledge that he thinks the most necefsary for an Orator. He wou'd have him at least well instructed in all that part of * Philosophy which relates to the Conduct and Affairs of social Life. But above all Things he wou'd have an Orator of know the Frame of Man, both with regard to his Soul, and Body, and the natural Tendency and Force of his Pafsions; because the great End of Eloquence is to move the secret Springs of them. He reckons the $ Knowledge of the Laws,
* Positum fit igitur in primis sine Philosophia non poffe effici, quem quærimus Eloquentem sine Philosophorum disciplina, genus, & fpeciem cujufque rei cernere, neque eam definiendo explicare, nec tribuere in partes possumus : nec judicare quæ vera, quæ falfa fint; neque cernere confequentia, repugnantia videre, ambigua distinguere. Quid dicam de natura rerum cujus cognitio magnam orationis fuppeditat copiam? De Vita, de Officiis, de Virtute, de Moribus? Orat.
+ Omnes animorum motus quos hominum generi, re-rum natura tribuit, penitus pernoscendi. De Orat. lib.j. S. 5.
Num admoveri possit oratio ad sensus animorum, atque motus wel inflammandos, vel etiam extinguendos (quod unum in oratore dominatur,) fine diligentissima pervestigatione earum omnium rationum quæ de naturis humani generis, ac moribus, a Philosophis explicatur
De Orat. lib.j. S. 14. Quare hic locus de VITA & MORIBUS, totus est oratori perdiscendus.
# Bibliothecas mehercule omnium Philofophorum unus mihi videtur duodecim Tabularum libellus, fi quis
Ibid. §. 15.
and Constitution, to be the Foundation of allpublickDiscourses:but he does not think a thorough Insight into all the particular Cases and Questions in Law to be necessary ; because, upon occasion, one may have recourse to experienc'd Lawyers, whose peculiar Profession it is to understand and disentangle such intricate Points. He thinks, with PLAT Q, that an Orator shou'd be a * Master of Reasoning; and know how to define, and argue, and unravel the most specious Sophisms. He says we destroy Eloquence, if we shou'd separate it from Philosophy : For then, instead of wise Orators, we shou'd have only trifling injudicious Declaimers, He further requires not only an exact Knowledge of all the Principles of Ethicks; but likewise that theOrator be fully acquainted
Legum fontes, & capita viderit, & auctoritatis pondere & utilitatis ubertate superare. Ac fi nos, id quod maxime debet, noftra PATRIA delectat. Cujus primum nobis Mens, mos, disciplina nota effe debet : vel quia eft patria, parens omnium nostrum, vel quia tanta fapientia fuisse in jure constituendo putanda eft, quanta fuit in his tantis operibus Imperii comparandis. De Orat. lib. j. S. 44.
* Nec vero Dialecticis modo sit instructus, fed habeat omnes PHILOSOPHIÆ notos, & tractatos locos, Nihil enim de Religione, nihil de morte, nihil de pietate, nihil de caritate patriæ ; nihil de bonis rebus, aut malis ;
nihil de virtutibus, aut vitijs ---- nihil, inquam, fine ea scientia, quam dixi, graviter, amplè, copiosè dici, & explicari poteft. Orat. $. 33.
with † Antiquity. He recommends the careful Perusal of the antient Greek Wri ters, especially the Historians; both for their Stile, and for the Historical Facts they relate. He particularly enjoins the
the Study of the Poets: because of the great Refemblance there is betwixt the Figures of Poetry, and those of Eloquence. In fine, he often declares that an Orator ought to furnish his Mind with a clear comprehensive View of Things, before he attempt to speak in publick. I fancy I cou'd almost repeat fone of his Words on this Subject; so often have I read them; and fo strong an Iinpression did they make on my Thoughts. You will be furpriz’d to
+ Cognoscat etiam rerum gestarum & memoriæ veteris ordinem, maximè scilicet noftræ Civitatis ; fed & imperiosorum Populorum & Regum illustrium --- nescire enim quid antea, quàm natus lis, acciderit, id eft fem
puerum Commemoratio autem Antiquitatis, exemplorumque prolatio summa cum delectatione, & auctoritatem orationi affert, & fidem. Orat, . 34.
Apud Gracos autem eloquentissimi homines remoti a causis forensibus, cum ad cæteras res illustres, tum ad scribendam historiam maximè fe applicaverunt. Nam, que & HERODOTUS & poft illum THUCYDIDES omnes dicendi artificio mea fententia facile vicit - Denique etiam a Philosophia profe&tus princeps XENOPHON --
De Orat. lib. ij. S. 13, 14. # Legendi etiam poetæ, cognoscenda Historia, omnium bonarum artium scriptores. De Orat. lib. j. Ş. 34.
Eft enim finitimus oratori poeta, numeris adftrictior paulò, verborum autem licentia liberior; multis verò ornandi generibus focius ac penè par ;, in hoc quidem certè propè idem, nullis ut terminis circumscribat aut definiat jus suum, quo minus ei liceat eadem illa facul. tate, & copia vagari qua velit. Ibid. J. 16.
see how much Knowledge, and how many * Qualities he requires. “An Ora«tor, says he, ought to have the Acute“ ness of Logicians, the Knowledge of
Philosophers, the Stile almoft of the u Poets; the Elocution and Gesture of o the fineft Actors.” Confider now how much Application inuft be neceffary to attain all this.
C. I have observ'd indeed, on several Occasions, that some Orators, tho' they have good natural Parts, want a Fand of folid Knowledge. Their Heads feem unfurnish't: and one cannot but perceive they labour hard for Matter to fill up their Discourses. They do not seem to speak from the Abundance of their Hearts, as if they were full of useful Truths: but they talk as if they were at a loss for the very next Thing they are to say.
A. CICER O takes notice of these kind of People; who live always as it were froin Hand to Mouth, without saying up any :
* Non quæritur mobilitas linguæ, non celeritas verborum, non denique ea quæ nobis non poffumus fingere, facies, vultus, Tonus. ' In oratore autem acumen Dialecticorum, fententiæ Philosophorum, verba prope Poetarum, memoria Juris consultorum, vox Tragedorum, geftus penè fummorum A&orum, eft requirendus. Quamobrem nihil in hominum genere rarius perfecto oratore inveniri poteft : quæ enim singularum rerum arțifices, fingula si mediocriter adepti sunt, probantur, ea nisi omnia summa sunt in oratore, probari non poffunt, De Orat, lib. j. f. 28.
Stock of Provision. But the Discourses of such Declaimers appear always thin and half-starv'd, whatever Pains they take about them. Tho' these Men cou'd afford three Months for studying a publick Harangue, such particular Preparations, however troublesome, must needs be
imperfect : and any judicious Hearer will easily discern their Defects. They ought to have imploy'd several Years in laying up a plentiful Store of folid Notions: and then after such a general Preparation, their particular Discourses wou'd cost their but little Pains. Whereas if a Man, without this preparatory Study, lay out all his Application upon particular Subjects, he is forc'd to put off his Hearers with * florid Expressions, gaudy Metaphors, and jingling Antitheses. He delivers no
thing * There are two-Extremes to be avoided with the utmost Care, the frigid Stile, and the boyish. The former renders a Discourse dry and insipid, by a Languor and Flatness of Expression: the latter renders it ungrateful and socking, by a swelling Loftiness, and affected Amplification ---- Those who use the frigid Stile, employ pompous Expressions when the subject requires plain ones : and they who affect the boyish Stile, make use of low Expressions when the Matter requires the loftiest. But our Language is become so modeft, fo reserv'd, and so fcrupulous, that the frigid Stiie includes all such Expressions as are too strong, or 100 sparkling, too bold and hardy Metaphors, and frequent Turns of Wit. And the boyish Stile comprehends Strokes of Humour, and quaint Conceits upon serious Subjects; too loose and hea. vy Repetitions in those Parts of a Discourse that oright to be close and concise; too violent Exaggerations, and too laborious Figures.
M. RAPIN. Vol. II, Reflexions fw L'Eloquence.