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Paşe 93.-G. H. Lewes (George Henry) was born in London in 1817. His carly education was obtained mainly on the Continent, and he commenced life as a merchant's clerk, but left this for the study of medicine, which in turn he soon abandoned for literature and philosophy. In these departments he produced several works of merit, but later in life turned his attention to physical science, of which he became a popular exponent. He died in 1878.
Page 99.-Charles Dickens, 1812–1870. He was born at Ports mouth, Eng., and was educated at London. His father intended him for the profession of law, but not liking that pursuit, he engaged in the employment of newspaper reporter, and soon attracted public attention as a writer of sketches of life and character. His numerous productions were received with extraordinary favor wherever the English language is read, and he gained the distinction of being the most popular novelist of the day, which he held without a rival until his death in 1870. He visited America in 1841, and again in 1867.
Page 101.-Sir Walter Scott, 1771-1832. He was born in Edinburgh, and obtained his education in the High School and University of that city. He entered the profession of law in 1792, and subsequently held the offices of deputy-sheriff of Selkirkshire and clerk in the Scottish Court of Sessions. But his favorite occupation was the composition of ballads, poems, romances, and historical tales his native land, to which the latter part of his life was wholly devoted. He was the originator of that department of literature termed the Historical Novel, and his voluminous productions are unrivaled of their kind.
Page 103.-W. H. Prescott (William Hickling) was born in Salem, Mass., 1796; died in Boston in 1859. He graduated at Harvard College in 1814. Having by an accident lost the use of one eye during the last year, excessive use of the other eye soon so impaired it that he became nearly blind. He visited Europe in quest of relief, but with little success. He, however, found means, by the aid of a reader, to make himself acquainted with French, Italian, and Spanish literature, and devoted his life to historical writing. He wrote with the help of an instrument which guided his hand upon the paper, while he was unable to see either lines or characters. H historical works have the highest reputation for thorough research and accuracy.
Page 105.- Zenobia (Septimia) was queen of Palmyra, Asia, in the third century. She was daughter of an Arab chief, and assumed the throne after the assassination of her husband, who was prince of Palmyra. She defended her country against the Romans for several years. but was at length overpowered and made captive by the emperor Aure.
lian, A. D. 270; he took her to Rome, where she adorned his triumphal entry into the capital, and passed the remainder of her life in a magnificent villa presented by the emperor, located near the city.
Page 107.-William Ware (Rev.), 1797–1852, son of Rev. Henry Ware, D. D., was born in Hingham, Mass., and died in Cambridge. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1816, studied theology, and entered the ministry as pastor of the First Congregational Church (Unitarian) in New York City in 1821. Returning to New England in 1836, he devoted his life, with the exception of short settlements as pastor at Waltham and West Cambridge, Mass., mainly to literary pursuits. He spent a year in Europe in 1848. His chief productions were historical romances, of which “ Zenobia” is one.
Page 113.—John Brown, M.D., was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1810, and was educated in the High School and University of that city. He has published two volumes of essays on professional and other subjects.
Page 114.-Alfred Tennyson, poet-laureate of England, was born at Somersby, Lincolnshire, in 1810. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he obtained the prize medal for a poem at the age of nineteen. He issued from time to time numerous poetical productions, of varied merit, but gradually grew in the public favor, until, on the death of Wordsworth, in 1850, he was appointed to the office of poetlaureate, and his pre-eminence as a poet has since been universally acknowledged.
Page 123.-A. H. Everett (Alexander Hill), 1790–1847, was a native of Boston, and an older brother of Edward Everett; like him, be entered Harvard College at the age of thirteen, and graduated with the highest honors in three years. He studied law in Boston with John Quincy Adams, whom he accompanied on a mission to Russia in 1809, and resided at St. Petersburg until 1812. Returning to Boston, he entered upon the profession of law, but soon was appointed secretary of legation to the Netherlands. He afterwards succeeded to the position of chargé d'affaires at the same court, where he remained till 1824. In 1825 he was appointed minister to Spain. Returning in 1829, he became editor and proprietor of the North American Review, and from 1830 to 1835 was member of the Legislature of Massachusetts. In 1840 he was confidential agent of the United States in Cuba, and was appointed President of Jefferson College, Louisiana, but was unable to retain this position on account of ill health. In 1845 he was sent as minister to China, where he died in 1847. His voluminous productions in various departments of literature display great versatility and erudition.
Page 124.-Crvesus was the last king of Lydia, in Asia Minor, about 550 years B. C., and was considered the richest monarch of his time.
Page 124.-Khemnitzer (Ivan Ivanowitch--sometimes spelled Chemnitzer) was a Russian fabulist, born in St. Petersburg in 1744. He studied medicine, but afterwards entered the army, and was for some time engaged in mining employments. He was sent as consulgeneral to Smyrna, where he died in 1784.
Page 125.–Catiline (Lucius Sergius) was, a descendant of an ancient patrician family of Rome, who, after spending his youth and early manhood in profligacy, sought election as consul. Being defeated, he, though a member of the Senate, conspired with others of like character to assassinate the consuls and magistrates, burn the city, and seize upon the treasures of the republic. The conspiracy was discovered by Cicero, who secured the banishment of the traitor, and Catiline was slain in a battle near Fæsulæ, in the year 62 B.C
Page 126.—Cicero (Marcus Tullius), 106-43 B.C. He was born at Arpinum, Italy, but educated at Rome, in law, philosophy, and rhetoric. After travel and further study in Greece and Asia, he entered upon public life in Rome. He held several important positions, and was made consul, B. C. 63. During this consulship he discovered and suppressed the conspiracy of Catiline, by which service he earned the title of father of his country, and by his orations secured immortal fame. Five years later, the bitterness of his enemies compelled him to leave Rome for a season, but he subsequently returned, and from time to time took part in public affairs. He was proconsul of Cilicia, in Asia Minor, in 51 B.C, where he governed with justice, and displayed great military talents. After his return to Rome he opposed Mark Antony, successor of Cæsar, and lost his head in consequence, in the year 43 BC. He is regarded as the greatest orator, statesman, and philosopher of ancient Rome.
Page 127.-F. Bret Harte (Francis) was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1837. He went to California at the age of seventeen, where he successively taught school, worked in the mines, became a printer, and then editor of a newspaper. Subsequently he held positions under the Government, in the Surveyor-General's and U.S. Marshal's offices, and in the Mint. In 1868 he founded the Overland Monthly at San Francisco, and has become widely known for characteristic poems and sketches of California life.
Page 131.-S. Ferguson (Samuel) is an Irish poet and prose writer, born in Belfast, 1810. He has contributed to the Ulster Magazine, Blackwood, and Dublin University Magazine, the latter of which he conducted for a time. He is at present a barrister in Dublin.
Page 132.—Izaak Walton, an English author, who lived 1593– 1683. Ile was a haberdasher in London in early life, but his later years were devoted to literature and the study of Nature. He was specially fond of angling, and is best known by a treatise on that subject.
Page 135.—Laöcoön was a son of Priam, king of ancient Troy. He and his two sons are said to have been killed by two monstrous serpents which came from the sea. The serpents first entwined the boys, and when their father attempted to rescue them, they crushed him also in their folds. This is made the subject of one of the most celebrated works of ancient sculpture, which is now preserved in the Vatican at Rome.
Page 139.—Wordsworth (William), 1770–1850. He was born at Cockermouth, Cumberland county, England, and graduated at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1791. He was fond of pedestrian tours for the observation of Nature and the common people, both in his own country and on the Continent, and at one time contemplated settling in France and espousing the cause of the people in the Revolution. He, however, returned to England, and devoted his life mainly to poetic composition, -a new school of which he, in connection with Coleridge and Southey, originated. The chief characteristics of his poetry are simplicity of style, and extreme sensibility to and accurate acquaintance with the changing phenomena of Nature. At first his productions were severely criticised, but at length grew into popular favor, and he was made poetlaureate in 1843.
Page 143.—Mrs. H. B. Stowe (Harriet Elizabeth Beecher) was born in Litchfield, Conn., in 1812. At the age of fifteen she was assistant to her sister Catherine in conducting a young ladies' seminary at Hartford. She removed with her father, Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher, to Cincinnati in 1833, and was married to Rev. C. E. Stowe in 1836. In 1851-52 she wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a novel which has attained the largest circulation of any similar work ever published, having been translated into all the languages of Europe and several of those of Asia. A number of her subsequent works have been quite popular.
Page 144. — Lord Macaulay (Thomas Babington), 18001859. His birthplace was Rothley, Leicestershire, Eng., and he obtained his collegiate education at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he received the degree of M. A. in 1825. In the following year he entered upon the practice of law in London. His contributions on political and historical subjects to various magazines and reviews soon attracted attention, and he was elected to Parliament in 1830.
In 1831 lie went to India as a member of the Supreme Council, and while there drafted a new code for the government of that country. After his return he was in 1839 elected to Parliament from Edinburgh, and ten years later he was made lord rector of the University of Glasgow. In 1853 Edinburgh again returned him to Parliament, and in 1857 he was made a peer of the realm. The last years of his life were chiefly devoted to the preparation of a History of England, of which seven volumes were published before his death.
He was a writer of remarkable perspicuity, and power to invest the dullest themes with interest.
Page 149.—John Burroughs is a native of Roxbury, Delaware county, N. Y.; born 1837. He obtained his education in the common country schools, with the addition of three terms in a seminary; menced teaching at the age of seventeen, and contributing to the press three or four years later. His published productions are not numerous, but they display a keen observation and great love of Nature, and a fine artistic taste.
Page 149.-Thomas Moore, 1779–1852. He was born in Dublin, Ireland, and died at Cloperton, Wiltshire, England. In early childhood he manifested a taste for music, dramatic representations, and rhyming. He graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, at the age of twenty, and then attempted the study of law in London ; but his chief attention was given to literature and music. He was appointed to an admiralty office in Bermuda in 1803, but disliking the employment, he left it and spent some time in the United States and Canada. Returning to England, the remainder of his life, including three years spent on the Continent, was devoted to literature, in both prose and verse. His works are voluminous and of varied merit, but his Irish Melodies are perhaps most highly esteemed.
Page 151.-Mrs. L. M. Child (Lydia Maria) was born in Medford, Mass., in 1802. She was educated in the public schools and in a female seminary in that town, and from 1825 to 1828 kept a private school in Watertown. In the latter year she was married to David Lee Child, a lawyer of Boston. From 1841 to 1849 she resided in New York, and with her husband edited the Anti. Slavery Standard. Her literary productions were numerous in the various departments of romance, biography, housewifery, art, religion, human rights, and juvenile culture. She died in 1880 at Wayland, Ma-s.
Page 151.-Leigh Hunt (John Henry Leigh), 1784-1859, was born at Southgate, Middlesex, Eng. He received his education at Christ Hospital, shortly after leaving which, at the early age of sixteen,