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a volume of his juvenile poems was published. After some experience as an attorney's clerk and clerk in the War Office, he, in 1808, became editor of the London Examiner, which attained great popularity. His literary career was distinguished by great activity for more than half a century, and his productions in both poetry and prose, and in the departments of romance and criticism, are highly esteemed.
Page 153.- Washington Irving, 1783-1859. He was a native of the city of New York, where his early education was obtained. At the age of sixteen he commenced the study of law, but did not enter upon its practice. He began his literary career at the age of nineteen by publishing in the Morning Chronicle, edited by his brother, a series of articles on the drama and on the social customs of New York. In 1804-6 he traveled in Europe for his health, and on his return engaged in various literary ventures in New York, which gave him great popularity. In 1815 he again went to Europe, where his literary labors were continued, and some of his most valuable works-as the Life of Columbus, Conquest of Granada, etc.—were produced. From 1829 to 1831 he was Secretary of the U. S. Legation in London. Returning to New York after an absence of seventeen years, he was the recipient of the highest honors, but his fertile pen knew no respite. He received the title of LL. D. from Columbia College, N. Y., Harvard University, and Oxford l'niversity, Eng. From 1842 to 1846 he was U. S. Minister to Spain. His last years were spent at his romantic home on the banks of the Hudson, in Tarrytown, N. Y. His voluminous productions, in the fields of both romance and authentic history, have the highest reputation.
Page 155.-0 W. Holmes (Oliver Wendell) was born at Cambridge, Mass., in 1809, and graduated at Harvard College in 1829. He devoted a short time to the study of law, but soon exchanged this for medicine, and in 1833 visited Europe, where he spent two or three years in study and preparation. After his return he was elected Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in Dartmouth College, and subsequently to a similar professorship in Harvard. In 1849 he relinquished general practice as a physician, and has since resided in Boston during winters, and at Pittsfield, Mass., in summers. He has published several medical works of merit, but is chiefly known through his poems and other literary productions, which are characterized by great originality, keen wit, genial humor, and exquisite taste.
Page 156.—Henry Clay, 1777–1852, was born in Hanover county, Va., and died in Washington, D.C. He obtained the rudiments of education in a log-cabin schoolhouse, laboring at intervals on a farm. At the age of fifteen he entered the office of the clerk of the Chancery
Court, and at twenty was admitted to the Bar, entering on his profession at Lexington, Ky. He rapidly gained distinction as a pleader in criminal cases, and was elected to the Legislature in 1803. In 1806–7, and again in 1809-10, he was U. S. Senator, and was a commissioner to Ghent to treat for peace in 1814-15. Subsequently he was Representative in Congress, and was five times elected Speaker; was Secretary of State in 1825–29, and afterwards Senator from 1831 to 1842, and from 1849 to 1852. He was an orator and statesman of rare abilities.
Page 157.-J. T. Trowbridge (John Townsend) is a native of Ogden, in Western New York, born in 1827. His youth was spent on his father's farm, but at the age of nineteen he went to New York City, where he commenced his career as a writer for the press. The following year he went to Boston, where he became known as a writer of popular tales over the signature of “Paul Creyton.” His style is remarkably graphic and entertaining, and some of his poems and novels have attained great popularity.
Page 161.-Joaquin Miller (or Cincinnatus Heine Miller) was born in Indiana in 1841. At the age of ten years his parents removed to Lane county, Oregon, where he found opportunity to attend a common school for the period of six months. At fifteen he went to the gold-fields of California, and subsequently joined the noted filibustering expedition of Captain Walker to Nicaragua. After the failure of this, he spent some years among the Indians and Spaniards of New Mexico and California, and in 1860 returned to Oregon, where, having studied law for a brief period, he was admitted to the Bar. We next learn of him as running a “pony-express” among the mountains of Idaho; then editing a newspaper at Eugene, Oregon ; next, writing for the press in San Francisco; again, practicing law and officiating as county judge in Grant county, Oregon. In 1870 he went to London, where he published Songs of the Sierras, which gave him a literary reputation. The following year he returned to the Pacific coast.
Page 162.–Nestor, in Grecian mythology, was an ancient king of Pylos, in Greece, who lived to a great age, and was regarded as a wise counselor by other Grecian chiefs.
Page 162. – Ossian (osh'an), a Celtic warrior-poet, mentioned in ancient Scotch ballads and traditions; by many considered fabulous.
Page 163.-William Wirt, 1772–1834, was born in Bladensburg, Md., and died in Washington, D.C. He was left an orphan at the age of eight, but was brought up by an uncle. At fifteen he became a private tutor. and a year or two later commenced the study of law, the practice of which he entered upon at the age of twenty-one at Culpeper CourtHouse, Va. In 1799 he was elected clerk of the House of Delegates of Virginia, and subsequently represented the city of Richmond in that House. He assisted the U. S. Attorney in the prosecution of Aaron Burr for treason, and by his eloquence and learning established his reputation as one of the foremost lawyers of the country. In 1816, Mr. Wirt was appointed U. S. Attorney for Virginia, and in the following year Attorney-General of the United States, which office he held for twelve years. His literary works, of which the chief are the Letters of a British Spy, and Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry, are held in high esteem.
Page 168.—Vernon Lushington, an English writer of the present day.
Page 171.-Spectator (The), a literary publication issued in London in the year 1711, to which the distinguished poet and essayist, ADDISON, was a chief contributor.
Page 173.—Beattie (James, LL. D.), 1735-1803. He was born at Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, Scotland, and was educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen. After teaching for two years in the grammar-school at Aberdeen, he was, in 1760, appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy and Logic in the college, which position he held till near the end of his life. His works consist mainly of poems, treatises on Moral Science, Evidences of Christianity, etc., and were highly esteemed in his time.
Page 178.-John Ruskin, an English artist and author, was born in London in 1819, and graduated in 1812 at Oxford. He has published several volumes and treatises on Art, Painting, Architecture, etc., which are distinguished for brilliancy of rhetoric, eloquence of description, and peculiarity of views.
Page 179.—John Adams, a distinguished patriot and statesman of the Revolution, member of the Provincial Congress from Massachusetts, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and second President of the United States.
Page 182.—Daniel Webster, 1782-1852. He was born in Salisbury, N. H., and died at Marshfield, Mass. He gradnated at Dartmonth College in 1801; taught an academy at Fryeburg, Me., in 1802; studied law in Boston in 1804, and was admitted to the Bar in 1805. After practising a year at Boscawen, N. H., he removed to Portsmouth, where he rapidly rose to distinction. He was member of Congress 1313-17, and removed to Boston in 1816. In 1823 he was again sent to Congress, where he served as Representative and Senator until 1839. The follow
ing year he was made Secretary of State, from which office he retired in 1843; was re-elected to the Senate in 1845, and again made Secretary of State in 1850, which position he retained until his death. As an orator, statesman, and expounder of constitutional law, he is generally regarded as having had no superior among
countrymen. His eulogy on Adams and Jefferson was delivered July 4, 1826.
Page 182.-Joan of Arc, the “Maid of Orleans," was a peasant-girl of Domremy, in Lorraine, France, who, in 1628, at the age of sixteen, believed herself required by supernatural “ voices” to take the lead of the French army against the English, and to secure the crowning of the young king. This she succeeded in accomplishing; but being persuaded to go beyond what the “voices” required, she was taken prisoner and afterwards burnt at the stake as a sorceress.
Page 183.-Schiller (Johann Christoph Friedrich von) was a German poet, dramatist, and historian, born in Marbach, Würtemberg, 1759, and died in Weimar, 1805. His parents intended him for the Church, but at the age of fourteen he was placed by the reigning duke in a government seminary, to receive a prescribed professional education. This was against his taste, and he secretly devoted himself to the study of poetry and the drama. Having completed the required studies in 1781, he was appointed surgeon in the ducal army, and soon after published his first drama. This was offensive to the duke, who ordered him to confine himself to his medical duties and write no more poetry. Chafing under such restraint, he soon after escaped from the duke's dominions and followed his chosen pursuit elsewhere. In 1787 he took up his residence at Weimar, where he became associated with the immortal Goethe, and two years later he was made Professor of History at the University of Jena. His historical, dramatic, and poetic productions are regarded as possessing high merit. His drama of The Maid of Orleans (Joan of Arc) was one of the most successful of his acting plays.
Page 185.—John Lingard, D.D., LL.D., an English historian, was born in Winchester, 1771, and died in 1851. He was educated at the Catholic College in Douay, France, took orders in the Church of Rome, and for the last forty years of his life resided at Hormby, in Lancashire. Besides a valuable History of England, in 8 vols., he published several other historical and controversial works.
Page 189.-Cardinal Wiseman (Nicholas, D. D.) was born in Seville, Spain, of English parentage, in 1802, and died in England in 1865. He was sent to England at the age of five to be educated, and in 1818 entered the English College at Rome. Here he was advanced to the professorship of Oriental Literature, and subsequently to the rectorship of the college. He returned to England in 1835, became popular as a preacher and lecturer, was made President of St. Mary's College, Oscott, in 1840; Vicar-Apostolic in 1849; Archbishop of Westminster, and Cardinal, in 1850. He was very eminent as a scholar and an author.
Page 191.-G. Croly (George, LL. D.) was born in Dublin, Ireland, 1780, and died in 1860. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, became a clergyman of the Church of England, and was rector of a parish in London, where he attained great celebrity as a preacher and author. He was a poet, a writer of fiction, a historian, a literary critic, and a religious controversialist.
Page 205.—Isaac I. Hayes (DR.), the Arctic explorer, was born in Chester county, Pa., in 1832. He received his title of M. D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1853, and the same year accompanied Dr. Kane's exploring expedition to the Arctic regions, returning in 1855. In 1860 he led a second expedition to the same regions, and returned in 1861, after which he served as a surgeon in the army during the war. His narratives of explorations are works of great interest and value.
Page 206.-Shakspeare (William), the greatest of dramatists, was born at Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, Eng., in 1564, and died at the same place in 1616. Of his early life and education, and indeed of his later personal history, little is known. He went to London about 1585, where he is supposed to have attached himself to a theatrical company, and, from retouching and improving old plays, to have gradually proceeded to the composition of new ones. Thirty-five of these productions are attributed to him, besides a small volume of poems. His plays are, by the universal voice of the civilized world, conceded to be unapproached if not unapproachable as works of genius. Having acquired wealth by these productions, he returned to Stratford, as is supposed, between 1610 and 1613, where the remainder of his life was spent at ease.
Page 208.-G. A. Sala (George Augustus), an English authcr and novelist, was born in London in 1827. He was a prominent contributor to Household Words for several years, and subsequently editoi of Temple Bar.
Page 210.-T. B. Read (Thomas Buchanan), painter and poet, was born in Chester, Pa., in 1822, and died in New York, May, 1872. At the age of seventeen he entered a sculptor's studio in Cincinnati, but afterwards studiсd the art of painting. He established himself in Philadelphia in 1846; visited Europe in 1850; returned to Cincinnati; and in 1853 went to Florence, and resided there and at Rome during