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Poor-House.
Whole number in one year,

Not from intemperance, .....
Doubtful, ............................ 8

Intemperance, ......... ......... 9
Of the doubtful, one is a vagrant, and two were foreigners.

EBENEZER CASEY, Keeper.
Lowville, 31st. August, 1833.

Expenses.
County tax, ....

......... *2,114 46
Poor,......................... $1,130 49
Crime, ............

539 65

- 1,670 14

Balance,..

$444 32 DAVID MILLER,

President of the Board of Sup. N. B. Crier's fees in four years, ............. $04 75

Sheriff's bill in 1832, ................. 55 00
Of this, $50 would be the legal fees for

summoning jurors.
District attorney, ..........

: 0878
County clerk, ........................ 00 00
LIVINGSTON COUNTY.-Population 27,719.

Jail.
Whole number in one year and a half,...
Temperate, .......

....... 1
Doubtful, ......
Intemperate, ......

........ 45 I have had charge of this jail, either as a Sheriff or jailer, since the organization of the county, ten years, and I give it as my decided opinion, that nineteen twentieths of those who have been imprisoned on criminal charges, have been more or less intemperate.

RUSSEL AUSTIN, Jailer. Geneseo 3d July, 1833.

Poor-House.
Whole number assisted in one year, ............ 146

This was the first poor-house I examined, and I did not extend my inquiries any further than as to the fifty who were inmates at the time.

Not reduced to poverty by intemperance, 4
Doubtful, ......

........ 11
Intemperance, ..

....... 35 SAMUEL STEVENS, Keeper

Expenses.
County tax,........................... $8,362 43
From this should be deducted as extra items of expen-

diture, increasing the tax above the ordinary a-
mount, $3,000 for a bridge, and $1,240,32 to
pay an instalment on poor-house farm,........ 4,240 32

This leaves, the ordinary county tax, ...... $4,122 11
From this deduct expense of poor, ........ $2,000
Criminal justice, ....... ........... 1,500

- 3,500 00

And there is left for other purposes, ...... $622 11

O. M. WILLEY, Clerk of Sup. Remark.—The poor-house and farm costs $7,000, and the interest on this sum might be added, but I have in all cases omitted it. My intention was to obtain certificates from district attorneys in relation to this subject, but I found that they could not be of that definite character which it was my object to obtain. I however called on the district attorney of Livingston county, who very obligingly gave me the following : Mr. Chipman

Sir :-In reference to your inquiry as to the cause of pauperism and crime, I can say from long observation, that the fruitful source is found in the abusive use of ardent spirits. The county of Livingston was organized in 1821, since which time I have discharged the duties of district attorney ; in which time there have been two hundred and sixty-seven indictments preferred. (Here Mr. Hosmer gives an enumeration of the crimes, but as it is not important to my object I omit it.) Of that class of crimes characterized by personal violence, they are generally accompained with and produced by intemperance. Of those which indicate a desire of gain, they generally proceed from poverty and a depraved moral sense, consequent on a vicious indulgence in habits of intemperance. To doubt that intemperance is directly or indirectly the source of a large portion of the crimes which degrade, and of the accidents and misfortunes which afflict humanity, is to disregard the most palpable and self-evident proofs.

GEORGE HOSMER Avon 4th July, 1839.

MADISON COUNTY-Population 39,037.

Jail

.............. 24

Whole number committed in one year, .......... 26

Temperate, ...................... 2
Doubtful, ..........................

Intemperate, ..................... Of the temperate one was a respectable man of color who was subjected to sixty days imprisonment from a train of circumstances originating in the intemperance of his wife. His imprisonment has not in the least diminished the confidence of the community in his integrity. The other was a man of violent temper who had been excommunicated from a church, and afterwards attempted to read a vindication of his conduct in a religious meeting, on the Sabbath, and presisted in his disorderly conduct after he had been warned to desist. Of the intemperate, one was a lad who had spent one year in the Circus, three years as a canal driver, and some time as a waiter on board a steam-boat. He is now in the House of Refuge. Another was convicted of stealing sheep; two of stealing the sum of $1,50, which they expended for a share in a lottery ticket ; one of arson ; one was committed for stealing one shilling, and was confined sixty days. He says he has spent (and probably it is true,) a property of $5,000, in ardent spirit, and its concomitant vices. Another who has been twice in stateprison, is now in jail for stealing a horse. A man by the name of J. M. was committed (previous to the year, and not included in the twenty-four) for an assault with intent to kill. The assault was made with a very heavy axe, and it was in proof, that as many as nine blows were given. Both parties were very much intoxicated at the time of the affray. While J. M. was in jail awaiting his trial, and while it was quite doubtful, whether the person assaulted would recover, he appeared extremely anxious and depressed in spirits. At this time, one of his former associates called and told him that “some spirits would cheer him up ;" and contrary to my orders, he succeeded in conveying it to M., in consequence of which, he was soon thrown into a state of mind but little short of absolute madness. At the time of trial, and during its progress, one of M's brothers came into court very much intoxicated, and was so noisy that I was obliged to give him in special charge to a constable, to prevent his making disturbance. The father, a man probably 70 years of age, was also in attendance during the trial ; went five times to a grocery, and became quite drunk. After his son's conviction, when two deputies were returning him to jail, the old man followed along, singing and dancing, and crying out, "J's fate is sealed, J's fate is

J. S. PALMER, Sheriff Morrisville, Ang. 22, 1838

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120

Mr. Palmer informed me in Nov. he had ascertained since giving the above statement, that the colored man above spoken of, was intoxicated at the time the act was committed, for which he was imprisoned.

Poor-House.
Whole No. assisted in one year,..

Not from intemperance, .........
Doubtful, ............................

Intemperance, ........................ 70 Among the temperate, were three deranged persons sent here for safe keeping ; also, one idiot, and one mute.

ICHABOD AMSIDEN, Keeper.
Eaton, Aug. 21, 1833.
The number received into the poor-house, during

the year, was....
Not from intemperance,....,
Doubtful,
Intemperance, ...................

Expenses.
County tax,......

.... $6,600 00
From this deduct for cholera expen-
ses, ..

$500 For repairing court-house, ... 500

, 1,000 00

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.......

Balance, ....

$857 58 EPENETUS HOLMES, Clerk, of Sup. MONROE COUNTY.-Population, 49,862. It is necessary to explain here in relation to the poor in this county. After examining the poor house, I found that although the distinction between town and county poor was still kept up here as in a few other counties, yet some town poor were sent to the county Poor-House, and the overseers of the poor in the two towns of Gates and Brighton, (in which the city of Rochester is situated) had also afforded relief to 390 county paupers. I found it necessary therefore, in order to effect my object, to obtain the certificates of all those individuals. I will however give the result of each separately.

Poor-House. Whole number assisted in one year,...

168 Not from intemperance, .........

..... 19 Doubtful, ............................ 50

Intemperance, ........................ 99 Fifty-five town paupers were assisted during the same time, but they are not counted or classed, as most of them are probably included in the certificates of the overseers of the poor of Gates and Brighton. N B. Of the 168, 68 are foreigners.

JACOB POUND, Keeper. Brighton, July 7th, 1833.

Remark.—A considerable number of those classed as doubtful were persons that were in the poor-house but a short time-some of them ran away after having been there only a few hours :others were children whose parents died with cholera, and of whose habits nothing was known.

Whole number of county paupers assisted by Wm. C. Smith and Matthew Mead, overseers of poor in the town of Gates, and Wm. G. Russell, overseer of poor in the town of Brighton, in one year preceding July 8th, 1833, was................ 390

Not reduced to poverty by intemperance, 62
Doubtful, ........

........ 100
Intemperance, .......... ....... 228
Town paupers assisted in the same time, ........ 462
Temperate, .......

........... 65
Doubtful, .......................... 74

Intemperance, ........ ......... 323
From all these certificates it appears that the whole
number assisted is...

....... 1,020
Temperate, ...................... 146
Doubtful, ........................ 224
Intemperance,....

650

Jail.
Whole number committed in one year, .......

279
Temperate, ........................... 0
Doubtful, ........................... 34

Intemperate, .......................... 245 A majority of those classed as doubtful were boys from 10 to 15 years old, and females. Of the whole number 249 were males and 30 females. For the last nine months there has been a diminution in the number of persons brought to this jail of 7 or 8 per month.

EPHRAIM MOORE, Jailer

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