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HENRY IV. PART II.' P. 523. ---I, in my condition,
Shall better speak of you than you deserve.) I know not well the meaning of the word condition in this place; I believe it is the same with temper of mind : I shall, in my good nature, speak better of you than you merit. JOHNSON. P. 338. Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds,
But Harry Hary:] Amurath the Third (the sixth Emperor of the Turks) died on January the 17th. 1595-6. The people being generally disaffected to Mahomet his eldest son, and inclined to Amurath, one of his younger children, the Emperur's death was concealed for ten days by the Janizaries, till Mabomet came from Amasia to constantinople. On his arrival he was saluted Emperor by the great Bassas, and others his favurers; “ which done, (says Knolles,) he presently after caused all his brethren to be invited to a solemn feast in the court; whereuntn they, yet ignorant of ibeir father's death, came chearfully, as men fearing no harm: but, being come, were there all most miserabiy strangled.” It is bighly probable_that Shakespeare bere alludes to this transaction; which was pointed oui to me by Dr. Farmer.
This circumstance, therefore, may fix the date of this play subsequently to the beginning of the year 1596; and perhaps it was written while this fact was yet recent
MALONE P. 343. --
--fig me, like
The bragging Spaniard.) Dr. Johnson has properly explained this phrase; but it should be added, that it is of Italian origin. When the Milanese revolted against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, they placed the empress his wife upon a mule with her head towards the tail, and ignominiously expelled her their city. Frederick afterwards besirged and to vk the place, and compelled every one of his prisoners on pain of death to take with his teeth a fig from the posteriors of a mule. The party was at the same time obliged to repeat to the executioner the words "cco la fica." Froin this circumstance" Far la fica” became a term of derision, and was adopted by other nations. The French say likewise “ faire la figue." DOUCE.
P. 344. Nuthook, nuthook, you lie.] From a late “ critical review," I learn that nutkhut in the language of the Bazegurs or Nuts of Hindostan signifies rascal or blackguard, and that it was probably introduced into England by the gypsies, between whose language and inanners and those of the Nuts a considerable similarity bas been discovered by Mr. Richardson as detailed in the 7th vol. Asiatic Researches Boston Monthly Anth. vol. ii. p. 131.
P. 347. Carry Sir John Falstaff to the Fleet ;) I do not see why Falstaff is carried to the Fleet-prison. We have never lost sight of him since his dismission from the King; he has committed no new fault, and therefore incurred no punishment; but the different agitations of fear, anger, and surprize in him and his company, made a good scene to the eye; and our author, who wanted them no longer on the stage, was glad to find this method of sweeping them away.
KING HENRY V. P. 9. -the scambling and unquiet time. In the household book of the 5th Earl of Northumberland there is a particular section, appointing the order of service for the scambling days in Lent; that is, days on which no regular meals were provided, but every one scambled, i. e. scrambled and shifted for himself as well as he could.
PERCY. P. 13. Convey'd himself as heir to Lady Lingare,] It was manifestly impossible that Henry, who had no hereditary title to his own dominions, could derive one, by the same colour, to another person's. He merely proposes the invasion and conquest of France, in prosecution of the dying advice of his father:
6 ---to busy giddy minds
u Might waste the memory of former days:" that his subjects might have sufficient employment to mislead their attention from the nakedness of his title to the crown. The zeal and eloquence of the Archbishop are owing to similar motives.
RITSON. P. 48. ---I must speak with him from the pridge.] Fluellen, who comes from the bridge, wants to acquaint the king with the transactions that had happened there. This he calls speaking to the king from the bridge.
P. 63. ------take from them now
The sense of reckoning, if the opposed numbers) If the sense of reckoning, in consequence of the King's petition, was taken from them, the numbers opposed to them would be no longer formidable. When they could no more count their enemies, they could no longer fear them.
STEEVENS. P. 63. Two chantries, One of these monasteries was for Carthusian monks, and was called Bethlehem; the other was for religious men and women of the order of Saint Bridget, and was named Sion. They were on opposite sides of the Thames, and adjoined the royal manor of Sheen, now called Richmond. MALONE. P. 66. By Jove,] The king prays like a christian, and swears like a beathen.
JOHNSON I believe the player-editors alone are answerable for this monstrous incongruity. In consequence of the Stat. 3 James L. c. xxi. against introducing the sacred name on the stage, &c. they omitted it where they could; and in verse, (where the metre would not allow omission,) they substituted some other word in its place. The author, I have not the least doubt, wrote here---By headen, ------ MALONE.
KING RICHARD III. P: 66. Baynard's Castle.) A castle in Thames Street, which had belonged to Richard Duke of York, and at this time was the property of his grandson King Edward V.
P. 71. .loath'd bigamy :) Bigamy, by a canon of the council of Lyons, A. D. 1274, adopted in England by a statute in 4 Edward I. was made unlawful and infamous. It differed from polygamy, or having two wives at once; as it consisted in either marrying two virgins successively, or once marrying a widow.
BLACKSTONE. P. 79. To Breckenock.] To the Castle of Brecknock in Wales, where the Duke of Buckingham's estate lay.
MALONE P. 101. That never slept a quiet hour with thee,] Shakespeare was probably bere thinking of Sir Thomas More's animated description of Richard, which Holinshed transcribed : “ I have heard (says Sir Thomas) by credible report of such as were secret with his chamberlaine, that after this abominable deed done [the murder of his nephews) he never had quiet in his mind. He never thought himself sure where he went abroad ; his eyes whirled about ; his body privily fenced; bis hand ever upon his dagger; his countenance and manner like one always ready to strike againe. He tooke il rest a-nights ; lay long waking and musing sore wearied with care and watch ; rather slumbered than slept, troubled with fearful dreames ; sodainely sometime start up, leapt out of bed, and ran about the chamber ; 80 was his restless heart continually tost and tumbled with the tedious impression and stormy remembrances of his abominable deede.”
With such a companion well might Anne say, that she never slept one quiet hour.
MALONE. P. 106. ---the enemy is pass'd the marsh ;] There was a large marsh in Bosworto plain between the two armies. Henry passed it, and made such a disposition of his forces that it served to protect his right wing. By this movement he gained also another point, that his men should engage with the sun behind them, and in the faces of his enemies : a matter of great consequence when bows and arrows were in use.
MALONE, P. 108. Now civil wounds are stopp'd,] Summary Account of the times and places of the several battles fought between the Houses of York and Lancaster.
1. Battle of Saint Albans, 23 May 1455, between Richard Plantagenet duke of York and king Henry VI. York victorious, Henry taken prisoner. Killed on the royal side, 5041 : on York's side 600. Total 5641.
2. Battle of Bloarheath in Shropshire, 30 September 1459, between James lord Audley on the part of king Henry, and Richard Nevil earl of Salisbury on the part of the duke of York. Lord Audley slain, and his army defeated. Killed 2411.
3. Battle of Northampton, 20 July 1460, between Edward Plantagenet, earl of March, eldest son of the duke of York, and Richard Nevil earl of Warwick on the one side, and king Henry on the other. Yorkists victorious. Killed 1035.
4. Battle of Wakefield, 30 December 1460, between Richard duke of York and
queen Margaret. Duke of York slain, and his army defeated ; Richard Nevil art of Salisbury taken prisoner, and afterwards beheaded at Pomfret. Killed 2801.
5. Battle of Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire, on Candlemasday 1460-1, between Edward duke of York on the one side, and Jasper earl of Pembroke and James Butler earl of Wiltshire on the other. Duke of York victorious. Killed $800. 6. Second Battle of Saint Albans, 17 February 1460-1,
between queen Margaret on the one side, and the duke of Norfolk and the earl of Warwick on the other. The queen Victorious.
Sir Richard Grey, a Lancastrian, slain, wbose widow after. wards married king Edward IV. Killed 230S.
7. Action at Ferrybridge in Yorkshire, 28 March 1461, between lord Clifford OR the part of king Henry, and lord Fitzwalter on the part of the duke of York. Lord Fitzwalter and John lord Clifford slain. Killed 230.
8. Battle of Towton four miles from York, Palm-sunday, 29 March, 1461, between Edward duke of York and king Henry. King Henry defeated. Henry Percy earl of Northumberland slain. Killed 37.746.
9. Battle of Hedgeley Moor in Northumberland, 29 April 1468, between John Nevil viscount Montague on the part of king Edward IV. and the lords Hungerford and Roos on the part of Henry VI. The Yorkists victorious. Killed 108.
10. Battle of Hexbam, 15 May 1463, between viscount Montague and King Henry. The king defeated. Lords Rous and Hungerford taken prisoners, and afterwards beheaded. Killed 2024.
11. Battle of Heugecote four miles from Banbury, 25 July 1469, between William Herbert earl of Pembroke on the part of king, Edward, and the lords Fitzburg and Larimer and sir John Conyers on the part of king Henry. The Lancastrians defeated. Killed 5009.
12. Battle of Stamford in Lincolnshire, 1 Oct. 1469, between sir Robert Wells and king Edward ; in which the former was defeated and taken prisoner. The vanquished who fled, in order to lighten themselves threw away their coate, whence the place of combat was called Losecoat field. Kiiled 10.000.
14. Baltie of Barnet, on Easter-sunday, 14 April, 1471, between king Edward on the one side, and the earl of Warwick, the Marquis of Montague, and the earl of Oxford on the part of King Henry. The Lancastrians defeated; the earl of Warwick and the marquis of Montague slain. Killed 10,300.
15. Battle of l'ewksbury, 8 May 1471, between king Edward and queen Margaret. The queen defea ed, and she and her son prince Edward taken prisoners. On the next day the prince was murdered by king Edward and his brothers. _Killed 3,032. Shortly afterwards, in an action between the bastard sop of lord Falconbridge and some Lundoners, 10.92 persons were killed.
16. Battle of Bosworth in Leicestershire, 22 August 1485, between king Richard III. and Henry earl of Richmond, afterwards king Henry VII. Richard defeated anu slain. Killed on the part of Richard, 4,013; on the part of Richmond, 181.
The total number of persons who fell in the contest between the Houses of York and Lancaster was Ninety-one Thousand and Twenty-six.
KING HENRY VIII.
* Rash, inconsiderate, fiery voluntaries,
“ To make a hazard of new fortunes here." Again, in Camden's Remains, 1605: "There was a nobieman merrily conceited, and riotously given, that having lately sold a manor of an hundred tenements, came ruffling into the court, saying, am not I a mighty man that bear an hundred houses on my backe?”
MALONE. P. 129. Leave these remnants
Of fool, and feather] This does not allude to the feathers anciently worn in the hats and caps of our countrymen, (a circumstance to which no ridicule could justly belong.) but to an effeminate fashion recorded in Greene's Farewell to Folly, 1617: from whence it appears that even young gentlemen carried fans of feathers in their hands : " ---We strive to be counted womanish, by keeping of beauty, by curling the hair, by wearing plumes of feathers in our hands, which in wars, our ances. itors wore on their heads."
STEEVENS. The text may receive illusration from a passage in Nashe's Life of lacke Wilton, 1594: " At that time (viz. in the court of King Henry VIII.] I was no common squire, no undertroden torch-bearer, I had my feather in my cap as big as a flag in the foretop, my French doublet gelte in the belly, as though (lyke a pig readiē to be spits ted) all my guts had been pluckt out, a paire of side paned hose that hung down like two scales filled with Holland cheeses, my long stock that sate close to my dock,-my rapier pendant like a round sticke, &c. my blacke cloake of blacke cloth, ouer,
spreading my backe lyke a thornbacke or an elephantes eare ;---and in consummation of my curiositie, my handes without gloves, all a more French,” &c. RITSON.
P. 130. ---My barge stays ;] The speaker is now in the King's palace at Bridewell, from which he is proceeding by water to York-place, (Cardinal Wolsey's house,) now Whitehall.
P. 134. ---a little heated.] The King, on being discovered and desired by Wolsey to take his place, said that he would * first go and shift him: and thereupon, went into the Cardinal's bed-chamber, where was a great fire prepared for him, and thore he new appareled himselfe with rich and princely garments. And in the king's absence the dishes of the banquet were cleane taken away, and the tables covered with new and perfumed clothes.---Then the king took his seat under the cloath of estate, commanding every person to sit stilt as before; and then came in a new banquet before his majestie of two hundred dishes, and so they passed the night in banqueting and dancing until morning.” Cavendish's Life of Wolsey.
MALONE. P. 145. You'd venture an emballing :) You would venture to be distinguished by the ball, the ensign of royalty.
JOHNSON. The Old Lady's jocularity, I am afraid, carries her beyond the bounds of decorum; but her quibbling allusion is more easily comprehended than explained. RITSON.
P. 166. To Asher-house, my lord of Winchester's,] Shakespeare forgot that Wolsey was himself Bishop of Winchester, unless he meant to say, you must confine yourself to that house which you possess as Bishop of Winchester. Asher, near Hampton Court, was one of the houses belonging to that bishopric.
MALONE. Fox, Bishop of Winchester, died Sept. 14, 1528, and Wolsey held this see in commendam. Asher therefore was his own house.
REED. P. 170. Or gild again
the noble troops that waited
pon my smiles.] The number of persons wno composed Cardinal Wolsey's household, was one hundred and eighty.
MALONE P. 178. Ipsarich,) “The foundation-stone of the College which the Cardinal founded in this place, was discovered a few years ago. It is now in the Cbapier-house of Christ-Church, Oxford.” Seward's Anecdotes of distinguished Persons, &c. 1795.
P. 179. --go to, koneel.] Queen Katharine's servants, after the divorce at Dunstable, and the Pope's curse stuck up at Dunkirk, were directed to be sworn to serve ber not as a Queen, but as Princess Dowager. Some refused to take the oath, and so were forced to leave her service; and as for those who took it and stayed, she would not be be served by them, by wbich means she was almost destitute of attendants. See Hall, fol. 219. Bishop Burnet says, ali the women about her still called her Queen. Burnet, p. 162.
P. 180. This to my lord the king.) This letter probably fell into the hands of Polydore Virgil, who was then in England, and has preserved it in the twenty-seventh book of bis history. The following is Lord Herbert's translation of it:
“My most dear lord, king, and husband, “The hour of my death now approaching, I cannot choose but, out of the love I bear you, advise you of your soul's health, which you ought to prefer before all considerations of the world or flesh whatsoever: for which you have cast me into many calamities, and yourself into many troubles.---But I forgive you all, and pray God to do so likewise. For the rest, I commend unto you Mary our daughter, be seeching you to be a good father to her, as I have beretofore desired. I must entreat you also to respect my maids, and give them in marriage, (which is not much, they being but three) and to all my other servants a years pay besides their due, lest otherwise they should be unprovided for. Lastly, I make this vow, that mine eyes desire you above all things. Farewell."
MALONE The legal instrument for the divorce of Queen Katharine is still in being; and among the signatures to it is that of Polydore Virgil.
STEEVENS. P. 188. Chan. Speak to the business,] In the preceding scene we have heard of the birth of Elizabeth, and from the conclusion of the present it appears that she is not yet christened. She was born September 7, 1533, and baptized on the 11th of the same month. Cardinal Wolsey was Chancellor of England from September 7, 1516, to the 25th of October, 1530, on which day the seals were given to Sir Thor mas More. He beld them till the 20th May, 1533, when Sir Thomas Audley was ap pointed Lord Keeper. He therefore is the person here introduced; but Shakespeare
has made a mistake In calling him Lord Chancellor, for be did not obtain that title till the January after the birth of Elizabeth.
MALONE. CORIOLANUS. P. 228. ---in Galen.) An anachronism of near 650 years. Menenius flourished Anno U. C. 260 about 492 years before the birth of our Saviour. Galen was born in the year of our Lord 130, Nourished about the year 155 or 160, and lived to the year 200.
GREY. ---empiricutic,) The old copies---empirickqutique. “The most sovereign prescription in Galen (says Menenius) is to this news but empiriiutick : an adjective evidently formed by the author from empiric (empirique, Fr.) a quack.” RITSON
TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. P. 33. ---though you bite so sharp at reasons, &c.] Here is a wretched quibble botweren reasons and raisins, which in Shakespeare's time, were, I believe, pronounced alike. Dogberry, in Much Ado about Nothing, plays upon the same words: “ If Justice cannot tame you, she never weigh niore reasons in her balance." And Falstaff says, “ If reasons were as plenty as blackberries, I would give no man a reason upon compulsion, I."
MALONE P. 84. How the devil luxury, with his fat rump, and potatoe finger, tickles these togethe .) Lururia was the appropriate term used by the school divines, to express ihe sin of incontinence, which accordingly is called luxury in all our old English writers. Hence, in King Lear, our author uses the word in this particular sense :
“ To't, Luxury, pell-mell, for I want soldiers." But why is luxury, or lasciviousness said to have a potatoe finger ?---This ront, which was in our author's time but newly imported from America, was considered as a rare exotick, and esteemed a very strong provocative. As the plant is so common now, it may entertain the reader to see how it is described by Gerard, in his Herbal, 1597. p. 780:
“ This plant, which is called of some Skyrrits of Peru, is generally of us called Potatus, or Potntoes.--- There is not any that hath written of this plant ;---therefore, I refer the description thereof unto those that shall hereafter have further knowledge of the same. They are used to be eaten roasted in the ashes. Howsoever they he dressed, they comfort, nourish, and strengthen the bodie, procure bodily trust, and that with great greediness.".
Shakespeare alludes to this quality of potatoes in The Merry Wives of Windsor:
Let the sky rain potatoes, hail kissing comfits, and snow eringoes; let a tempest of provocation come.
COLLINS, P. 87. ---the dreadful sport,
Which shipmen do the hurricano call,] A particular account of “a spout," is given in Captain John Smith's Sea Grammar, quarto, 1627: “A spout is, as it were, a small river failing entirely from the clouds, like one of our water-spouts, which make the sea, where it falleth, to rebound in flashes exceeding bigb ; i. e. in the language of Shakespeare to dizzy the ear of Neptune.
STEEVENS. KING LEAR. P. 217. And well are worth the want that you have wanted.], You are well deserving of the want of dower that you are without. So, in The Third Part of King Henry V1. Act. IV. sc. i: “Though I want a kingdom," i. e. though I am wiibout a king dom. Again, in Stowe's Chronicle, p. 137: - Anselm was expelled the realm, and wanted the whole profits of his bishoprick,” i. e. he did not receive the profits, &c.
TOLLET. P. 224. That can my speech diffuse) We must suppose that Rent advances looking on his disguise. Tbis circumstance very naturally leads to his speech, which otherwise would have no very apparent introduction. If I can change my speech as well as I have changed my dress. To diffuse speech, signifies to disorder it, and so to dis
P. 250. Which they will make an obedient father.) Which, is on this occasion used with two deviations from present language. It is referred, contrary to the rules of grammarians, to the pronoun I, and is employed according to a mode now obsolete, for whom, ihe accusative case of who.