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a:-(as in far.) Fa'ther, arm, arómy, are, alms, art, aunt, ah, laugh,

taunt, flaunt, gaunt, balm, path, calf, calm, daunt, gape, guard,

half, haunt, heart, hearth, heark'en, salve, ser'geant, wrath. ă:

- (short, as in hặt.) At, apt, ac'rid, am ber, bade, bar'rel, clam'ber, .
ca-năl, catch, fi-nance', gam'ut, gas, gath'er, rath'er, plaid, bar'on,
sac'ra-ment, mall, balco-ny, de-cant'er, stamp, in-hab'it, lar'um,
rail'ler-y, tap'es-try, tarry.
(long, as in hāte.) Ale, an'gel, cham’ber, day, freight, o-bey',
dan'ger, feign, gauge, grange, great, in-veigh’, jail, prey, sleigh,
steak, straight, blaʼzon, range, cam'bric, fla'grant, pa'tri-ot,

pas'try. a: (broad, as in fall.) All, also, aught, aw'ful, awi, balk, balsam,

broad, cough, ex-alt', ought, salt, sauce, thought, trough (pronounced trawf ), naugh'ty, daugh'ter, orb, lord, law, saw, morn, sau'cer, sau'cy, swarm, warn, ward, sward, swar'thy, halter, al'ter, thrall dom (spelt also thral'dom), ap-pall' (spelt also ap

pal), auc'tion, halt. a:

- (indeterminate, as in ask, grasp. By some authorities, includ

ing Walker and Smart, the a in this class of words has the sound of short a, as in hắt. Good usage, in some parts of the country, gives it a sound as open as that of a in far, father. Worcester assigns to it an intermediate place between the sounds of a in fặt and a in far. As this intermediate sound is necessarily vague and undefined, teachers must use their discretion in choosing from the authorities.) Mask, grasp, ad-vance', pass, baséket, branch, glance, dance, clasp, cask, flask, last, mast, fast, grass. (as in care, share. Marked by Walker like long ā, as in hāte ; but it is obviously a modification of this sound.) Dare, pair, bear, air, ere (meaning before), e’er (contraction of ev'er), ne'er (con traction of nev'er), rare, fair, lair, re-pair', snare. (long, as in mē.) Cede, brief, ca-price', de-ceit, con-ceit', de'mon, ea'gle, e’en, e'go-tist, ei'ther, nei'ther, fa-tigue', field, fiend, key, in-vei'gle, ma-rine', peo'ple, pique, quay (), re-ceipt', seize, siege, eel, ma-chine', po-lice', ra-vine', beard, mien, lei'sure, deed. - (short, as in mět.) Bed, a-gain', a-gainst, a'ny, bread, cellar, cleanse, deaf, en ́gine, er'ring, fet'id, for-get, friend, get, guess,

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heaven, heifer, kettle, leop'ard, ma'ny, merry, peas'ant, preface, read'y, realm, said, says, tep'id, yet.


(as in her.) Herd, fern, fer'vid, bird, pearl, learn, earl, earth, heard, mercy, mirth, girl, con-firm', persson, term, worm, stern, germ, e-ter'nal, terse, word, worth, worse, nurse, de-ter'inine, pert, re-hearse', first, nurst, worst, burst, furl, curl, world, whirl (These sounds are now usually classed together, though some nice critics would have a difference in the vowel sounds of first, burst, girl, curl, &c.)


- (short, as in hit.) Bid, fill, been, build, bus'y, Engʻland, give,
mir'ror, pret'ty, guilt, sieve, spir'it, syn'od, vineyard, witty,
wom'en, withe (the th aspirate, as in hăth), mountain, cap'tain,
fountain, min'ute, mas'cu-line, gen'u-ine.
(long, as in find; a compound vowel sound.) Bind, ap-ply',
al-ly', buy, eye, guide, guile, high, in-dict', isle, o-blige', rye,
sigh, sky, time, mild, child.

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(long, as in note). Boat, beau, bone, both, bolster, bowl, bourn, bow'sprit, brooch, force, porch, portrait, cocoa, doʻtard, dough, droll, en-gross', foe, follow, fellow, morrow, gourd, knoll, loth, most, only, oʻral, pa-trol', scroll, sew, strew, sloth, soap, stone, soul, toad, troll, trow, whole, woe.


- (short, as in yöt.) Hot, dross, flor'id, prod'uct, colúmn, gloss,

grov'el, hov'el, joc'und, knowledge, moth, qual'i-ty, sorʻry, swamp, squad'ron, trode, wan, wand, was, fore’head, watch, dollar, clock,

novel, log, frog. u: · (as in full.) Book, butch'er, could, cush'ion, hook, look, pull, pul'pit, push,

put, should, wolf, wool'en, wo'man, wood, would. 00:-(long, as in cool.) Bloom, bal-loon', bruise, ca-noe', croup, cruise,

do, fruit, group, lose, moon, move, poor, prove, pru'dent, rheum,
rou-tine (pronounced roo-teen'), rude, rule, shoe, sur-tout', true,
two, un-couth', who, prune. .
(short, as in bút.) Cut, a-bove', a-mong', blood, broth'er, color,
com bat, come, cous'in, does, done, dost, doth, double, dove,
e-nough', flood, flourish, front, con-front, hurry, joust, mon'ey,
none, noth'ing, some, tongue, young, slough (pronounced sluff),


son, monk.

- (long, as in māte. One of the vices of American pronunciation is to pervert the y sound of long u into 00; calling dūke dook, dū'ty

dooty, tūne toon, &c. Long u after r, in the same syllable, owing to the trilled quality of the r, may take the sound of long 00; after the other consonants it should retain its normal sound.) Cube, dew, due, feud, knew, neu'tral, new, pro-duce', stew, stu'dent, stu'pid, tube, Tues'day, tu'mid, tu'tor, con'sti-tute, in'sti-tute, view.


(as in house. This sound is often perverted into eeow, as if house
were heeouse; cow, keeow. Nothing could be more offensive to
correct ears.) Brow, cloud, down, dow'ry, crowd, drought, noun,
county, now, gut, pow'der, pro-nounce', town, vow, en-dow-ment,
(as in voice. This sound we often hear perverted into long i, as

if poi'son were pison; boys, bize. Avoid the tendency.) Boil,
broil, choice, coin, foi'ble, hoist, joist, join, joint, loin, loi'ter, oil,
oys'ter, point, poise, soil, spoil, toil, voy'age, royal.


h:-(as in hay.) Hall, ex-hort', ex-haust', ex-hib'it, harts horn,

host'ler (pronounced hos'ler), hum'ble, hom'age, while, whin, why, white, which.

ng :-(as in king. This sound is often clipped by bad readers. Do not

say robin for rob'bing, mornin for morn'ing, &c.) Act'ing, be'ing, length, bank, sing, wrong, wring, see'ing, fill'ing, black'ing, giv'ing, hang'ing.

(as in maim. In such words as helm, elm, realm, chasm, prism, en-thu'si-asm, &c., beware of the tendency to convert them into helum, elum, &c.) Blame, colúmn, con-demn', emp'ty, gum, hymn, lamb, limn (lim), e'go-tism, lim'ner, phlegm (fem),

sol'emn, tempt'er. n:- (as in nun. In the following words we have Italicized the un

sounded letters) Ba'sin, chick'en, con-dign', děad'en, děafen, e'ven, for eign, froʻzen, hasten, hěav'en, kneel, Lat'in, "oft'en

rea'son, satin, slov'en, stoʻlen. 1:

(as in lull. In the following words we have Italicized the unsounded letters). Able, cas'tle, chap'el, coun'sel, coun'cil, driv'el,

e'vil, flan'nel, flow, grov'el, isle, parcel, ti'tle, trav'el, wea'sel. I: -(trilled, as in rough ; untrilled, as in more.) Bring, grape,

li'bra-ry, pray, try, strive, trill, tray. Ar'dor, butter, care, ex-pire', or'der, dure, virtue, martyr.


p and bi- (p, aspirate, as in pipes.) Apt, hap'py. pert, pomp,

prop'er. (b, vocal, as in bribe.) Babe, barb, bib, bulb, ebb, glebe, tūbe, cub, blab.

k and g:

. and v:- (f, aspirate, as in fife.) Chafe, draught, ep'i-taph, graph'ic,

half, oft'en, soft'en, sphere, trough (trof), pamph'let, phěas'ant, lymph, nymph, hy'phen. — (v, vocal, as in valve.) Brave, drive, halve, hive,

of, Ste'phen, viv'id, void. th in thin, and th in this: (th, aspirate, as in thin.) Both, breath,

e'ther, loth, mouth, oath, pan'ther, path, sixth, thank, think, tróth, truth, thou'sandth, twelfth. — (th, vocal, as in this.) Breathe, bathe, baths, be-neath', blithe, booth, booths, ei'ther, mouth (when a verb),

mouths, oaths, paths, the, thither, with. t and d: (t, aspirate, as in trite.) Debt, doubt, drought, hurt, kite,

in-dict', laughed, sub'tle, test, time, vicťual, wrecked. — (d, vocal, as 'in did.) Deed, charmed, could, ebbed, judged, made, would, should.

-(k, aspirate, as in kick.) Ache, af-fect', chord, clear, clock, conch, dis'tich, ep'och, folks, flac'cid (flak'sid), quake, quick, skep'tic. — (g, vocal, as in gag.) Gib'ber, gid'dy, gig, gim'let, gimp,

keg, phys-i-og'no-my, ragʻged, rogue, vague. 8 and z: (s, aspirate, as in sis'ter.) Dose, gas, griefs, hosts, cent,

cease, prec'i-pice, false, fas'ci-nate, scene, scep'ter, sci'ence, tac'it, use (when a noun)', verse, ver-bose'. -(z, vocal, as in gaze.) Doze, baths, caves, has, hous'es, is, oaths, ob-serves', re-sume', use (when &

verb), ven'i-son, views, was, ways. sh and Z as in az'ure: - (sh, aspirate, as in shine.) Chaise, cha-rade',

chan-de-lier', chiv'al-ry, ma-chine', marsh, shall, shriek, shrill, shrink, shrub, shrine, shrimp,--shroud, shrew. - (2, vocal, as in az'ure.)

Glaʼzier, lei'sure, oʻsier, rouge, treassure, vis'ion. ch and j

- (ch, aspirate, as in each.) Beach, chair, chest, check, chin, inch, march, milch, much, niche, satch'el, scorch. — (j, vocal, as in jar.) Age, huge, jump, gel'a-tin, gel'id, gem, gib'bet, gibe, giblet, gip'sy, gist, refuge, regʻis-ter, a-nal'o-gy, stage, jail, gin'ger, judge, sug-gest', gyve, je-june'.

W and y, when they end a word or syllable, as in now, dow'ry, fly'ing, THE UNACCENTED VOWEL SOUNDS, &c.

try, become vowels. When they begin a word or syllable, as in will, a-ward', ye, they are regarded as having the force of consonants.

A feeble enunciation of the unaccented syllables is a common tault; but an over precision should be avoided ; practice the following: ever-y, de-liv'er-er, de-liv'er-ance, mu'sic-al, med'al, en'er-gy, rev'er-ent, civil, real.

Of the perversion of the diphthongs ou and oi, by which is converted into caount, town into taown, &c., and voice into vice, joint into jint, &c., we have already spoken. Persons habituated to this fault are generally unaware of it.

Do not change the w at the end of the words saw, law, draw, &c., to 1, as if they were sor, lor, dror, &c.

Do not give the sound of short u to short a before nt and ss, in a final unaccented syllable, as in arro-gant, in'fant, tres'pass, main'te-nance, dormant, re-luc'tant ; or the same sound of u to the final syllables én, ént, and ěnce, as in con-tentment, gen'tle-men, prov'i-dence, in'so-lent. In these syllables there should be a delicate sound of short a and short e, without stress.

The vowel before final l, in e’vil, drivel, grov'el, &c., is unsounded ; but in most other words it should be sounded in the unaccented syllable ; as, pen'cil, an'vil, fi'nal, me'dal, novel, model, parcel, chap'el, revel. Short i before n is subject to the same remark; as, Latin, mat'in, sat'in, cer'tain, mountain, cap'tain, fountain (pronounced cer'tin, &c.) But in cous'in, ba'sin, &c., the i is not heard

Short-e before n, when they make a final syllable not under accent, should be sounded, in sud'den, kitch'en, slov'en, children, lin'en, chick'en, &c., and also before d in hun'dred; but in nearly all other words ending in unaccented en, the e of this syllable should be silent; as, heav'en, e-lev'en, gar'den, given, e'ven, oft'en, oʻpen, soften, &c. ; and the o should be silent in dea'con, pardon, trea'son, weapon, ba'con, bea'con. persson, rea'son, &c.


name or

In the spelling and defining lessons, the following abbreviations have been used : a for adjective ; ad. for adverb; con. for conjunction ; n. for

un; obs. for obsolete; pl. for plural; pp. for participle passive; ppr. for participle present ; prep. for preposition; pret. for preterit tense; v. i, for verb intransitive ; v. t. for verb transitive.

Forms indicating the pronunciation of the whole or a part of a word are sometimes placed in parenthesis between the word and the definition.

The long vowel mark, or mākron, and the short vowel mark, or breve, are occasionally placed over vowel letters, in the text. This is generally

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