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Ecclesiastical Intelligence.



of Durham.-J. Burton, G. Ed. | By. BP. of Ely, Nov. 12, in Ely CatheBy Bp. of Durham, Dec. 21. ward, A. Gray, B.A., Univ.

dral. By Bp. of Lincoln, Dec. 24, in Lin


PRIESTS. coln cathedral.

Of Durham.-W. Hill, B.A., Univ. ; By Bp. of Gloucester and Bristol, Dec. F. Howard, Hatf. H.; J. E. Jones, Christ's ; T. A. Edwards, B.A., Cath.

of Cambridge.-G. Birch, B.A., 24, in Bristol cathedral. T. J. Monson, B.A., Univ.

H.; T. T. Perowne, B.A., C.C.C.; J. By Bp. of Ripon, Dec. 17, in Ripon By ABP. of DUBLIN, Oct. 22, in St. Yates, M.A., Sid. cathedral,

Patrick's Cathedral.

Of Va ford.-A. King, B.A., Oriel By Bp. of Hereford, Dec. 17, at Here

PRIESTS. ford.

Of Dublin.-A. E. Archer, B.A.,

(lett. dim. bp. of Worcester). By Bp. of St. David's, Dec. 24. at St. W. R. Bailey, B.A., J. Carroll, B.A.,

David's coll., Lampeter.
B. Gibson, B.A., W. Grayburn, B.A.,

Of Cambridge.-E. M. Cope, B.A., By Bp. of Chichester, Dec. 24, in J. S. Joly, B.A., L. A. Le Pan, B.A., T. Hedley, M.A., Trin.; A. M. Hoare, Chichester cathedral.

C. F. Mac Carthy, M.A., W. M'Jen: M.A., St. John's; E. L. Horsley, By Bp. of Lichfield, Dec. 24.

nett, B.A., C. E. Mills, B.A., F. H. B A., Jesus ; C. W. Jones, B.A., Caius; By Bp. of Chester, Dec. 17, in Chester Ringwood, M.A., T. A. Robinson, B.A.,

H. Keary, M.A., Trin. ; C. U. King. cathedral

L. 1. Shire, B.A., W. H. Wolseley, ston, B.A., Clare H.; 0. P. Oakes,
B.A., F. Young, B.A., Trin.

B.A., Emman.


By Bp. of MEATH, Sept. 24, in Ard. By BP. of Durham, Sept. 8, at Auck of Dublin.-B. F. Bewley, B.A., R.

braccan Church.
land Castle.

Boyle, LL.D., W. M. Brady, B.A., J.
D. Cooke, B.A., W. H. Cummins, B.A.,

Of Dublin.-C. N. Ruskell, B.A of Cambridge.-H. B. Scougall, R. Flemyng, B.A., A. L. Hall, B.A., Trin. B.A., C.C.C.; W. M. Wray, B.A., W. H. Hopkins, B.A., J. A. Jacob,


B.A., R. Mac Donnell, B.A., W. M. Of Dublin.-J. W. Briscoe, B.A., Of Oxford.-D. L. Alexander, B.A., Mason, B.A., L. M. Maunsell, B.A., G. Swift, B.A., Trin. St. Mary H.; J. Hughes, B.A., Oriel ; G. Nugent, B.A., L. Perrin, B.A., J. By Bp. of TUAM, Oct. 29. W. W. Liddell, B.A., Ch. Ch. Pratt, B.A., W. D. Roe, B.A., I. Seale,

DEACONS. Of Dublin.-A. R. Faussett, MA., B.A., R, H. Smyth, M.A., R. D. Walsh, Of Dublin.-J. Byrne, B.A., W. T. S. W. Morton, B.A., Trin, B.A., J.C. Wilcox, B.A., Trin,

Lett, B.A., Trin.



120 *223

Somerset ....



90 *165 * 170

185 +389

Almond, W. R.
Ashhurst, J. H.
Baker, R.....
Baker, T. B.
Banner, T. B.
Beeks, H.
Bellas, S...
Bickerdike, I.
Bishop, R.
Brereton, C. D.
Brodrick, J. B.
Browne, H.
Calvert, T.
Carson, T.
Carter, G.
Carter, W.
Cartledge, W. A.
Carwithen, W. H.
Chambers, R.
Clarke, 8. C.
Close, M..
Collisson, M. A..
Cork, J. D.
Davenport, J.
Dickenson, T. G..
Dowell, W. J..
Emeris, J.
Essington, R.
Fitch, 8. E..
Gurdon, E...
Hamilton, J. H.
Harding, H.......

Parish and County.


Stapleford (P. C.), Nottinghamshire

1837 Lord Chancellor .
Great Milton (V.), Oxfordshire.

737 Bp. of Oxford
Compton Martin (R.), with Nempnett (C.),

661 & 289} Rev. W. H. Cartwright .
St. Peter (chap.), Pimlico, Middlesex
Southshore (P. C.), Bispham, Lancashire

T. Clifton
St. Mary Magdalene (P. C.), Harlow, Essex

Vic. of Harlow
Sherborne (V.), Hampshire
St. Mary, Quarry-hill (P. C.), Leeds, Yorkshire . Vic. of Leeds
Llanelieu (R.), Brecon

103 Earl of Ashburnham
St. Edmund (R.), Norwich

727 Rev. C. D. Brereton
Sneaton (R.), Yorkshire ..

238 Lord Chancellor ..
St. John (P. C.), Cleobury Mortimer, Shropshire
St. John Sepulchre (P. C.), Norwich..

1847 D. & C. of Norwich
Scarning (R.), Norfolk

613 E. Lombe
Great Beauchamp (R.), Berkshire
Burythorpe (R.), Yorkshire

226 Lord Chancellor .
Dalby (R.), Yorkshire..

141 W. Gray
s Aylesbeare (V.), with Newton Poppleford (P. C.),

Summer's Town (P. C.), Wandsworth, Surrey.. 586 J. Stanger
St. Thomas (P. C.), Laira, Plymouth..
Shangton (V.), Leicestershire

39 Sir J. Isham
Christchurch (P. C.), Highbury, Middlesex .
Bickleigh (V.), with Sheepston (C.), Devon 469 & 127 Sir R. Lopes
Weston-upon-Avon (V.), Warwickshire

104 Earl & countess Amherst
Slaley (P. C.), Northumberland.....

547 T. W. Beaumont.... Gosfield (V.), Essex

653 E. G. Barnard..
St. James (P. C.), Gloucester..

Bp. of Gloucester & Bristol
Shenstone (V.), Staffordshire..

1962 Rev. J. Peel
Aylmerton (R.), with Runton (R.), Norfolk 289 & 424 W. H. Wyndham
Barnham Brooin (R.), with Bixton (R.), and
Kimberley (V.), Norfolk...

494 & 148} Lord Wodehouse..
St. Michael (P. C.), Chester-square, Middlesex..
Stratford-upon-Avon (V.), Warwickshire ,, . 6022 Counters Amherst .

270 *261

982 & 549 ) Rev. H. Marker .



* 253

84 103 *266 150 488 370 *524



Parish and County.



Value. Hawtrey, M. (&c.).... Chilton Canteloe (R.), Somerset..

134 Z. Goodford..

260 Holmes, J. Swineshead (V.), Lincolnshire..

2079 Trin. Coll., Cambridge

240 Hyde, W. Donyatt (R.), Somerset

525 R. T. Combe

•197 James, H. Sheepshed (V.), Leicestershire

3872 C. M. Phillips .

*350 James, T. G.

Bridgewater (V.), with Chilton (R.), Somerset-
10436 & 74 } Lord Chancellor

342 Metcalfe, W. Osmotherley (V.), Yorkshire

1354 Bp. of Ripon

120 Mortlock, C.

All Saints' (.), with St. Leonard's (V.), Lei-


4608 & 466 } Lord Chancellor Moullin, D. A..

Trinity (P. C.), Southwark, Surrey
Ormsby, W. A. St. James (P. C.), with Pockthorpe, Norwich.. 3189 D. & C. of Norwich

150 Owen, O. F. Burstow (R.), Surrey

863 Lord Chancellor ..

383 Nanney, H.. Caenby (R.), Lincolnshire .

185 Sir C. (&c.) Monck.

117 Pickering, E.

Whitchurch (P. C.), Shropshire. . Poole, G...

Saltley (P. C.), Aston-juxta-Birmingham Postlethwaite, C. Elksley (V.), Nottinghamshire..

414 Duke of Newcastle ..... 120 Power, P. B.

Woburn (chap.), St. Pancras, Middlesex
Reynolds, H.
Rotherfield-Peppard (R.), Oxfordshire .

439 Jesus coll., Oxford ..

*623 Ridley, H. R. Reunington (P. C.), Northumberland

245 Vic. of Embleton...

•59 Robbins, W. Repps-with-Bastwick (P. C.), Norfolk

314 Corporation of Norwich.

106 Shiffner, G. { Ampartia with Appleshaw and Cholderton

771 & 372}D. & C. of Chichester

*858 Smith, G. E.

Ashton (P. C.), Cheshire
Spooner, 1.
Edgbaston (R.), Warwickshire..

6609 Lord Calthorpe

542 Stow, W.. Dilton Marsh (P. C.), Westbury, Wiltshire.. 2214 Bp. of Sarum

150 Stretch, J.C.

Penkhull (P. C.), Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire T. W. Minton..
Tatham, R. R..
Dallington (V.), Sussex .

612 Earl of Ashburnham

•182 Thorn, W. St. Matthias-at-the-Link (P. C.), Leigh, Worc.. Bp. of Worcester

30 Titley E, Burwardsley (P. C.), Cheshire


50 Tomkins, W.

Kensington (chap.), Bath Watherston, J D. Llanrothall (V.), Herefordshire

108 J. Price Webster, J. G... Bawdeswell (R.), Norfolk

582 E. Lombe

208 Willmore, B. Trinity (P. C.), West Bromwich, Staffordshire.. Archd. of Stafford & others

200 Wolfe, R. R.

Upton (dist.), Tor Mohun, Devonshire ........ Abraham, C. T., lect. St. George, Wind- Fletcher, W., D.D., hd. mast. Wimborne Marsh, W., D.D., hon. can. Worcester. sor, Berkshire. gram. sch., Dorsetsbire.

Phipps, B., can. res. Chichester. Allen, W. B., hon. can. Bristol.

Frampton, J., hon. can. Gloucester. Smith, F. J., hon. can. Wells. Angell, C. H., chap. Leeds borough gaol. Garton, J., hon. can. Peterborough. Turner, C., chap. St. Peter Mancroft, Bevan, F. S., hon. can. Norwich. Hutchins, W. H., class mast, mil. coll., Norwich. Butler, T., chap. earl Nelson.

Sandhurst, Berkshire.

Whitley, E., chap. Jeffrey's Almshouses, Cole, W., bd. master, Southwell gram. Huxtable, E., v. princ. Wells theol. Kingsland Road, Middlesex, sch., Nottinghamshire.




Clergyment deceased.

Right Rev. Richard Mant, D.D., Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore.
Allott, J., 38.
Clay, R. B., Whitchurch. 49.

Pemberton, R. N., hon. preb. Hereford Barton, M., rec. Hoole, Lancashire (pat. Dawson, A., p. c. Tosside, Yorkshire

Church Stretton, Shropshire family), 63. (pat. vic. of Gisburn), 6l.

(pat. family), 57. Beresford, c. C., reć. Bailiborough, Drake, P. L., at Boulogne, 31. Smith, R., rec. Sutton, Suisses (pat. col. Cavan (pat. bp. of Kilmore).

Fox, H. W., late miss. to Masulipatam, Wyndham). Brasier, J. s., rec. Whitmore, Stafford 31.

Sullivan, F. c., p. c. Templemartin, shire (pat. capt. Mainwaring), rec. Halke, R. J., at Hong-kong.

Cork (pat. dean of Cork). North Cleobury, Shropshire (pat. H. | Hanbury, T., rec. Church Langtou Tawney, R., rec. Willoughby, WarwickG. Mytton).

(pat. rev. W. Hanbury), vic. 8o shire (pat. Magd. Coll., Oxford). Briscall, S., lec. Rodborough, Glou merby, Leicestershire (pat. rev. G. Wellesley, hon. G. V., D.D., can. Durcestershire, rec. South Kelsey, Lin Burnaby), 58.

ham, rec. Bishopswearmouth, Durham colnshire (pat. crown and J. Skipwith Johnson, J., rec. Outwell, Norfolk (pat. (pat. bp. of Durham), 78. alt.), 70.

bp. of Ely), and Caenby, Lincolnshire Willes, É., rec. Yoxall, Staffordshire Bullen, T., at Tutuila, 35.

(pat. sir C. M. L. Monk), 67.

(pat. Id. Leigh), and Breane, Soner. Castleden, M., Woburn, Bedfordshire, Lewis, W., cur. High Halstow, and setshire (pat. W. Willes), 45. 79.

chap. Melville hosp., Rochester.

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University Intelligence.

CAMBRIDGE. Oct. 21.-C. O. Budd, M.A., W. H. Brown, B.A., elected Nov. 11.-The subject of the Norrisian "prise is, "The fellows of Pemb. H. Oct. 26. -- Rev. W. H. Bateson, B.D., St. John's, was elected testament that the several writers of them were inspired

internal evidences afforded by the historical books of the old public orator.

Nov. 4.-Rev. Dr. Cookson, master of St. Pet. coll., was by the Holy Ghost." elected vice-chancellor.

OXFORD. Oct. 20.-T. V. French, B.A., elected fellow of Univ. coll.; H. H. Vaughan, M.A., late fellow of Oriel coll, has been A. Taylor elected fellow of Queen's.

presented to the regius professorship of modern history in Nov. 10.- Hon. H. J. Dyson, B.A., hon. F.C. Lawley this university, vacant by the death of the very rev. Dr. ČraS.C.L., and hon. C. S. Hanbury, B.A., elected fellows of Aủ mer, dean of Carlisle. Mr. Vaughan was originally a com. Souls',

moner of Christ Church. He appeared in the first class of

literæ humaniores, in Easter term, 1833, was elected fellow
of Oriel in 1835, and in 1836 obtained the prize for the Eng.
Testimonials of respect have lately been presented to

the following:-
Bermingham, J. A., late cur. Stepney, Middlesex.
Bonnin, T. S., cur. Sculcoates, Yorkshire.
Edouart, A. G., p. c. St. Paní, Blackburn, Lancashire

lish essay on “The effects of a national taste for general and
diffusive reading."

Henderson, J. H., late cur. Trinity, Hull, Yorkshire.
Metcalf, W. L., late cur. Scarborough, Yorkshire.
Roberts, G., late cur. St. Philip's, Stepney, Middlesex.
Seddon, D., vic. Mottram, Cheshire.
Talbot, W. W., late cur. Overton, Lancashire.
Williams, W., late cur. Cumberworth.



Proceedings of Societies.

ritual inheritance. Your grace will not fail to observe

that the day marks a great epoch in the history, not The ten days' jubilee of the Church Missionary So- only of our national church, but of the whole church ciety was commenced on Wednesday, Nov. 1st, by a of God. For more than five hundred years, in spite sermon preached by the archbishop of Canterbury, of scripture and the practice of the primitive church, in St. Ann's church, Blackfriars, from Prov. xxiv. the worship of God had been carried on in England in 11, 12. Commemoration-sermons were also preached a language not understood by the people. The pray. by the archbishop of York, in York cathedral; by ers had been offered up in Latin instead of the mother the bishop of London, in St. George's, Bloomsbury; tongue; and the use of that language was a badge of by the bisliops of Winchester, Salisbury, Ripon, the yoke and servitude under which our fathers were, Lichfield, Lincoln, Oxford, Norwich, St. Asaph, and while subject to the jurisdiction of the head of the Hereford, in the cathedrals of their respective cities, Latin church. The establishment of the service in besides numerous other sermons both in town and in English freed us at once from this badge, and prothe provinces. A public meeting of the society was claimed to all the world the great principle that men held at Exeter Hall on Thursday, the earl of Chiches- ought to worship God in their own living language, ter in the chair. The report stated that the society and not in the dcad language of a foreign church. supplies 102 stations, with 139 clergymen attached, It set up practically that strong protest and declaranine of whom are natives. Besides these, 1,100 of tion which is embodied in the twenty-fourth article: its teachers are natives; and there are likewise 163 " It is a thing plainly repugnant to the word of God, native schoolmistresses. The whole number of com.

and the custom of the primitive church, to have municants at the various stations are 13,000. The public prayer in the church, or to minister the sacra.. income of the society last year was £101,000; and, ments in a tongue not understanded of the people." since its commencement, it has received £2,000,199. The practical results of the principle then established The number of missionaries sent out is 576; of these have been very striking and very important. To it 218 were females. Association meetings were also we owe that solemn decency and order which disheld in different parts of London, and in the country. tinguishes our church in the eyes of foreign nations,

and that deep and rich tone of scriptural expression

in our public devotions which carries us upward to CANTERBURY, ON

primitive antiquity. The prayer-book set up at TENARY OF THE ENGLISH PRAYER-BOOK, BY THE

once for us a standard of devotional language such as BISHOP OF GIBRALTAR.

no other nation can boast. It served greatly to fix even My lord archbishop,-I beg permission to submit the English language itself, and to stamp it with its to your grace's consideration à suggestion which characteristics of energy and power. Its doctrines appears to me to be of some importance to the inte and precepts have been the spiritual comfort and rests of the church of England at this particular time. edification of millions of the faithful members of the By the act of uniformity passed in the second of king church : nor has it been without its good effect upon Edward VI., A.D. 1548, it was ordered that the book "them that are without," in spite of their opposition, of common prayer and administration of the sacra. and even of their bitter hostility. The English ments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church prayer-book may thus be fairly said to have become of England, which had been recently prepared " by an element of the national character. It has become the archbishop of Canterbury, and certain of the completely interwoven with our religious habits and most learned and discreet bishops and other learned practice. Its services sanctify the holiest engagemen of this realm,” should be used in all the churches ments and relations of life; and its solemn and conthroughout the king's dominions, from and after the soling words are read over us when we are laid in the feast of Pentecost next ensuing ; that is, in the year grave. Thus has it been proved to be admirably 1549. Consequently, Whitsunday next, in the year adapted to the spiritual wants of the people; and, being 1849, will be the three hundredth anniversary of the also well suited to the native energy and enterprise English prayer-book. I cannot doubt, my lord arch of our race, it has been carried with them wherever bishop, that this will be a day of great interest to the they dwell, around the circuit of the habitable globe. members of the church of England, both clergy and Little, indeed, did archbishop Cranmer, and the pious laity; and I am anxious to suggest that it should be and learned prelates who together with him accomspecially observed as a day of thanksgiving and jubilee plished the work, imagine that, in thus reforming the in our churches throughout the whole extent of the ancient ritual, and preparing it for use in English, British empire. The reasons for this celebration will they were establishing a form of worship which should immediately be obvious. On that day the great prin- be extended with the British dominion to the remotest ciples of our Reformation were first carried into effect bounds of the earth, and which should be celebrated throughout the length and breadth of the land. They by their successors in the episcopate, not only at were on that day legally and practically established home, but in foreign lands, and even in Rome itself. in England; and, though the church-system then Yet, so it has been; nor has even the church of established was afterwards twice overthrown, first by Rome, though pretending to universality, been able the Romanists, and a second time in the great rebel- to spread its services more widely than those of the lion, it was soon, by God's mercy, both times re- church of England. This is a great thing to say, stored, and speedily triumphed again. Its services when we consider the numerous obstacles which the have come down to us substantially the same, and system has had to encounter, and the two terrible still form one of the most precious parts of our spi- 'overthrows which it has sustained since the time of

its first establishment. But still it is little, when requested by their diocesans to preach upon the subcompared with what remains to be done before we ject, and to call upon every member of the church in can make the services of the church adequate to the their respective parishes to contribute something toenormous increase of the population at home, and wards this great work; that the whole of the contri. before we can accomplish for the whole of the Eng- butions should be paid into one common fund, and lish dominions what our predecessors then did for placed at the disposal of the committee of archEngland: it is little, when compared with what ought bishops and bishops already established for the coloand must be done, if our church is to become or re vial bishops' fund, of which your grace is the head, main the national church throughout our vast colo- to be divided and applied, as they shall see fit, to the nial empire. Great and strenuous efforts must still twofold object of providing additional bishops and be made for the accomplishment of this grand object; additional clergy for the church in the colonies, and and it must be remembered that, although we may as missionaries in foreign countries; the additional have good hope for the future from the colonies then- clergy to be appointed on the application of the coloselves, yet it is acknowledged, on all lands, that the nial bishops, through the medium of the Society for beginnings of the great work must in every case be the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts, and made at home. The exertions of the colonies will of the Church Missionary Society. I cannot but then naturally follow.

think that, if this object were fully brought before the Already, indeed, has this been the case. Under clergy, either by a pastoral letter, or by such other the primacy of your grace's lamented predecessor, we means as your grace's wisdom may deem best, such have witnessed the greatest extension of the church an effort would be far more successful than any thing that has taken place since its first establishment in which has yet been tried. Never before has such an England; and this extension has been the most re- occasion presented itself, and never again can it occur markable in the colonies. There we already see, in our time. Nor can we imagine a more suitable visibly marked upon the map of the world, a chain season for such an effort than the day of the miracuof spiritual posts and fortresses, by which our national lous outpouring of the Spirit upon the church of God. Zion may be at once extended and defended, reaching To know that all our churches in every part of the almost round the whole circumference of the globe. world will be engaged on that sacred day in proAnd may we not hope, by the continued blessing and moting the same great object can hardly fail to unite favour of God, to see this great work carried on with us more strongly in its favour, and to produce a more increasing vigour under your grace ?

powerful effect. It may perhaps be said that, as the church of

It will be observed, moreover, that this is not a England does not seek for conquest and universal question of party, but one which concerns evrov dominion, like the church of Rome, we therefore member of the church of England. There can be was need not be anxious for its universal extension. This few, who have any value for their prayer-book und is perfectly true; but, nevertheless, it must not be the ordinances of iheir church, who would refuse to forgotten that the queen oi England, the temporal contribute on such an occasion; and, if it were under head of the church of her own kingdom, rules over

stood that every member of the church, young and more than one-seventh of the whole human race, old, rich and poor, was expected to give something, including a bundred millions of pagans and unbelieve the amount of the whole would be very considerable. ers, all without the knowledge of Christ, and in dan. We have now, at home and abroad, considerably ger of perishing for lack of that knowledge; that the

more than twenty millions of souls belonging to the duty of extending the church and its blessings among church of England. And though a large part of these them is perfectly clear; and that the work is of im

are to be considered as little more than nominal mense and appalling magnitude. It requires far

members, besides those who are merely children, yet, greater efforts than any that we have hitherto made; on such an occasion, and for such a purpose, the rich and we cannot as a church be justified without doing might be expected to contribute largely, and the our utmost to fulfil the duty which the great Head of faithful portion of the working-classes and the poor the whole church has thus clearly laid upon us.

would not be wanting. Parents who could afford it Impressed with these considerations, I venture to

would give for their children ; and thus a collection suggest that the approaching three hundredth might be made, which, if it were to average only a anniversary of the English prayer-book, and of the few pence per head, would be sufficient to provide for English Reformation, shall be made the occasion of many of the more pressing wants of the church of a great, simultaneous, and universal effort ou the part England abroad. It does not seem beyond the scope of of the members of the church of England for the

a reasonable expectation to say, that we might raise wider extension of its ministry and services abroad. enough to provide ten additional bishops, and a hunThe most natural, or rather the most Christian way dred additional clergy. What a day would that be of expressing our gratitude to God, for the bestow for the colonies and the church! ment and continuance of those blessings, will be, to make a thank-offering to him, out of that which he Most earnestly, therefore, do I intreat your grace's has given us, for the purpose of advancing his cause favourable consideration of this suggestion. by increasing the efficiency of our own branch of

I remain, his church. I would propose, therefore, that on Whit

My lord archbishop, sunday next a collection should be made in every

Your grace's most faithful church and chapel throughout the empire; that the

and dutiful servant in Christ, clergy, both at home and in the colonies, should be

G. GIBRALTAR. TO OUR READERS. We have received “Hymns and Scripture Chants, arranged according to the Prayer-book, for Children of the Church of England.” By the rev. A. W. Brown, M.A., Pytchley. London: Wertheim and Co. 1848. We cordially recommend this little book.

We have also received two parts of " The Bible of every Land; or, a History, critical and philological, of all the Versions of the sacred Scriptures.” London : Bagsters. This work, when completed, will be exceedingly interesting.

We continue to receive the “ National Cyclopædia” (London, Knight and Co.), containing a fund of valuable information; also Sharpe's “ London Magazine," from which we have occasionally introduced some useful matter into our own pages.

To the best of our belief a bishop receives no fee for consecrating a church.

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