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OF THE SOUNDS OF WELSH LETTERS.

A is pronounced like that of the English

short or open a, as in man, bar, glass : and when circumflexed, as a in dâme, påle; so that the words câr, dâr, are pronounced like care, dare; never soft,

as in able, stable. B, as b English ; mutable into f and m,

as bara, bread; ei fara, his bread; fy

mara, my bread. C is always like k in English ; or as C

in can, come; never as in city, cistern. It is mutable, as câr, a friend ; ei châr, her friend; ei går, his friend; fy nghâr,

my friend. Ch is like the x of the Spanish, the ch of

the Germans, the x of the Greek. It is pronounced by the contact of the tongue and the palate, about the eighth of an inch farther back than when k is

expressed. D is English; but mutable into dd and

n, as Duw, God; ie Dduw, his God;

fy Nuw, my God. Dd as soft th, as in thus, this, that, nei.

ther. E as the English short e in men, ten,

bel; é as in dame, came, ale ; thus, ced, advantage, is pronounced as if written kade : Eu, diphthong, as ei English ; as beudy, a cowhouse, pro

nounced as beidy. Fas v English ; as, gôf, a smith; pro

nounced as gôv. Ff as f English in fetch. Gas g English in go, give, leg, peg;

never soft, as in gem. In composi. tion it is dropped, as gwr, a man, yr hên wr, the old man; glân, the bank of a river, ar y lân, upon the bank ; glân, clean, dillad lân, clean clothes ; garth, a bill, ar arth, upon a hill, pen yr arth, the top of the bill. It is mutable into ng and w; as gwâs, a servant, fy ngwâs, my servant, ei was,

his servant. H as in English, an aspiration or breath

ing. I as the English ee in bee, tree; or i in

rich, ring; cil, a retreat, is pronounced keel: never as in bind, kind.

J is not a Welsh letter; it is supplied by

si or i. K is not a Welsh letter; it is supplied

by c or ch. L as in law, love, low. Ll is 1 aspirated, a sound peculiar to the

Welsh language, like the English lh. It is pronounced by placing the tip of the tongue a little farther back against the roof of the mouth than for 1, and breathing through the jaw teeth on both sides. Llangollen is pronounced Khlangothlin. The English 1 in let, when forcibly spoken, is near to it. In composition the 11 is expressed by the single 1, a llaw, a hand,

ei law, his hand. M as m English; mutable into f, as

mam, a mother, ei fam, his mother, pronounced as if written vam; maen,

a rock, ei faen, his rock. N as n English, O as o in go, no, lot; when circum

Aexed ô as o in bone and note; thus módd, a mode or form, is pronounced

mooth. Pas p English. Ph as ph English, as in philosophy,

physic, &c. The true difference be. twixt ff and ph is, that we write with ff either such words as are purely Bri. tish, as ffon, a staff; ffau, a den; ffordd, a way; ffelaig, a chieftain, a prince : or such words as are derived from Latin words written with f, as ffydd, faith ; ffynnon, a fountain ; ffurf, a form ; ffenestr, a window; perffaith, perfect ; but we write with ph either such British words as have the radical p changed into the aspirate ph, as tri-phen, three heads; from pen, a head. It is mutable into b, mh, and ph, as pen, a head; ei ben, his head; fy mhen, my head ; ei phen, her

head. Q not a Welsh letter. In words taken

from the English, it is expressed by

cw, as cwestiwn, from question. R in the middle or end of words, as r

English ; but rh in all cases is the

х

OF THE SOUNDS OF WELSH LETTERS.

as seer.

radical; mutable into r;

as rhâd, grace, dy râd, thy grace S as in English. T as in English ; but mutable into d,

nh, and th; as tâd, a father, ei dâd, his father, fy nhâd, my father, ei thâd,

her father. Th, which is a mutation of t, as in the

English words thank, both, nothing,

never as in them. U as English, in busy, and of i in the

words sin, skin, thin, bliss; if circumflexed, as ee in queen, green; thus, dû, black, is pronounced as if written dee; sûl, the sun, as seal ; sûr, sour,

The word ûn, one, is pronounced een. V not a Welsh letter, but f has the same

sound. Was o in the words bone, sore; if cir

cumflexed, as oo in hook, food, boot ; thus, cûd, a bag, pronounced kood;

mûg, smoke, as moog. X not a Welsh letter : in writing foreign

words ecs is used, as Ecsodus, i. e.

Exodus. Y in any syllable, except the last, is pro

nounced as u in run, churn, hunt; in the last syllable of a word, as i in din, fin, sin; also in monosyllables, except the following, y, ydd, yn, fy, dy, myn, which have the sound of u in run. When

у

is circumflexed it has the same sound as ù, thus bŷd, the world, is pronounced beed. These two sounds

are exemplified in the word sundry. Z is not a Welsh letter ; it is supplied

by s.

The accent is, in all Welsh words, either on the penultimate, or last syllable but one; never on the antepenultimate, or last but two; but it is much more frequently on the former; and when on the last, it is a circumflex.

The variation of the initial letters is always regular, and constantly between letters of the same organ of pronunciation : for a labial letter is never changed to a dental, nor a dental to a labial, &c. Adverbs being formed of adjectives, become such, by prefixing yn to the adjectives, which change their mutable initial consonants into their soft ; as da (adjective), good; yn dda (adverb), well; mwyn (adj.), kind; yn fwyn (adv.), kindly. Initial vowels are also capable of occasional changes. Some of changing one vowel into another; as aberth, a sacrifice, pl. ebyrth; attal, to stop, ettyl, he will stop, &c. And all, of taking the aspirate h before them after the pronoun sing. Ei, when of the fe. minine gender; and the pl. pronouns eu, their ; and ein, our; and the affix 'm ; as oedran, age; ei hodran, her age ; amser, time; eu hamser, their time; anadl, breath; ein hanadl, our breath; Arglwydd, Lord; i'm Harglwydd, to my Lord, &c., to which rule dipthongs are also subject; as eiddo, one's own; ei heiddo, her own, &c. In seeking for words in a dictionary, the reader should always turn to them in their primary or radical initials. Richards's Welsh Grammar.

GLOSSARY

OF WORDS WHICH MOST FREQUENTLY OCCUR IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF

WELSH NAMES OF PLACES.

ABER, the fall of a lesser water into a

greater.
Afon, a river.
Al, power; very; most.
Allt, the side of a hill; a woody cliff.
Ar, upon; bordering.
Aren, a high place; an alp.

Craig, a rock.
Creigiau, rocks.
Croes, a cross.
Crug, a mound or hillock.
Cwm, a valley; a dingle.
Cymmer, a confluence.

Bach, little ; small.
Ban, high ; lofty ; tall.
Banau, eminences.
Bedd, a grave; a sepulchre.
Bettws, a station; a place between hill

and vale; a chapel of ease.
Blaen, the end or extremity.
Bód, an abode ; a dwelling
Bôn, the base.
Braich, an arm.
Bron, a breast; a swell.
Bryn, a mount or hill.
Bu, an ox.
Bwlch, a hollow; a break.
Bychan, little ; fem. Bechan; if follow-

ing a vowel, Fechan.

Dau, two.
Dê, the south.
Din, or Dinas, a city ; a fortified hill;

Cad, defending.
Cader, a fortress or stronghold ; a chair.
Cae, a hedge; a field.
Caer, a wall or mound for defence; a

it forms the names of places inhabited
by the Cymri. Hence the dunum,
dinum, or dinium of the Romans;
also the term don, ton, and town of the

English.
Dôl, a holme; a meadow.
Drws, a door ; a pass.
Dů, black.
Dwr, fluid ; water.
Dyffryn, a valley or plain.
Eglwys, a church.
Erw, a slang of arable land; an acre.
Esgair, a long ridge.
Fordd, a passage, road, or way.
Fynnon, a well or spring.

fort; a city.
Cantref, a division of a county.
Capel, applied principally to chapels of

ease and decayed oratories.
Carn, a prominence; a heap.
Carnedd, a heap of stones..
Careg, a stone.
Castell, a castle ; a fortress.
Ceryg, stones.
Cevyn or Cefn, the back; the upper

side ; a ridge.
Cil, a retreat ; a back; a recess.
Ciliau, recesses.
Clawdd, a dike; ditch ; or trench.
Clogwen, a precipice.
Côch, red.
Coed, a wood.
Cors, a bog.

Gaer, see CAER.
Gaith, a mountain, or hill that bends.
Galt, a woody cliff,
Gelli, the grove.
Glan, a brink; a side or shore.
Glâs, blue; grey ; green; verdant.
Glyn, glen; a deep vale.
Gwaelod, a bottom.
Gwern, a watery meadow.
Gwydd, wood; woody or wild.
Gwyn, white; fair ; clear.

Havod, a summer dwelling.
Hên, old.
Hendref, the old residence.
Hîr, long

Is, lower; inferior.
Isav, lowest.

Le, a place.
Llan, a church ; an enclosure ; at first

applied to churches and chapels in

discriminately. Llech, a flat stone or flag; a smooth cliff. Llwyd, grey ; hoary ; brown. Llwyn, a wood or grove. Llyn, a lake ; a pool. Llyr, the sea ; water. Llŷs, a palace, hall, or court.

Mach, a place of security.
Maen, a stone.
Maenor, a manor.
Maes, a field.
Mall, bad; rotten.
Mawr, great; large.
Melin, a mill.
Moel, fair ; naked ; a conical hill.
Monad, an isolated situation.
Morfa, a sea marsh.
Mynach, a monk.
Mynydd, a mountain.

Nant, a brook; river ; ravine ; glen. Newydd, new; fresh.

Or, border; the edge.

Pant, a hollow. Pen, a head ; top; or end. Penmaen, the stone end. Pentref, a village; a suburb. * Pil, that goes round. Pistyll, a spout or catar t. Plás, a hall. Pont, a bridge.

ERRATA.

Page 62. 5th line from bottom, for “ Bangor-ferry" read “ Menai Bridge."

Porth, a gate.
Pwll, a ditch ; a pit.

Rhaiadyr, a cataract.
Rhiw, an ascent.
Rhôs, a moist plain or meadow.
Rhûdd, red.
Rhyd, a ford.

Sarn, a causeway.

Tavarn, a tavern.
Tal, s. the head; the front.
Tal, a, towering.
Tan, spreading
Tir, the earth; land.
Tomen, a mound.
Traeth, a sand.
Tref or Tre, a house ; a home.
Tri, three.
Troed, a foot.
Trwyn, a point.
Twr, a tower.
Ty, a house.
Tyddyn, a farm.
Tyn, a stretch.
Tywyn, a strand.

Uchav, highest.
Uwch, upper; higher.

Y, of; on the.
Ym, in or by.
Yn, in ; at.
Ynys, an island.
Ystrad, a flat or vale formed by the

course of a river.

311. line 2. dele “ or."
515. line 27. for “ was called Warden," read “ called Warden, was."

THE

CAMBRIAN TRAVELLER'S GUIDE.

The names of places occurring in the text, distinguished by SMALL CAPITALS, may be found with

more enlarged description in the general alphabetic arrangement; those in italics, of inferior note, are referred to from the index.

ABBREVIATIONS.
m. miles. f. furlongs.

N. north. 8. south. E. east. w. west,
I, and I. right and left of the road.

Also northern, northwards, &c.

ABER.

From Port Penrhyn, 34 miles. Aikin ; Evans.

Llanvair Vechan, 2 miles. Bingley.
Conway, 9 miles. Hutton; Skrine; Pugh;

Bingley; Gilpin.

From Penmaenmawr, 3 miles. Skrine,

Llandegai, 34 miles. Pennant.

ABER, or Abergwyngregyn, so called from the cockles found in the vicinity, is a pleasing woody recess, in the hundred of Llechwedd Uchav, county of Carnarvon, nearly equidistant from Aberffraw and Maesmynnan, where the Welsh princes had temporary residences. The church is dedicated to St. Bodfan ; the living is a rectory; patron Sir R. B. W. Bulkeley, Bart. It consists of a nave and chancel of equal length. Here, also, are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyan Methodists. The Bull's Head inn supplies both post-chaises and cars. Aber is a most convenient station whence to ascend the summit of Penmaenmawr, and is one of the ferries to Anglesea. When the tide is out, the Lavan sands are dry four miles in extent, over which the passenger may walk to the channel, where the ferry-boat plies. As the sand frequently shifts, this walk is dangerous; yet many were formerly under the necessity of adventuring. The large bell of Aber is still rung during foggy weather, to direct the traveller from the island by its sound. Since the erection of the Menai Bridge, this route is nearly superseded. From this village, a deep and romantic glen, in length nearly three miles, forms the avenue to Rhaiadyr Mawr, a celebrated cataract.

On the r. side, the glen is bounded by Frith-; the 1. is flanked by the magnificent rock, Maes-y-gaer, and a bridge of one arch. This ravine is terminated by a mountain, presenting a concave front, through a chasm of which the torrent precipitates its waters over two immense ledges of rock. The upper fall is broken into three, and sometimes four, divisions, by the rugged face of the impending cliff. The lower cataract, upwards of 60 feet in height, forms a broad white sheet ; and, from the snow-like dew of the spray, has been compared to that of Slaubbach, in Switzerland. Every lover of the picturesque will not fail to enjoy this delightful scene ; but, if he would behold such objects on a grander scale, he should visit the falls of the Hepsey, Conway, Cynfael, and the Black Cataract, near the vale of Festiniog. And yet even these are diminutive compared with the falls

B

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