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the great Artificer “ whose is this wondrous frame ! himself how wondrous then!” The geology of this principality also forms a field of observation not less attractive to the mind which delights, with a Murchison, to speculate on the origin and direction of those amazing forces which have left their traces on the surface of the globe, to the admirable economy of which we are indebted for those ever-changing varieties of the sublime and beautiful described in the following pages. The Flora of Cambria likewise presents to the botanist powerful attractions, especially in the elevated wilds of Snowdonia, and the island of Anglesea, the latter of which is said to yield a greater variety of plants than some counties in Britain of much larger extent. The lover of mechanical and architectural ingenuity will be agreeably surprised to behold works of stupendous magnitude, and mansions of the most elegant structure by artists of first-rate talent and taste. Nor will the antiquarian tread those mighty footsteps, the caerau, carneddau, and castellated fortresses of Roman, Saxon, or Norman invaders, without a sensation of awe, while contemplating the scattered fragments of olden time, or calling to remembrance those despotic powers who once deluged the fastnesses of Cambria with the blood of her brave patriotic song. Equally will the accurate observer of national character be struck with the native simplicity, agreeable rusticity, and habitual caution, arising from painful reminiscences, of the peasantry; while the nobility and gentry are remarkable for their refinement, hospitality, and patriotism. The moralist will notice with a glow of satisfaction, the marked difference which subsists between the dissolute habits of the English and the temperate socialities of Wales. To the philologist a wide field of investigation is opened in the analysis of the Welsh language, which in its structure and affinities hears evidences of the most remote antiquity. We have only to attend some of the Eisteddvodau or Cymreigyddion anniversaries, to witness the spirit-stirring awen or poetical genius of the Welsh, exemplified in their extemporaneous flights, after the manner of the Italian improvisatore. During these bardic inspirations their language becomes, even to a perfect stranger, exqui. sitely soft or startlingly sonorous, as the subject may require. The ear that is capable of being charmed with the concord of sweet sounds, cannot but be delighted to hear the Cambrian sweep his native harp with a touch as inspiring as it is national. “ When at Bangor,” says Kelly in his “ Reminiscences,"
,” “Madame Catalani heard that instrument for the Srst time. The old blind harper of the house was in the kitchen ; thither she went and seemed delighted with the wild and plaintive music which he played. But when he struck up a Welsh jig, she started up before all the servants, and danced as if she were wild ; I thought she never would have ceased. At length, however, she finished, and on quitting the kitchen, gave the harper two guineas." The traveller who, like Johnson, looks much to facility and speed of transit, will find the macadamising principle penetrating far into those secluded recesses of North Wales, which geographically appear almost inaccessible. Yet here, such is the triumph of art, amidst the sublimest elevations the mind can conceive, that passes once dangerous as they are awful, are traversed with the greatest security; nor will the enterprising spirit of Cambria rest until these advantages are aided by the railroad system already in progress between Merthyr and Cardiff. In 1803 there was only one public carriage in Radnorshire, a post-chaise at Rhaiadyr, and one or two at Aberystwith; but none at Cardigan, though the county town, where the assizes were held. Now, good roads and steam have almost annihilated time and space, and London can be reached from Aberystwith in twenty-four hours, when formerly it required that time to
accomplish the distance from Aberystwith to Shrewsbury. Though late in improvements, Wales has the advantage of recency in her adaptations, and has realized in a few years results which time has taken thousands to mature. Her sons are pursuing with ardour the developments of science, and scientific institutions are maturing, which are likely to vie with those of the sister kingdom. The interests of agriculture are embraced by various societies under the highest patronage, and conducted on the gradual inductions of practical experiment. “Swords liave been turned into ploughshares, and spears into pruning hooks,” the felicitous result of bland Christianity in its unsophisticated and hallowed bearings on society. In the wilds of Cambria the Gospel of Christ, from the remotest years of its propagation, found an asylum. Here the sacred historian traces the rudiments of a primitive church, in the long line of primitive saints whose names still attach to the most ancient sacred edifices, who founded an establishment which for centuries was independent, and enjoyed a polity, and exercised a discipline perfectly distinct from that into which it subsequently merged. When, however, she reverted to her first principles, Wales gradually threw off that feudal oppression which had long inured to scenes of slaughter. From that eventful crisis may be dated her gradual rise in the scale of civilisation, at length attaining to that Christian standard and moral elevation which, comparatively, have caused “the wilderness to blossom as the rose,” attracted the notice of a foreign court, and endeared her to that monarchy in which she forms so bright a gem. Long may the ruthless spirit of disunion and the demon of political agitation leave unsullied by their withering touch, the hallowed principles and the peaceable temperament which invest with lively interest those British sons and daughters whose native home and dearest associations are connected with the wild and splendid bosom of Cambria !
The Editor, in conclusion, begs to acknowledge the obliging contributions of several friends, and respectfully solicits the kind correction of the literary and scientific who feel an interest in the Principality.
THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The present work originated in an itinerary made for my own use, and which I enlarged by way of amusement. At that time every tourist in Wales found either the inconvenience of conveying and referring to many volumes, or the want of a guide in every direction from a single book. My fellow-travellers, perceiving the advantages of my manuscript guide, urged me to publish it. To supply such desideratum has therefore been attempted in the present work. I have carefully traced the steps of all the most popular tourists, and availed myself of their labours ; nor have I rested here, but corrected my former stock of matter, and made considerable additions from actual surveys. Yet, notwithstanding the journeys which I have made in numerous directions, and the pains which I have taken, more imperfections than I am aware of may probably be found. I have endeavoured to comprise a larger portion of information in a small compass than has hitherto appeared, and avoided throughout to make use of the productions of others without acknowledgment. I am thankful for the liberal encouragement which the public have vouchsafed so as to have enabled me to produce a second edition. I have made several recent journeys in various directions, and have received many friendly communications and corrections. Nor let me ever be regardless of the kindness of W. Withering, Esq. of Birmingham, who took the first edition in his hand, through an extensive tour in North Wales, and favoured me with numerous corrections and additions. I shall continue to attend to the improvement of this work; and therefore should consider myself much obliged by further communications. At the head of each division, in the following pages, are references to the places whence the different tourists, whose productions have been consulted, came; and at the end of each division are noted the places to which they passed. The distances, in miles, have been given, and a map is added. From the present arrangement, the tourist may perceive the routes that have been pursued, from which he may either be directed into the path most congenial to bis pursuits, or may discover others, perchance, more curious and inviting. It is observable that the present edition is rendered more portable by a reduction of the size. This has been effected chiefly by rendering the work more strictly Welsh, in condensing the long notices which were given in the former edition of the bordering English towns. Various unessential matter is reduced to prominent outlines, in order to make room for a more topographical description of what is likely to interest a tourist. The enlarged historical details of Caradoc of Llancarfon, by Wynne, Enderbie, Lhuyd, Warrington, and others, may be consulted from our libraries. The BIOGRAPHY has been confined chiefly to anecdote, for the sake of breaking the monotony of names and admeasurements.
For the Roads, it will be necessary to refer both to the place we are quitting and that to which we are going: for instance, being at Dolgelly and wishing to proceed to Towyn ; under the former place a very brief account of the road is given, but by turning to Towyn, an enlarged description may be found. Attention has been principally paid to whatever is singular or uncommon in the scenery, and to natural and artificial curiosities of the Principality, comprehending histories and descriptions of the cities, towns, villages, castles, palaces, mansions, abbeys, churches, mountains, rocks, waterfalls, ferries, bridges, valleys, passes, &c., arranged in alphabetical order. Also, descriptions of what is remarkable in the intermediate places, as inns, solitary houses, forts, encampments, walls, ancient roads, caverns, rivers, aqueducts, lakes, forests, woods, fields of battle, islets, cromlechs, carnedds, tumuli, pillars, Druidic circles, works of iron, tin, copper, &c. The roads are described, the distances given, and the distinct routes of Aikin, Barber, Bingley, Coxe, Donovan, Evans, Fenton, Gilpin, Hutton, Lipscomb, Malkin, Manby, Pennant, Skrine, Warner, Wyndham, and Pugh, are preserved. The whole is interspersed with natural history, botany, mineralogy, and remarks on the manners and customs, manufactories, and agriculture of the inhabitants.
MODES OF TRAVELLING.
The plan which Mr. Malkin adopted was that of walking ; but he says, “ I took a servant on horseback, for the conveyance of books as well as necessaries, without which convenience, almost every advantage of a pedestrian is lost except economy, and that is completely frustrated by so expensive an addition.” Mr. Warner made his tours entirely on foot, and carried his own necessaries. He appears to have often walked 30 m. each day. Walking can only be pleasing to those who have been accustomed to that exercise, and when not limited to time. He who takes a horse and saddle-bags, has certainly much the advantage of a pedestrian in most situations; he passes over uninteresting tracts with celerity, and surveys, at ease, the attractions of both near and distant objects. The latter, though he be at liberty to scramble up a mountain or a rock, has to suffer more from that addition to his common fatigue. It is true that he can step aside to botanise and examine the beauties of nature and art, in situations where a horse would be an incumbrance ; walking can also be engaged in whenever a person is ready to start, and is the most independent mode of passing on ; but when he arrives wet and weary, at an inn, at ten at night, he has sometimes to suffer the mortification of being received with coldness, treated with subordinate accommodations, if not refused admittance ; obliged, perhaps, to accept the necessaries of a mere public-house, or proceed further. Dr. Mavor observes that “the most independent way of travelling is certainly on foot; but as few have health and strength for an undertaking of this kind, the most pleasant and satisfactory way of making a tour, is undoubtedly upon a safe and quiet horse adapted to the country through which we are to pass.
I would therefore advise persons who intend traversing Wales, to perform that part of the journey which lies through England in regular stages, and to purchase a sure-footed Welsh pony, as soon as they enter the country. They may thus gain time for their researches in the Principality, and be exempted from the delays and fatigues incident to any other plan of journeying."
“ A man on a pony," says Sir Richard Colt Hoare," has a far better chance of minutely noticing an object than a wearied pedestrian, whose thoughts, nature in exhaustion, must unavoidably direct to his dinner and his bed.” (S. Wales, 1838, p. 51.)
I have hitherto travelled on foot, a mode possessing many advantages. The principal objection which I can make is that of conveying luggage. When a guide is employed, he will relieve you from such incumbrance. I never dine in my excursions, but generally rising at six, walk a few miles, and make a substantial breakfast of coffee with a boiled egg. After the toil of the day, a good supper is a welcome repast. Intermediately, I take tea, and often a crust and a draught of water, than which, in the heat of summer, nothing can be more refreshing. A cloak made of oiled silk is preferable to an umbrella, since you can fold it up and put it in your pocket. The stuff called jean is proper for a walking dress, being light and strong, and a straw hat is desirable. A case made of calf-skin by a saddler is the most convenient deposit for your change of linen and other necessaries, all of which may be limited in weight to 4 or 5 lbs. I once met in Cwm-glás a party of four gentlemen on foot, whom a little boy followed upon a small pony, with the joint conveniences of each in a large wallet ; but then how rarely can two persons be found, whose pursuits are similar, and whose desires are alike! The chance of four being so agreed is proportionably more uncertain. Walking becomes exceedingly painful when blisters upon the feet result from this exercise. But this in. convenience may be prevented by wearing strong, pliant, and easy shoes, or those which are made from two lasts to the shape of the feet, as described by Camper ; by wearing fine soft flannel or woollen socks next to the skin, and by washing the feet with water before going to bed.
want of such precautions, blisters should arise, let out the serum with a needle without breaking the skin, bathe the part with equal quantities of vinegar and luke-warm water, and apply a thin liniment of wax and oil, with a little sugar of lead ; some apply a compress of brandy, with an equal quantity of vinegar of lead, and anoint with oil. Mr. Hawker, in his “ Instructions to Sportsmen,” says, “ If your heel should become galled, apply a piece of goldbeater's skin, and over that a little court plaster, in order to defend the part doubly. But there is a right and a wrong way of going to work. Instead of cutting with scissors and merely wetting the plaster, let it be slightly heated by the fire as well as wetted, being previously stamped with a wadding punch, by which means, from having no angles or corners, it will stick as fast as your skin, provided that when on and dry, you put over it a little cold cream, to repel the damp in hot weather. A little fuller's earth, mixed with water to the consistence of an ointment, and applied to the feet on going to bed, is also recommended, from experience, to such persons as by walking are liable to have their feet painfully blistered.
Mr. Hutton, at the age of 78, walked 600 m. to explore a shattered Roman wall, which crosses the island of Britain from the German Ocean to the Irish Sea ; the wonderful work of Agricola, Hadrian, and Severus in succession. “I procured for myself,” says he, “ the exclusive privilege of walking, which of all modes of travelling I prefer. I had a budget of cloth, much like a dragoon's cartouche-box or postman's letter-pouch, in which were deposited maps, &c. To this pocket I fastened with a strap an umbrella in a case, and slung the whole over the shoulder that was least tired.”
Mr. Edward Pugh, of Ruthin, author of that valuable work called “ Cambria Depicta," says, p. 16., “Various are the modes of travelling through Wales. They who are pent up in coaches lose many of its beauties, and they who ride, fare little better. To the pedestrian neither difficulty nor danger is presented. I travel with a light knapsack upon my back, containing barely necessaries, an umbrella in my right hand, and under my left arm a small portfolio suspended to my right shoulder by a piece of broad tape.”
To make shoes water-proof :- Take drying linseed oil half a pint, bees’wax 1 oz., turpentine 1 oz., burgundy pitch } oz. Melt these over a slow fire, and add a few drachms of essential oil of lavender or thyme. With this rub your boots or shoes with a brush, either in the sun or at some distance from the fire. The application must be repeated till the leather be fully saturated. (See also advice to those who ascend mountains, p. 160.)
Consider in the morning where you are to sleep at night, and dispose of your time accordingly.
Avoid bathing in mountain lakes, unless you be a good swimmer. They are generally inverted cones.
Wash your pencil sketches with thin starch ; it does not shine.