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to continue as long as that cause remains. Mr. Innes states, an authority on which Your Committee place confidence, that the existence of the Orange Lodges, their meetings, processions, and proceedings, have roused an opposition on the part of the Catholics to protect themselves from the insults offered by the Orangemen; and, that secret societies have been formed for that purpose, by which the members can be called forth at any time when occasion shall require their meeting to protect themselves against the insults of the Orangemen or to be revenged upon them; that the meeting of Catholics on the Green at Glasgow before they marched to Airdrie, where they expected the Orangemen to walk in procession, was assembled by that means; and, from the proofs already mentioned, although Mr. Innes has been unable to procure any copy of the rules of those societies, he is satisfied that the delegates of no less than 24 of these societies, which he calls Riband Societies, having secret oaths and signs, previously met together to arrange the meeting and procession to Airdrie. The opinion of Mr. Innes, after all the information he has become officially possessed of, is, that it will not be possible to restore the west of Scotland to tranquillity, and to prevent breaches of the peace occurring occasionally, unless measures are taken to put down the Orange Lodges and Ribandmen and every other secret society. Whether the existence of Orange Lodges has produced the Riband Lodges, or the Riband Lodges has produced the Orange, appears to be of little consequence. It is notorious that the Orange Lodges exist, under the patronage of men high in rank in England, Ireland and in Scotland, and the countenance given, in consequence of all the orders of the Orange Institution being issued by, and under, the authority of such men as his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, as Imperial Grand Master, and of his Grace the Duke of Gordon, as Deputy Grand Master for Scotland, will be found to have a greater effect on the poor and the ignorant, of which the Orangemen there chiefly consist, than might be expected. When we see an emissary despatched for two successive years to extend Orangeism in that country, under the special and extraordinary commission of the Duke of Cumberland, bearing his sign and seal, with powers to propagate Orangeism, to form lodges, to dismiss members, or to pardon offences of Orangemen how, and when, he pleases, it appears time for government to interfere. When that emissary is entertained and countenanced for weeks as an inmate of Gordon Castle, the influence of the peer may be by the ignorant transferred to the emissary in everything respecting Orange Lodges in that country. There are various ways of enlisting men in a cause, and when it is seen by the reports of the proceedings of grand lodges that such men as the Duke of Cumberland, the Duke of Gordon, Lord Kenyon, Lord Wynford, Peers and Members of Parliament, are united by the same secret signs and pass-words, and seated in the same room with a poor pensioner of one shilling a-day, or any Orangeman, whatever his state in society may be, allowance must be made for the sacrifices that may be made by such persons, to be able to call the Duke, or any other Orangeman, his brother; with permission to apply whenever in difficulty or distress, for the assistance of such wealthy and influential men.
As a proof of the baneful effects of the existence of Orangeisin in Scotland, Mr. Innes states one example where a lodge of pitmen lately expelled from their body all the Catholics who had previously lived and worked together with them in peace and harmony.
Your Committee will only add, that the mischievous effects of Orange Lodges shown, though on a small scale in Scotland, may be expected wherever such a system is upheld and promoted by men of high rank and by influential members of society; a reference to the evidence before The House, of the working of Orangeism in Ireland, on the broadest scale, and after many years continuance, will completely bear out that opinion.
Your Committee, in looking for a corrective to those evils which disturb both REMEDY. civil and military society so much, and which threaten the most serious consequences to the community of the United Kingdom, if allowed to continue, do not contemplate that any new legislative enactment is necessary, the powers of the law being at present, in the opinion of Your Committee, sufficient to protect the country from all such associations, bound together, as the Orange Lodges, are, by a religious sanction, with secret signs and pass words, by which the fraternity may be known to each other in every part of the world. It appears only to be necessary to enforce the existing laws against all such offenders, whether belonging to Orange Lodges, to Riband Lodges, or to any other society having secret signs and bonds of union.
of 31 Aug. 1835.
Letters of the Duke
Orders of the
Commander of the Forces, whether confidential or not.
Your Committee have been much pleased to receive a copy of General Orders issued by General Lord Hill, the Commander of the Forces, and dated Horse Guards, 31 August 1835, forbidding all officers and men in the army from attending Orange Lodges, by whomsoever, and wheresoever held which order, Your Committee most anxiously hope, will put an effectual stop to the spread of Orangeism in the army. The following is a copy of the order:
Horse Guards, 31st August 1835. Lord Hill has reason to apprehend, that the Orders prohibiting the introduction of Orange Lodges into the army have not been duly communicated to the non-commissioned officers and privates, or, if communicated, that they have not been sufficiently explained and understood. His Lordship now refers Commanding Officers of Regiments to the confidential circular letters of the 1st of July 1822, and 14th of November 1829, upon the foregoing subject; and declares, that any officer, non-commissioned officer or soldier, who shall hereafter institute or countenance an Orange Lodge, or any other meeting or society whatsoever, for party purposes, in barracks, quarters or camp, shall be brought to trial before a General Court Martial for disobedience of orders.
His Lordship, moreover, peremptorily forbids the attendance of either officer or soldier at
The present Order is to be read to the troops periodically on the Parade with the Articles
By Command of the Right Honourable General Lord Hill, Commanding-in-Chief,
Your Committee, anxiously desirous of seeing the United Kingdom and the Colonies of the Empire, freed from the baneful and unchristian influence of the Orange Societies, recommend the early attention of The House to that important subject, with a view to the immediate removal from office of all public servants, who shall continue, or become members of any Orange Lodge, or of any other association bound together in a similar manner.
Your Committee think it proper to notice that his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, the Imperial Grand Master, in his letter of the 24th August states, that "owing to the acknowledged indiscretion and negligence on the part of "the Deputy Grand Master, and a like indiscretion and negligence on the part of "other officers of the Orange Institution, many grants of warrants or renewals of former grants have, without the knowledge of his Royal Highness, and contrary "to his declared determination, been issued from time to time in contravention of "the order of the late illustrious Commander-in-Chief, his Royal Highness the "Duke of York :" and his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland "therefore "declares, that all warrants held by persons in His Majesty's service must hence"forth be considered null and void." Your Committee submit that these are important admissions, and they call the further attention of The House to the letter of his Royal Highness, dated 5th August last, addressed to the Chairman of the Committee on Orange Lodges, in which he says, " he knows of no Orange Lodge in "any regiment. It is satisfactory to know that one result, of the Inquiry by the Committees of this House, has been to bring to his knowledge, and to convince his Royal Highness, that Orange Lodges did, and do exist in many regiments of the army; and that he has presided, as Imperial Grand Master, over an institution which has for many years been acting in contravention of the orders of commanding officers of corps and of the Commander of the Forces. Your Committee submit that it would have been very easy for his Royal Highness to have published the document by which, and the time and place where, he issued any order, or made any declaration, against Orange Lodges in the army, instead of a general disclaimer.
It has been alleged by some of the officers of the Orange Institution, that the orders of the Commander of the Forces of 1822 and 1829, were merely confidential recommendations, and not General Orders published from the Horse Guards. Your Committee are desirous of removing that error, by referring to the evidence of Major General Sir J. Macdonald, the Adjutant General of the army, who, on the 6th of August, stated, to the Committee on Orange Lodges in Ireland, that the confidential circular letter of July 1822, was embodied in the edition printed in that year of the General Regulations and Orders of the Army; that it is the duty (27) of the colonel or commander of every regiment to have one of those books; that every regimental officer (31) is directed to supply himself with a copy of it; and that every regimental orderly room ought to have a copy (31). Of the orders of the Duke of York, Sir J. Macdonald adds, no officer ought to be ignorant.
Your Committee further submit whether an institution, presided over by the The Duke of brother of His Majesty, having Peers and Members of Parliament as office-bearers, Cumberland as having lodges extending to almost every part of the United Kingdom, and also Imperial Master. to the Colonies; should be allowed to continue, particularly when lodges are established in so large a portion of the army at home and abroad, having apparently the countenance of a field marshal at their head,
in the United Kingdom.
The number of Orangemen in Ireland, is 220,000, as stated by the deputy No. of Orangemen grand secretary for that country, and these chiefly with arms in their posssession; and, if the Orangemen in Great Britain and the Colonies, amount only to half that number, The House will judge how dangerous such an association, bound together by religious ceremony and sanction, almost equal to that of an oath, might become under possible circumstances of the country. A great political body thus organized in the ranks of the army, and in every part of the British empire, is a formidable power at any time and under any circumstances; but when Your Committee look to the political tendency of the measures of the Orange Societies in England and in Ireland, and particularly to the language contained in addresses to the public, and in the correspondence with the grand officers of the Institution, and consider the possible use that might be made of such an organized power, its suppression becomes, in their opinion, imperatively necessary.
The nature of the organization of the institution and the dangers from its exis- Organization as a tence will appear, when The House is informed, that the master of every lodge is corresponding required to meet the deputy grand master of his district (') every half year, and Society, (1) Q. 225-6. deliver to him a Return, (a copy of which will be seen annexed (2)) of the number (2) Appendix, of members and of the proceedings of the lodge during the preceding half year; he No. 17, p. 127. is required also to collect and to pay at the same time the dues of his lodge. The returns and cash are then sent by the deputy grand master of the district to the deputy grand secretary in London, who lays the accounts and returns before the grand committee for their examination, and that Committee reports thereon to the Imperial Grand Lodge, whatever may have occurred of importance in the last six months worthy of their consideration. Lodges communicate sometimes direct (2) (2) Q. 228, 229. to the Grand Lodge, and the Grand Lodge sends copies of all its proceedings and orders periodically to every district master and to every lodge throughout the empire. (3)
(3) Q. 230.
Your Committee think it right to place before The House the words of the Act of 39 Geo. 3 statute, the 39 Geo. 3. c. 79, regarding corresponding societies. Section 9, "Any c. 79. 8. 9. society composed of different divisions or branches, or of different parts, acting in any manner separately or distinct from each other, or of which any part shall have any distinct president, secretary, treasurer, delegate, or other officer, elected or "appointed by, or for such part, or to act in any office for such part, &c. ;" and in conclusion Your Committee submit, that it will be for The House to consider whether the present organization of Orange Lodges, in connexion with the Imperial Grand Lodge, comes within the words of that statute; and, if so, whether the law officers of the Crown should not be directed to institute legal proceedings, without delay, against the grand officers of all Orange Lodge
MINUTES OF EVIDENCE.
Jovis, 13° die Augusti, 1855.
JOSEPH HUME, ESQUIRE, IN THE CHAIR.
Chetwoode Eustace Chetwcode, Esquire, called in; and Examined.
13 August 1835
2. What situation?-I was acting secretary, or as it is termed, deputy grand secretary.
3. At what time were you appointed to that office?—I think I was appointed about the month of March 1821.
4. How long did you remain ?—I continued till April 1832 in that office.
5. Were you connected with the lodge before you were appointed secretary? -I was member of a lodge.
6. How long had you been so?-I first became a member of the society in Ireland some years previous to my residence in England.
7. You became a member of an Orange Lodge in Ireland?-I did.
8. Of what lodge; in what part of the country?-It was in Dublin.
9. Was it the grand lodge ?-A private lodge; 1656, I think, was the number. 10. In what year was that?-I can only speak from recollection; it was, perhaps, in the year 1816 or.1817.
11. Did in Ireland.
any meetings of private lodges there?—Yes, constantly
12. Did you meet in great numbers?—Yes, in tolerably large numbers; the society I understood then to be rather numerous.
13. Of how many did the lodge consist ?-I cannot state.
14. About how many used to meet ?-I dare say on some occasions I have seen from 150 to 200; I cannot say that they were all enrolled members of that lodge; but at the meeting of the lodge to which I belonged, I have seen from 150 to 200 on one occasion.
15. Where did you meet in Dublin?-In Werburgh-street.
16. In a public or a private house?—At a tavern.
17. Are the members of any lodge in Ireland admitted to any other lodge which may be sitting, if they are recognized as such?-That was the case; I do not now belong to the institution, and cannot say what the present practice may be.
18. You had pass-words and signs?-Certainly.
19. When you were initiated, did you take any oath or make any declaration?-I did.
20. What was the nature of the oath you took ?—I took the oath of allegiance and supremacy, and the declaration against transubstantiation at that time in force.
21. Did you
other declaration ?-I did.
22. Was there not an oath called the Orange oath taken at that time?— There was.
23. Did you take that?-Yes, I have that oath in an old book in my possession at this time; it is a document I have found among some old papers; being required to bring all documents, I have brought that with me.