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ters, upon which he would manifeft his being on its left. The Prussians took fincere desire to give the King of Poland poffession of the neighbouring heights, real marks of his friendship, and concert and of all the pasfęs leading into that with him those measures which the cire plain. Next day, being the ift of Octocumstances of times should render neces- ber, about seven in the morning, an acsary. This his Polish Majesty absolutely tion began between the two armies, rejected. The Pruffian monarch having which lasted till three in the afternoon. before this time conceived an opinion of During that whole time the cannonadangerous designs formed by the court of ding was inceffant on both fides. All reDresden against him, he resolved not to lations agreed in representing this battle leave the Saxons at liberty behind him, as one of the most obftinate that had in a place where they could wait for a happened of a long time. In the issue favourable opportunity of joining the both sides claimed the victory: but the Auftrians, or harass him in his retreat if public could not be persuaded that they he should fight an unfortunate battle, or had equal reason; for it could not be de. issue from their fastness upon some part nied, that Count Brown marched back of his territories if he should advance far next day to his old camp at Budin, quite into Bohemia. Mean while, notwith- disappointed of the important design he standing the inferiority of the Saxon ar- had in view, which was, to march formy, which we never heard reckoned a. ward and relieve the Saxons. The Aubove 18,000 men, the fituation of the Atrians.faid their whole loss in killed and ground it possessed was so advantageous, wounded did not amount to 2000 men; that it could not have been forced with. and that the loss of their enemies must out great loss. . It was therefore deter- have been much more confiderable, bemined to form a blockade, and to treat fides fome hundreds of prisoners taken this strong camp rather in the manner of from them. The Pruffian accounts made a town besieged, than like a post, which the loss of the Austrians amount to be. might be attacked according to the rules tween 6 and 7000 men killed and of war carried on in an open country. wounded, besides 500 prisoners. In a In fort, it was thought, that farving late relation of the affair, said to be the Saxon troops was the safest way of written by the King of Prussia himself, obliging them to surrender.

the number of killed on his fide is recka The blockade of Pirna being effec. oned at 653 men, and the wounded tually formed, his Pruffian Majesty resol. 800. It is there acknowledged, that ved: to have an army of observation, to Marsal Brown made about 249 prison. prevent any succours being fent from the ers. The Austrian army was computed Austrian army in Bohemia. Twenty- at about 60,000 men, but we have not nine battalions and feventy squadrons, seen any number condescended on by commanded by Marshal Keith, entered themselves. Some relations gave out Bohemia, which took the castle of Ket- the Prussians for 25,000, others for fchen, making 100 Austrians prisoners. 35,000. The account faid to be writ. Towards the end of September the King ten by the King of Proffia bears, that of Pruslia had certain advice, that Mar- his troops were really one third inferior shal Brown had received orders to dif. to the Auftrians in number, yet still engage the Saxons. His army was in- thought themselves superior in force. camped at Budin, near the conflux of His Prussian Majesty receiving advice, the Egra with the Elbe. Upon this his that a detachment of 6000 men had been Prussian Majesty set out for his army in made from the Austrian army, and that Bohemia. Having reached it on the it was marching towards the frontiers 28th, that army set forward next day. of Saxony, he set out from Lowofitz on On the 30th, towards the evening, they the 13th of Odober, with fifteen squaperceived the Austrian camp in the plain drons of dragoons, and arrived at hiso. of Lowositz, that town being in front, ther army on the 14th at noon.

The its right joining the-Elbe, and Sulowitz Saxons, though much distressed for want.


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of provisions, had remained safe in their their parole not to serve against him. It camp of Pirna; but under this disadvan: may appear strange, that these troops tage, that their post, by its natural fi. fhould inlist with a neighbouring prince, tuation, was scarcely more difficult to contrary to the known inclination of be forced than to be got out from. On their own fovereign. But the wonder the 11th the Saxons began to form a will be less, when it is recollected, that bridge over the Elbe under the cannon though the Elector of Saxony's father of Konigstein. It is supposed that this embraced Popery, with a direát view, as outlet had excited the attention of the was firmly believed, of being elected Saxons, as being the most easy for re- King of Poland, and his present Polish ceiving the affiftance they expected from Majesty cannot hold that kingdom withthe Auftrians, if they could but get it out profefling the same religion, yet his clearly passed. At the same time, as electoral subjects are generally Proteftthey could not but know the natural dif- ants; that be is particularly connected ficulties in their way, they appear to with France by the marriage of his have been very much in the dark as to daughter to the Dauphin'; that the Sa. the dispositions made by the Pruflians on xons, as much as many others, dread that fide, especially after the arrival of the union of the houses of Auftria and Marshal Brown, with his fmall body, in Bourbon, as dangerous to their religious the neighbourhood. The Pruffian of. liberties; and that his Pruffian Majesty ficers, instead of obftructing the forming is commonly looked upon as being at of their bridge, suffered them quietly to the head of the Protestant interest in finish it. On the evening of the 12th Germany. the Saxons began their march ; and were The King of Poland being allowed permitted to cross the river without mo- either to remain in the fortress of Ko. leftation. Next morning they found nigstein, to which a neutrality was grantthemselves inextricably intangled. The ed during the war, or to go to whate. way they intended to proceed was fur- ver other place he pleased, he fignified rounded with steep rocks, except fome his defire of removing into his kingdom. passes, which the Prussians had strongly Horses being provided for him, both in barricadoed with felled trees, well lined Saxony, and in those parts of the Prufwith troops. The Austrians could do fian monarch's dominions through which nothing towards their affiftance, witho he was to pass, he accordingly set out out attempting to fight double their numa for Warsaw on the 18th, accompanied bers. It was in vain for them to think by his two sons ; the Pruffian troops beof returning to Pirna, though the fear ing withdrawn from all the places on the of absolute famine had not forbidden road, and all becoming regard shewn to them, as the Pruffians on that fide had the person of his Polith Majesty. already occupied it. Marshal Brown, After the Saxons had surrendered, his finding he could do no service in the Prussian Majesty returned into Bohemia, case, and perceiving the danger he at in order to bring back his army to winthe same time was in, began a retreat ter in the Saxon dominions. On the 25th towards Bohemia on the 14th ; in which Marshal Keith broke up his camp at his detachment suffered confiderably be. Lowofitz, his rearguard not seeing the fore it got to any distance. In this for- face of an enemy, and the 30th re-enlorn fiuation the Saxons remained till tered Saxony; where the troops were the 15th, when the King of Poland, cantoned between Pirna and the fronwho had continued in Konigstein, per- tier along the Elbe. One post was atmitted them to surrender themselves pri. tacked by the Austrian pandours ; but soners of war. Next day they were con they were repulsed with loss, and purducted to the camp of his Prusian Ma- fucd a considerable way. This is the jefty, into whose fervice most of the fol. account given in the piece faid to have diers entered, the officers being allowed been written by his Prussian Majesty. to go to their places of residence, on According to the Austrian relation of


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the affair, the march back was not al- ter, all the armies, Auftrian and Pruf. lowed to be performed near lo quietly. fian, were distributed into winter-quarThey said, that as the Pruflians retired, ters. The King of Prussia returned to Gen. Hadick always followed and ha- Dresden on the 14th, and took his rafled them; that he took many prison. residence at the house of Count Bruhl, ers and very much baggage ; and that the Saxon prime minister. 8000 Austrian horse, falling upon the We have here thrown the operations rearguard, cut 500 Proffians to pieces. of the war together ; but several other It is really amazing, and mortifying, to important matters had happened before observe, in what oddly different ways this time, which deserve particular nopersons of otherwise the most respectable tice. Before the Prussian monarch fet characters are capable of relating the out for his army in Bohemia, he had fame facts. The inconsistencies in the so peremptorily demanded from the accounts of this retreat, and those of Queen of Poland the keys of her hus. the battle of Lowositz, given by the band's archives, that the found herself two sides, are almost equally glaring; obliged to comply; and the use intend. and the falsehoods on one side or other ed had been made of those keys. Upmust have been advanced, with respect on this the Saxon ministers at foreign to some particulars, in defiance of the courts pathetically represented, that the certain knowledge of many in both ar King of Pruffia, covering himself under mies. In the different accounts of the the name of friendship, buc being gobattle there were several plain inconfifto verned solely by his conveniency, had, encies, which cannot appear from fo by armed force, made himéelf master summary a relation as we are here ob- of all the towns of Saxony, dismantled liged to give.

places, fortified others, disarmed the inBesides the troops which his Pruffian habitants, carried off magiftrates to serve Majesty led into Saxony, he had also an as hostages for unjust and enormous conarmy in Silefia, commanded by Marshal tributions in provisions and forage, sei. Schwerin, which advanced towards an zed the public coffers, broken open the Austrian one under Prince Piccolomini. arsenals and transported the artillery and The Prussian troops had some skirmishes arms to Magdeburg, and, to crown all with parties of the Austrians ; in which, those oppreslions, that the archives of according to their own accounts, they state had, by menaces and violence, had plainly the advantage; and foraged been forced from the hands of the Queen, under the walls of Konigsgratz, within notwithstanding the security which her: fight of Prince Piccolomini. This was Majesty might promise herself under the all Marshal Schwerin could do. The protection of all laws human and divine, camp of Konigsgratz was situated at the and notwithstanding the reiterated affuconflux of the Adler with the Elbe, the rances given her in the King of Prussia's Austrians were intrenched, and this post name, that not only her person and rewas too difficult to be attacked in front. fidence should be absolutely safe, but The Prussians on that fide therefore that even the Pruffian garrison should be acted only as an army of observation. under her orders. From this time for. About the same time that the Prussians ward his Prussian Majesty spoke withat Lowositz were quitting Bohemia, out reserve of the designs which the SaMarshal Schwerin began to return into xon ministry had concerted with the Silesia. Some thousands of Hungarians courts of Vienna and Petersburg, for having followed him to Scalitz, a bo. stripping him of Silesia, and effectually dy of his troops attacked, and drove crushing his power for ever. He said them to some distance; after which he they had negotiated with the Imperial continued his march unmolested. On ministers on an eventual partition of his the ad of November he re-entered the Majesty's dominions, and were to have county of Glatz, and put his troops in- for their share the duchies of Magdeto places of cantonment. Not long af. burg and Crossen, with the circles of



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* Zullichau, Corbus, and Schwibus ; but, to that paper. The King of Prussia nb

with the consent of the principal parties, serves, in another piece, that it is noe

were not to appear in the affair, till the surprising some persons should make no i reduction or dispersion of his Prussian answer to demonstrations, but by in

Majesty's forces should permit them to vectives. take off the mask with safety. He af. In a declaration which his Prussian ferted, that in consequence of the pri- Majesty had just before caused be demary resolution to which he had been livered to the diet at Ratisbon, he said, forced for his own preservation, he had that if ever the states of the empire, and only taken from the court of Saxony the in particular those of the Protestant re

means to hurt him; in doing which he ligion, were in danger of oppression, they i had used all the moderation that circum- were so then ; when not only the house

stances would allow. He declared, that of Austria threatened him with final the Queen of Poland had been treated ruin, but likewise even the court of with all the respect due to her rank; Dresden, as he could incontestably prove, and that only proper representations had had formed defigns to depress his royal been used to induce her not to oppose and electoral house, and deprive it of the taking out of the chancery-cabinet all the acquisitions which it had made at Dresden, without meddling with the for a century past, in recompense of other archives, certain papers, of which the services it had done to its counhis Majesty had copies before, but which try; he asserted it was highly probable, he had thought proper to seize, in or- that a scheme was formed to inslave all der to verify the dangerous designs of the states of the empire, and that if they the Saxon ministers again him, by ha- were not all subjected at once, they could ving in his custody the originals, of which not, however, avoid sharing this fate they would otherwise have denied the one after another, if he should not via existence. Not long after, the King of gorously oppofe fuch enterprises; that Prussia published a long memorial, par- therefore he was persuaded the states of ticularly setting forth the secret intrigues the empire would open their eyes to the of the courts of Vienna and Dresden a. unjust infinuations of the court of Viengainst him, from the treaty of Dresden na, as well as the complaints and illconcluded between their Prufian and Po. founded grievances of the court of Dreslish Majesties in the month of Decem- den, and courageously keep off the yoke ber 1745 to the middle of August last, which was endeavoured to be put upon the methods they had taken to raise and them. This was intended to prevent foment jealousy and disgust in the mind the states giving their approbation to of the Empress of Russia against his Prus- some decrees addressed to them by the fian Majesty, and the reasons evincing Emperor, requiring their assistance aa concert between those three powers to gainst his Pruffian Majesty. In the end strip him of Silesia, and reduce him of the year they had not come to any within narrower bounds. To that he resolution with respect to those decrees. annexed copies of the original papers Even after the Austrian and Prussian found in the chancery of Dresden; and, armies went into winter-quarters, fome indeed, they exhibit a scene of politics skirmishes happened between small parhorrid and shocking to honest minds ties of them ; but nothing of conse[xviii. 594.651.]. The King of Pruf. quence was done. On both sides great fia says, that his Britannic Majesty, preparations have been making for early who had close connections with some of and vigorous action in the spring. Conthose courts, would never be concerned fiderable numbers of the Saxons which in this mystery of iniquity. He would entered into his Pruffian Majesty's sersurely then have abominated the shame- vice having deserted, he obliged the ful means which his Pruffian Majesty's country to furnish between 9 and 10,000 memorial gives us as those used to pro. recruits, in order to complete ten regią mote it, We have not seen any ansiver ments, which we may reckon to contift

of at least 20,000 men. The Prussian Notwithstanding this restriction, and troops are said to be augmented to a• some others mentioned in the act; fevebove 200,000. Those of the Empress. ral evangelical states of the empire, Queen are computed at about the same fearing that such a concession might be number; besides which she is to have productive of consequences dangerous to swarms of auxiliaries from several quar- the Protestant cause, laid the affair be. ters. Both sides are still busy in nego. sore the general diet at Ratisbon. What tiations, the effects of which time alone was done in the diet, we have not heard ; can certainly discover.

but the evangelic body of the empire at Laft spring a difference arose between Ratisbon highly censured the permiffion, his Prusian Majesty and the Duke of afferting, that, according to the treaty of MeckLeMBURG SCHwerin. The lat. Wesiphalia, their confent should have ter complained to the Emperor, that the been previously obtained ; and that this officers and soldiers of the former used sovereign had not only affronted them, force to raise recruits in his territories; and violated the pacta religionis bethat his Prussian Majesty wanted to gb. tween sovereign and subject founded on lige him to recall his prohibition of such that treaty, but in the highest degree levies, and had sent å large detachment abufed his Protestant subjects, to whom of hussars into his dominions, who had he had folemnly promised, nay fold, the violently carried off some of his bailiffs exclusive privilege of exercising their reand officers of justice that were entirely ligion in his territory. The Count streinnocent; and that he had not been able nuously maintained the justice of his to procure their liberty, but on condition proceedings; and appealed to the Emof revoking that prohibition, and dif- peror on the head. This did not hincharging the Prussian inrollers whom he der the evangelic body from taking some had taken into cuftody. His Imperial resolutions last year with regard to the Majesty sent a refcript to the King of religious grievances of his Proteftant fubPrussia, admonishing him to do justice, jećts, the execution of which was left to and make proper reparation to the Duke the King of Prussia, as director of the of Mecklemburg, and certify his having circle of Westphalia. That monarch done so to his Imperial Majesty within caused his minister at the diet declare two months from the ad of April, the soon after, that he not only accepted of date of the rescript. In what light the the commission, but had also written in Prussians represented this affair, we do the strongest manner to the Count, ex. not know; but were some time after in- horting him to conform to what the formed, that it was far from being in a laws and conftitution of the empire re. fair way of being adjufted.

quired of him. We would probably In summer 1755 the Count of Weld have heard more of this affair, had it RUNKEL, having been long solicited by not been for the public disturbances that his Roman Catholic subjects for per- ensued in Germany. million to exercise their religion more It was observed in our last summary, commodiously and freely, granted them with respect to TURKY, that since the liberty to build a convent of Capuchins accession of the present Grand Signior at Dierdorf, che place of his residence, to the throne, which happened in De. with very large privileges. The Count, cember 1754, so many changes had been in his act for this establishment, decla. made of the ministry, as seemed to inred, that in making use of the right dicate, that the Sultan did not think which he had to tolerate in his domi- himself well fixed in his exalted station; nions each of the three religions allowed and rendered it evident, that no system in the empire, namely, the Protestant, of the Porte, in regard to politics, could Reformed, and Popish, his intention was be depended on. Several alterations al. to maintain inviolably the rights and so took place during the last year, aprerogatives of the Protestant, which is mong which the depofition and banishihe religion eitablished in his country, ment of the grand vizir and of the mufti


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