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nued to live in friendship till the hour quiry into the Nature and Causes of the of his death ; and I shall always remain Wealth of Nations.” He received a with the impression of having lost a friend letter of congratulation on this event whom I loved and respected, not only from Mr Hume, which discovers an for his great talents, but for every pri- amiable solicitude for his friend's litevate virtue.”

rary fame. It is dated 1st April 1776, The retirement in which Mr Smith about six months before Mr Hume's passed his. next ten years, formed a death. “ Euge! Belle ! Dear Mr Smith : striking contrast to the unsettled mode I am much pleased with your performof life he had been for some time ac- ance, and the perusal of it has taken customed to, but was so congenial to me from a state of great anxiety. It his natural difpofition, and to his first was a work of so much expectation by habits, that it was with the utmost dif- yourself, by your friends, and by the ficulty he was ever persuaded to leave public, that I trembled for its appearit. During the whole of this period ance; but am now much relieved. Not (with the exception of a few visits to but that the reading of it necessarily Edinburgh and London), he remained requires so much attention, and the pubwith his mother at Kirkaldy, occupied lic is disposed to give it so little, that I habitually with intense study, but un- shall still doubt for some time of its being bending his mind at times in the com- at first very popular. But it has depth, pany of his old school-fellows. In the and folidity, and acuteness, and is fo society of such men, Mr Smith delight- much illustrated by curious facts, that it ed; and to them he was endeared, not must at last take the public attention. It only by his simple and unaffuming man- is probably much improved by your ners, but by the perfect knowledge they last abode in London. If you were all possessed of those domestic virtues here, at my fire-lide, I should dispute which had distinguished him from his in- some of your principles. But these, fancy. Mr Hume, who considered a town and a hundred other points, are fit only as the true scene for a man of letters, to be discussed in conversation. I hope made many attempts, but in vain, to fe- it will be foon; for I am in a very bad duce Mr Smith from his retirement. At state of health, and cannot afford a long length, in the beginning &Fthe year 1776, delay.” he accounted to the world for his long

(To be continued.) retreat, by the publication of his “ InCHARACTERISTICAL SKETCHES OF EMINENT BRITONS. QUEEN ELIZABETH.

her religion, now established by authoAT the distance of near two centu- rity, were sufficient inducements to a jies, we come to view a princess, whose people less susceptible of affection tomemory has been perhaps looked at hic wards their princes than the English, t'ierto with too prejudiced an eye, name. for unbounded admiration and respect. ly, Elizabeth, the last and most renowned If the aspect of foreign nations be reof the Tudors. From hardships and inju- garded; we shall not, I think, discern ries fortune gave her to rule over a nation, those gorgon eyes of terror which the which, distracted by the capricious ty- blushing merit of this virgin queen is ranny of Henry VIII. weak under the fabled to have encountered. The restminority of Edward, inundated with less ambition of Philip was lulled by the blood by the bigotry of Mary, had now delusive expectation of espousing the arrived at that ultimate point of depref- rich inheritance of the Queen, into a fon, at which the tide of human affairs state of impolitic inaction ; the power is faid naturally to ebb and flow back in of France, enfeebled by the arms of a contrary course.

The circumstances Austria, was soon to be dissolved in the of the times, the amiableness of her weakness of its own princes ; and Scota fex, and, above all, the popularity of


land, the province of France, was alone its continuance with the unfortunate faformidable to itself.

mily of Stuart, whose succession, as well That the crown then possessed a very as future welfare, her maxims were not strong prerogative, capable of overleap- calculated to promote. ing the bounds by which royal authori- Commerce and navigation, then in ty began to be circumscribed, is a fact their infancy, by what charters and imtoo apparent in the annals of each pre- munities were they protected ?-But ceding reign, to stand in need of fur- why do we talk of charters and immuther confirmation. We must not, there- nities? -Could commerce, that' fenfore, in reviewing the conduct of Eli- fitive plant, shrinking at the rude touch zabeth, expect to see her uolike her of oppression and tyranny, thrive under predecessors in an action she most with the rough hands of rapacious monoed to resemble them, summoning her polifts ? Could the navigator, transportparliament in order to regulate her ing himself over seas, at that time as couucils by their resolves, or waiting till unknown to the English, as the world their liberality had enabled her to carry which they joined had been before to into execution the more extensive schemes all Europe, find a reward for the perils of state : but we are still to look for, he had undergone, in sharing the small under fo renowned a princess, fome re- pittance the waves and enemy had left gular system of government concerted; him, with a mistress whose avarice was lome pecuniary resources constitutionally not to be restrained by the laws of com. derived, independent of appropriating position she herself

. had enacted ? to national uses the occasional revenues But I hasten to that period of history, of unfilled bishoprics ; in short, some when, in the Low Countries, the united firmer political edifice erected, than that force of seven provinces had broke the baseless fabric of duplicity and artifice, chains of their tyrant, and established a which only wanted the weak vices of her religion and government of their own ; immediate fucceffors, to be pulled into when the Hugonots in France, in arms ruins of anarchy and civil dissenfion. with the Admiral Coligny at their head, Let any one cite to me a single instance, were yet unconscious of the approachin the whole of her administration, in ing Naughter of St Bartholomew; and which the prerogative of the crown, or when Philip in Spain, aided by the the rights of the people, were asserted thunders of Romé, the gold of Mexior denied with the becoming confidence co, and the genius of the Duke of Parand resolution of a sovereign. Division ma, threatened subjection to all around among ministers carefully maintained ; him. The necessity of the times dethe authority of parliaments encreafed manded a person of an active and enterby the mysterious concealment of their prising disposition, capable of uniting bounds ; condescension shown to the the scattered forces of a perfecuted relipeople, the better to lord it over the no- gion, in order to compose a single one bility; one faction depressed by the ex- which might shake the proud league of altation of another; give us some, though its enemies, and be the destruction of not an adequate idea, of the undecisive, those that laughed it to scorn. Elizaqualifying, negative abilities of Eliza- beth should herself have been the centre beth for government. 'Insulated from of fo glorious a confederacy, and not posterity by a determined vow of celi- have committed to the unloped for acbacy, and, consequently, . not tied or, cidents of adverse winds and waves, the bound by those hostages of conduct dispersion of that invincible: armament which persons in the married state leave of Spain, which, skilfully conducted, behind them unto fortune, she poffeffed must inevitably have triumphed over her a competent degree of cunning and ad- refolute, but únaided refiitance. dress to insure power to herself, and Success in arms, especially if they seems to have been little solicitous for are borne againit the natural or religious enemies of the state, has ever been the. Eflex, is perhaps another remaining source of popular affection. It was im- instance equally injurious to the humapollible for the Romans to condemn nity of Elizabeth's disposition. the guilty Manlius in sight of the Capi- Her discernment of the characters tol which that celebrated warrior had and abilities of men has been the fruitsaved. The same cause has on us too ful subject of enlogium ; and some seem the same effe &, in paffing judgment on willing to represent her as the Aspasia the characters of our princes; we ele. of Britain, at whose school the Socrates vate before our eyes the trophies erected and Pericles of the age were educated in each reign, pass over with neglect in the persons of Bacon and Walsingthe less conspicuous, but more important ham. But that the human genios is duties of a sovereign, and give the suf. not called forth by the wand of power, frage of our praise to the successful war, and that there is a time of its sleep and rior, which we refuse to the only candi- death, which it cannot interrupt or adtates for true applause—the upright ma- vance, is an evidence easily collected gistrate and the patriot king. The me- from the universal testimony of history. mory of Elizabeth has, it must be con. If, therefore, the age abounded in men fessed, an undoubted claim to the immu, of superior talents, it was not owing to nities of prosperity.

the plastic hand of Elizabeth : the mePerhaps the timely death of this rit of employing them in high office is princess is not to be reckoned one of ftill apparently hers, though that in a the least circumstances of that wonder- great measure must have depended on ful fortune which ever attended her. the indulgence of fortune, and the reLiberty, like an infant Jove, protected ciprocal advantage of mutual aslistance. from the rage of prosecution by priestly Her liberality, the fortunes of a few fanatics, now began to fhew itself abroad court-minions excepted, was by no under the stero features of the puritan, means extensive; and that its influence whose inflexibility of temper did not ad- was ever distinguishedly fhed on the mit of those lenient mollifying arts, head of genius or public service, is not which had ever been the favourite and on record. Let it not, however, be successful instruments of her policy, denied, that in the great events of five

If, from the political, we turn to the and forty years of success, such small moral

part of this celebrated character, incidents may have escaped the crowd. we shall there too observe the same mix. ed eye of history. The Athenians deture of female artifice and envy; fome. dicated an altar to a god without a times wanton by refinement, and some- name. We too will erect a monument times, though rarely, cruel in the ex- to virtue, which has not been celebratreme. I have hitherto omitted men- ted. But the faireft method of deter. tioning the execution of the Queen of mining such unknown merit, would be Scots, as an action in which Eliza- by the measure of its reflection on imbeth's avowed passion of rivalship was mediate posterity. All who die are much more concerned than the well. honoured with tears. The friend is la feigned purposes of intereft or religion. mented by his surviving companion ; the , The subject has already been so thorough- father of a family by his children: the ly canvassed, that a farther scrutiny can- funeral of a prince should be followed nat be made into the conduct of either by the universal mourning of the people party, without the repetition of infipid he governed. It is well known, that tautology: and I think we may plainly the behaviour of the nation, on the death discern, on the part of the British prin- of Elizabeth, amounted to something cess, a mind wholly devoted to its own more than indifference; and we cannot purposes, an ear inattentive to the dif. fuppose those private virtues to have had tress of another, a face that could not the brightest luftre, whose departing blush, and a heart that could not feel. rays left fo faint a gloom of melancholy * The capricious warrant for the death of behind them.



GERMANY. NONE of the princes of Germany good a wife, so kind a parent, and so have higher claims on the love of the excellent a woman, could be left in a people, or the eulogy of the modern state of dependence on her son. Much bards, than the amiable and youthful more likely is it, that the fon should monarch who now fills the imperial have been bequeathed to the commands, throne. Of his warlike atchievements, indulgence, and management of his moduring the present campaign, the trump ther. Or if it was intended that the of fame has sufficiently informed you; fon should receive the wbole revenues of but there is a trait of his heart in pri- the empire, it could only be in confivate and domestic life, which I receive dence that he would act as her agent, from the most unquestionable authority, and see that her private, her natural, and and which will endear him to you more proper rights were paid into her coffers than a thousand victories,

with the least care and inconvenience Joseph the second, who was an eco- to herself. nomist, left to Leopold, who did not “ In the latter case, I hope I should live long enough, after he became em- be found, throughout my reign, a faithful peror, to düspate (them) an unincum- Ateward of my dear parent and of the bered diadem and' immense treasures. people ; and, supposing, for a moment, These all concentered in the present this case a posfible one, I cannot be in. Emperor, to whom was bequeathed the sensible to the exalted affection and edisposal of them so unconditionally, that Ateem the late emperor and king must the dowager Empress his mother was, bave had for me, that he could, after his in a manner, rather a dependent on his death, confide the fortunes of such a wife bounty, than pofseffed of powers in her- to the trust of his fon. But human naself to claim as widow, wife, and mo. ture is so frail, and the trust is so awful, ther. No sooner did the youth find that I iremble while I pofiess it; and himself thus dangerously placed, than cannot, indeed, be easy, till I have difhe resolved to put it out of his own burdened myself of the weightit imposes. power to act unbecoming the son of an To this end, niy loving friends, ministers empress and queen. Conveving, there- and subjects, I have herein bound myfore, his court and council, he appro- felf, (shewing the scroll) by an instrupriated an early day for his coronation, ment of the last folemnity, to become or rather nomination to the emperor. responsible in a yearly sum suited to her thip, (the regular ceremony being per- rarik although inferior to her deservings. formed long after at Frankfort) and he And I have, as nearly as may be, made intreated the honour that the Queen- this disposition from my private funds, dowager would aflist at it. The assem- and from sources the least likely to inbly was brilliant; the young monarch fringe on, or to affect, the treasures of Tose in the midst of it, and holding in the state, which I hold in trust also, bis hand a scroll, thus addressed him for the honour of my empire, and the felf to his ministers, in the presence of prosperity of Austria ; yet 1 confider thousands of his fubjects :-" I perceive myself as called upon by my subjects to a paffage of great importance is omitted explain, account for, and justify every in the will of my royal father. No expenditure, before I make an arrangesuitable and independent provision has ment in favour of any part of my own been made for my beloved and imperial family : but I feel, at the fame time, mother. The long tried virtues of that that it is an act of duty and justice 'oul Doble lady, the tender considence and my part, which will be crowned by the and domestic love in which the lived fandtion of all my people. with my father, convinces me, that it “ Here theo, madam, continued the Deter could have been intended that fo royal youth,) dropping on his knee as he


descended from his throne, and present- time, as exigences may arise, to derive ing the scroll-here is the deed by which benefit, in their application, from your I relieve myself from an insupportable known wisdom,goodnessof heart and judgburden,--the idea of your majesty's be- ment, and your love of the empire.” coming the victim of a son's weakness, With regard to the public, one might indiscretion, or ingratitude : and you very reasonably expect from such an outwill find that I have, by the fame act, set, what has happened in the progress taken the liberty to appoint you the of the reign of this monarch ;---we were guardian of my youth, in all that can prepared for his having almost emptied properly be called (if any thing can) my the coffers of his private property, and private fortunes. I retain in my hand almost stript its palace of his furniture, the public treasures, because the weight many of its neceffaries, and all its luxof them would, from the multiplicity of uries, before he invited the allistance of demands, be attended with fatigue to his people to carry on this unparelleled you ; but I shall not fail, from time to war. From Gleanings through Holland.

SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF MÆCENAS. Caius CILNIUS MECENAS was a ing sentance or death on the criminals. celebrated Roman knight, descended To the interference of Mæcenas, from the kings of Etruria. He has im- Virgil was indebted for the restoration mortalised himself by his liberal patron- of his lands; and Horace was proud age

of learned men, and of letters ; and, to boast that his learned friend had obto his prudence, Augustus Cæsar ac- tained his pardon from the emperor for knowledged himself indebted for the engaging in the cause of Brutus at Philips fecurity he enjoyed.

pi. Mæcenas himself cultivated literaHis fondness for pleasure removed ture, and, according to the most receivhim from the reach of ambition, and he ed opinion, wrote a History of Anipreferred to die, as he was born, a Ro- mals, a Journal of the Life of Augustus, mán knight, to all the honours and dig- a Treatise on the different natures and nities which either the friendship of kinds of Precious Stones, besides two Augustus, or his own popularity, could tragedies entitled Octavia and Promeheap upon him. It was in consequence thousand other things, all now loft. of his advice, and that of Agrippa, that He died eight years before Christ, and, Augustus refolved to retain the supreme on his death-bed, particularly recompower, and not, by a voluntary resigna- mended his friend Horace to the care tion, to plunge Rome into civil com- and confidence of Augustus. Seneca, who motions. The emperor received the has liberally commended the genius and private admonitions of Mæcenas in the abilities of Mæcenas, has not withheld fame friendly manner as they were given; his censure from his dissipation, indoa and he was not 'displeased with the li- lence, and effeminate luxury. From the berty of his friend, when he threw a patronage and encouragement which the paper to him with these words, Descend princes of heroic and lyric poetry, among from the tribunal, thou butcher! while he the Latins, received from the favourite fat in the judgment feat, and betrayed of Augustus, all patrons of literature revenge and impatience in his .counte. have ever since been called Macenates, nance. He was struck with the admo- Virgil dedicated to him his Georgics, nition, and left the tribunal, without pafl- and Horace his Odes. fjölguel :


aisti untdoor OR A COFFEE-HOUSE SCENE AT ALEPPO, IN SYRIA. IN Turkey, where the art of printing ed down within the narrow compass of has not yet been known, where the cir- manufcript, and where therefore the efculation of literary productions is chain. forts of genius are repressed by discour


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