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fit, or suitable for the time. Fit is most , out mentioning his deeds, "blisters our probably the Fr. fait, Lat. factum, done. I tongue."

169. And do not know ourselves, scil., 246. You may deserve. The old copy “to be so," because treason then included reads “discerne" for “deserue." The offences not usually held to be treasonable, emendation (which is Theobald's) is obor what were no offences at all.

viously correct. Macduff may “deserve 169. When we hold rumour from what something" of Macbeth by betraying Malwe fear, i.e., when we accept or circulate colm. rumours, because we fear them to be true. 246. And wisdom, scil. “it is" wisdom.

173. Shall not be long but I'll be here 250. A good and virtuous nature may again The sub. of “shall be" is “ I.” recoil in an imperial charge. Johnson “ Bat" is a prep. governing the n cl. fol- well explains this to mean, “A good mind lowing in the obj. case.

may recede from goodness in the execution 193 Was my father a traitor, mother of a royal commission." How well has Shakespeare, in this scene, 254. Yet grace must still look so, ie, portrayed one of the most striking fea- | though foul things may look fair, fair tures of child-nature, its fondness for ques things cannot look fairer. tioning and being questioned ; for the con 257. Riveness, unpreparedness. versation of children is little else.

260. Let not my jealousies, etc., i.e., do 212. Though in your state of honour I | not suppose that my suspicions are meant am perfect, is an antithesis to the preced- to dishonour you; they arise only from a ing line : You do not know me, but I am regard to my own safety. fully aware of your rank.

265. Thy title is a freer'd, thy right to 216 To fright you thus, adv. phr. of cause wear thy wrongs is confirmed by Malcolm's to “I am too savage."

refusal to aid thee. Affier is fr. Fr. af217. To do worse to you, i.e., to do worse feurer, to appraise, or fix a price upon. than “to fright you thus ;" wbich pro 268. To boot, in addition Boot is the bably means to abstain from frighting them A.-S. bót, compensation, from bétan, to thus, to let them be attacked without a amend. Booty and bootless (profitless) are warning.

froin the same root. 217. Fell, absolute, lit cruel,-if, as is 279. More suffer, etc., by him that shall supposed, it be the A.-8. felle, cruel, Fr. succeed. Comp. the whole of this scene frlon, Ital fellon. Jamieson gives it in Sc. with Hol., $S 27-33. Shakespeare has folwith the meaning “clever, nettlesome." lowed the chronicle so closely, that numer

228. Where such as thou mayst find him, ous expressions may be compared throughwe should expect "so unsanctified that." out the whole of it. The construction is to be explained by sup 282. So grafted, i e, to be” so grafted; plying, after “so unsanctified," as to be a inf. obj. to“ know." place where, etc.

286. Confineless, without limit or re229. Shag-haird. The old reading is straint. The confines of a country are its “shag-ear'ú,” which is obviously a corrup boundaries. tion of "shag-heard," an old spelling of 288. To top, to overtop, outstrip. “shag-haired." Shag is from A.-8. sceacga, 230. Sudden, hasty, precipitale, recka bush or clump of hair. Shock is from | less. the same root; so that shag-hair'd corre 1 293. Continent, confining or restraining sponds with “shock-headed." Sceacga is (scil) the passions ; chuste, temperate itself from scacan, to shake, p. 8cóc

294. Better Macbeth, than such a one to 233. Empty, is an indirect object of reign. Constr. : (It is better (for) Mac“weep."

beth (to reign), than (for) such a one to 235 Bestride our down-fallin birth- reign. dom. Stand over our down-fallen birth 301. The time you may so hoodwink; a right, sword in hand, for the purpose of translation of Hollinshed's “that no man defending it.

shall be aware thereof." Hoodwink is to 237. That it resounds, i.e., so that it re cover the eyes with a hood. Hood is the founds; adv, el. of manner to “strike." A.-S. hód, Ger. hut, Eng hat. Wink is

239. Syllable of dolour, a compressed cry from A.-S. winc-ian, Ger. wink-en, to move of grief,--appropriate in connexion with often (scil.) the eye-lid. "yell'd."

304. Stanchless, unable to be stemmed ; 241. To friend, to befriend.

from Fr. estancher, Lat. stagnare, to stop, 241. I will, scil. “redress."

or stay. 242. What you have spoke, n. cl. in app. 306. His, this one's, to correspond with with " it," subj of “may be so."

“ this other." 243. Sole name, whose name alone, with. 307. More-having. Shakespeare seems

in this passage to have been seized with 378. The mere despair of surgery, those a fit of compounding words We have whom surgery has despaired of curing. “summer - seeming," "king - becoming," 379. A golden stamp. Coins touched by “ bloody - scepired," “over - credulous," the king were supposed to have the power, “here-approach," “ here - remain," and when worn about the person, of warding "strangely - visited,” within these two off certain diseases. These coins are called pages.

Royal Touch-pieces. It is as reasonable 314. Foysons, plenty; the Fr. foison, to call a piece of money a stamp as to call abundance.

it a cuin, the latter name being derived 315. Of your mere own, i.e., of what is from the wedge-shaped die with which the simply your own, without touching the impression was stamped upon the metal. goods of others.

Vide 1. 356, Note. 315. Portable, bearable, supportable, 380. Pul on with holy prayers ; the king, when counterbalanced by your graces. The in touching for the evii, pronounced words "other" before “graces" is a solecism; to the effect: "I touch, but God healeth." for Macduff could not, surely, consider the In earlier editions of the Common Prayer, vices he was condemning to be "graces" “the office for the healing" was an integtoo.

ral part of the service 331. Wholesome, sound, prosperous ; 381. He leaves, etc., n. cl. in app to “it," from A.-S. hál, sound, entire; and some. | suhj. of “is spoken." Ger. -sam (in heil-sam), Dut. saem, Lat. 393. But who knows nothing, except sim-ilis, wb. denotes the quality of that to (those) who are ignorant; att. cl. to "those" which it is attached.

understood. 337. Died every day she lived; there is 394. Rent, an obs. verb, with the same a striking similarity between this expres meaning as to "rend." sion and that of Paul, in 1 Cor. xv. 31, “I 396. A modern ecstasy, i.e., a common, die daily."

and therefore unnoteworthy, state of mind. 338. Repeat'st upon thyself, reproachest Ecstasy is used by Shakespeare to mean thyself with.

any disturbance of the mental equilibrium. 344. These trains, cunningly laid schemes. Comp. III. 162, Note. 345. Plucks me, draws me away.

397. For who ; grammar would require 361. At a point, conc. ntrated, assembled "for whom," ise., for whom the knell is at a rendezvous

tolled. 362. And the chance of goodness be like 399. Or ere, before. These two words our warranted quarrel. i.e., and may the are a repetition of each other, for they are event in its goodness correspond with the in neaning and origin the same. Or, ere, justners of our quarrel. It has been pro and early, are all froin Goth, air, first, A.-S. posed to read

ær. In A.-S. or and ord mean the begin

ning, probably the same as the root or-, in “ And the chance, of goodness, Be like our warranted quarrel !"

Lat. or-ire, or-igo, and Gr. Ög-vojeno In

all Goth. dialects, according to Wachter, And also,

or, ar, ur, convey the idea of beginning.

This word or is quite distinct from the alAnd the chance, O goodness,

ternative conjunction “or." The word is Be like our warranted quarrel !". frequently used in Sc. in the sense of “be

fore," as indicating (1.) priority in time, But neither of these emendations seems to

and (2.) preference ; e.9., throw much light upon what, at the best, is a somewhat obscure pussage.

(1.) “ And they that at the seige lay, 368. That stay his cure, that wait to be Or it was past the fifth day, cured by him. The malady, as appears Had made," etc.—Barbour. from the sequel, was the king's-evil, co

“Therefore in aventure to dee called because it was believed that the

He wa'd him put or he wa'd flee."-16. Power of removing the sickness by "touching" was inherited by the English kings, | i.e., he would rather put himself in danger from Edward the Confessor (the king re- of death than flee. We find or euer toferred to in the text) downwards, even to gether in the Bible of 1551, -" But we (or the Hanoverian dynasty. The practice ruer he come neare) are redy in the meane reached its height in the reign of Charles season to kyl him."-Acts xxiii. 15. In the II., who, between 1660 and 1664, is said | authorized version it is also “or ever" in to have touched 24,000 persons.

this passage. 368. Convinces, overpowers, and frus 399. O, relation. What do the editors trates,

I mean by putting a comma after relation ? Surely not to make it the nom. of address, | appropriately follows up the suggestion, applied by Macduff to his "ever-gentle that the reflections of Macduff's last speech cousin,” Rosse ?

should be the whetstone of his sword. 401. That of an hour's age doth hiss the 459. All intermission, all impediments speaker, so thick and fast do they come, and intervening time. that even those but an hour old are slale, 462. Heaven forgive him too. The word and held in contempt.

modified by too is forgive : If he escape, 402. Teems, used in the trans. and lit. let him also be forgiven. The meaning is, sense of its root A.-S. tym-an, to bring I will as soon let him escape, as heaven forth (plentifully).

will forgive him for his crimes. 407. When I came hither, etc. Observe 464. Our lack is nothing but our leave. that Rosse does not yet answer Macduff's i.e., all that we want now is the order or questions directly, or yield to his last ap | leave to start. peal, but again goes into generalities, as if seeking for courage to tell his sad tale.

Аст V. 410. Witness'd, attested. 414. Doff, from“ do off ;" as don is from

4. Since his majesty went into the field. “ do on."

Steevens remarks, that “this is one of 417. An older, etc. Constr. : “None

Shakespeare's oversights. He forgot that that Christendom gives out is an older and

he had shut up Macbeth in Dunsinane, and a better soldier."

surrounded him with besiegers." This 421. Latch, se ze, or lay hold of; from

criticism seems to take the words too liteA.-8. læcc-an, to seize; hence a latch or

rally. They simply mean, since Macbeth latchet is that which holds fast (a door).

first took the field against Malcolm, and To lace is from the same root.

do not necessarily imply that he is still in 422. Fee-grief, i.e., a grief which belongs

the field when they are spoken. to an individual. Fee is from A.-S. feoh,

19. This is her very guise, i.e., the dress which primarily signified cattle, but second

and aypearance which she usually prearily money and property; as Lat. pecunia

sents when thus walking in her sleep. is from pecus, cattle.

Guise is Fr. guise, A.-S. wise, mode or 454. Pull your hat upon your brows, an

fasbion. Its opposite is dis-guise, to asindication of deep and speechless sorrow.

sume a manner, or to conceal the person So in the old ballad :

by a strange dress. In Scotland, mum

mers are still called gysars, a name which “He pulled his hat over his browe,

is also applied to those who are disfigured And in his heart he was full woe."

by age. In Sc. gyse means a mode or 443. He has no children, clearly refer3

fashion, and a gyis is a mask. The corto Malcolm, who knew nothing of a father's

iectness of the above etymology is shown feelings, and is thus cbidden for his pre

by the presence of the same root in the mature suggestion of revenge.

old form of “otherwise,' viz, otherguess. 446. Swoop, the rapid perpendicular de

Thus : "I have in reserve a body of otherscent of a bird of prey upon its quarry.

I guess arguments."-BERKELLY, Min. Phil., The word is the same as sweep; the latter

1. 57. is from A.-S. swapan, the former from the

35. Hell is murky. Steevens suggests p. sideop.

that Lady Macbeth contemptuously quotes 447. Dispute it, strive with the feeling.

these words from her husband, and sbames 452. Naught that I am, is self-crimina

him for binting at such an idea, with the tion, as a man may exclaim, “Fool that I taunt, "a soldier, and afеard." am." Naught and naughty, meaning worth- 36. Fle! an interj. expressive of conless, base, are from no and whit, nothing. tempt; Gr, 080 ; Lat. phy, vae, vah; Ger.

455, Let grief, convert to anger, blunt i pfui; Eng. faugh! Tooke says fie is the not the heart, enrage it. The usual punctu imperative of A.-S. fian, to hate. More ation of this passage is,

probably fian is formed from fie, which is “Let grief

an onomatopeia.

55. For the dignity of the whole body, i.e., Convert to anger; blunt not the heart,

for the sake of outward rank and dignity. enrage it."

61. Wash your hands, etc., ... Banquo's With this reading. it is difficult to see buried. It is perfectly natural that, in her whom or what “grief" is to "convert to disturbed state, Lady Macbeth should thus anger;" but by taking “convert" as an in her sleep mix up the different crimes adj. or participle qualifying “ grief,” a which are pressing so terribly upon her good meaning is obtained, and the idea of conscience. grief not blunting but enraging his beart, 71. Unnatural troubles, refers to Lady

6. Swoop, the of revenge for his pres

Macbeth's troubled state of mind, which to incline, or deviate from the perpendicnthe Doctor argues inust be the result of lar. Hence to sway (1.) is to incline to some " unnatural deed.”

one side, (2.) to move backwards and for75. Annoyance, in its primary sense of wards. The latter of these meanings would hurt, injury, rather than its secondary certainly lead us to a better explanation of meaning of molestation; from Lat. nocere, to "sag with doubt," than that given above, through Fr. nuire. Probably it here refers viz., to hesitate. to self-destruction.

120. Loon, a rogue, a worthless fellow. 77. Mated, in the sense of check-mated More frequently used in Sc. than in Eng. at chess. The Doctor ineans that he is It appears in various spellings as loon, loun, non-plussed, puzzled, unable to explain loune, lowon, lowne. Loun originally means what he has seen.

a boy or servant; probably, says Jamie80. His uncle Siward. Duncan, accord- son, from Isl. liodne, lione, servus. The ing to Hollinshed, had married a daughter | bad meaning which the word secondarily of Siward, Earl of Northumberland, the acquired probably indicates the degeneracy father of the Earl who accompanied Mal of servants, perbaps also the contempt with colm to Scotland.

which their masters treated them. Of this 83. Ercite the mortified man. Their there are other examples : “ Thus' knare' provocation would excite even a man who meant once no more than lad (nor does it bas “mortified" his body, and in whom now in German mean more). 'villain' than all earthly passion is dead, i.e., a recluse peasant; a boor' was only a farmer, & or monk.

'varlet' was but a serving-man, a 'menial' 88. Unrough youths, beardless youths. one of the many, or household, a churl'

89. Protest their first of manhood, for but a strong fellow, a 'minion' a favourthe first time claim to be men.

ite."--TRENCH (Study of Words, p. 52). 93. He cannot buckle his distemper'd 124. Lily-liver'd, white livered, cowardly. cause within the belt of rule, i.e., his cause 124. Patch! a name expressing conis not one that can be carried on by the tempt; one who assumes false appearances, usual expedients; his excitement is either as a rent in a garment is covered by a madness or rage.

patch; a deceiver. From A.-8. paeccan, 96. Minutely, every minute; to be read to counterfeit. with the strong accent on first syllable, 129. Push, effort. min'-utely.

130. Will chair me ever, or dis-srat me 102. When all that is within him does now. The first folio reads, “ will cheere me condemn itself for being there. He is so euer or diseat me now." The second folio tilled with self-reproach, that he sees no substitutes “disease" for “ diseat," which thing but crime on his soul.

is evidently an attempt to get over the in105. Medicine, Steevens says, means here compatibility of "cheere" with “diseat." “physician," from Fr. médecin, and he The substitution of “chair" for "cheere" spells the word in the text “medecin." is, of course, only another way of overThis alteration seems as unnecessary as, on coming the same difficulty, and it certainly comparing it with what follows, the expla- gives a more rational sense than can posnation appears erroneous. If Caithness sibly be derived from the other readings. speaks of himself and his associates as 131. I have lived long enough, etc. These drops to be poured along with him, it passages wbich intermit the ravings of Macseems wrong to represent him as calling beth contain some of the finest poetry and Malcolm anything but the physic or remedy deepest feeling in the whole play. for the sickness of the state.

114. Skir, scur, scour ; from Goth. 108. To dew, i.e., to bedew.

scauron, Ger, scheuern, A.-S. scyr-an, to 110. Let them fly all, a concessive cl. = cleanse by rubbing; to move rapidly over though they all fly; indicating that reports a country for the purpose of exterminating had been brought him of the desertion of enemies. Vide infra, 165. his subjects.

146. Not so sick, i.e., she is ill not so 118. I sway by. i.e., I am swayed by: an- / much from sickness as, etc. other example of an English middle voice. 168. Death and bane, a pleonasm, per

119. Sag, sink, or incline from a straight haps, like "away and clear” two lines course by the action of a weight. It is an afterwards, for the sake of the rhyme. abbreviation of swag, which is the same Bane is death; A.-S. bana; which we with sway. The latter Johnson derives have also in hen-bane, a poisonous herb. from Ger. schweben, to move. Richardson 177. Discovery here signifies those who takes both from A.-8. waegan, to weigh. discover us. Jamieson is probably more correct in de 179. We learn no other but, i.e., we learn ducing both from S.-Goth. swaenga, swinga, no other report but that, etc.

183. Both more and less, both the greater the pronoun of address without reference and the less in rank.

to its case, and that we should grammaci185. Let our just censures attend the true cally construe it as the obj. Shakespeare event, i.e., may the event justify our cen- has used “he" for “him" in II. 52; why sures.

not “ thou" for “thee" here, especially as 189. What we shall say we have, and it is considerably separated from its regiwhat we owe, i.e., the limits of our right men? The connexion is: “I cannot strike and our duty.

at wretched kernes ; either I strike 0 197. Forced, enforced.

thee, Macbeth, or else I sheathe my sword 203. Fell, skin : Lat. pell-is, a hide. undeeded."

213. Recorded time, i.e., time of which al 276. Bruited, noised abroad; from Fr. record shall be kept, as opposed to eternity. bruit, noise, fame, from bruire, to rustle,

Adam: busty death ; so in the to eternity. oruit, noruited, noised

Adam, dust thou art, and to dust thou 283. Beside us, on our side. shalt return."

284. Play the Roman fool. Probably 221 Thy story, the obj. to some such Shakespeare was thinking of the death of verb a3 “repeat," “ give me," understood. | Brutus on the field of Philippi (Julius 231. Next, nearest.

Cæsar, v. 5), or of the words of Brutus in 232. Cling, shrink up; from A.-8. cling- | the same tragedy (v. 1), an, to wither.

“By which I did blame Cato for the death 234. I pull in resolution, I restrain or

Which he did give himself." check myself in that which I had resolved

285. Whiles I see lives. the gashes do upon. That this is the meaning of the words, is evident from those which follow.

better upon them, i.e., so long as I see liv239. Avouches, asserts, attests; from Fr.

ing men opposed to me, the gashes do better

upon them than upon me. avouer, Lat. advovere. 210. There is nor Nying hence, etc. Here

287. Of all men else, must mean more we have another development of Macbeth's

than "all men else." It is, of course, a

solecism to say, of all men besides yourcharacter. So long as the predictions of

self, I have avoided thee." the witches came out in his favour, he be

292. Intrenchant, that cannot be cut or lieved and trusted them. As soon as they

divided. In- here is the negative pretix, appear to be fulfilled to his disadvantage, he discredits them, and gives the order,

or inseparable particle of privation; Sans. “Arm, arm, and out!" Again he remem

an-, Gr. xv, A.-S. un. In the verb to bers that, though unfavourable to him, it intrench or entrench, the prefix is the Lat. is a fulfilment of the prophecy, and in the prep. in, which is the Sans. ina, Gr. x; words quoted indicates that he believes and from which come the Fr, en, and Eng. their predictions to have been true. Yet, in and en.. even after he is disappointed in regard to 301. Cow'd, subdued, depressed with terthis prediction, be clings tenaciously to ror. Jamieson is decided in taking it from the other one, that no man born of woman Sw. and Isl. kufw-a, kuga, to subdue, to shonld kill him.

insult. 248. Our first battle. “Battle" was fre 303. Palter, shuffle, equivocate ; from quently used in the sense of a division of Fr. poltron, which is supposed to be formed an army, or battalion ; from Fr. bataille, from pollice trunci, those who had maimed and connected with A.-8. beat-an, to strike, themselves in the thumbs to escape the conbeat.

scription. Hence a poltroon is a coward, 256. Bear-like, I must fight the course, and paltry is deceitful, frivolous. i.e., like a baited bear, I must fight against 309. Painted upon a pole, i.e., a paintall who enter the arena against me. There ing hoisted on a pole: it hence appears is some incongruity between the simile of that the practices of modern showmen are this line and that of the preceding one. If | as old, at least, as Shakespeare's time. he was tied to a stake, his position could 317. And damned be him; another inscarcely be compared to that of a baited stance of Shakespeare's disregard of the bear.

cases of pronouns. Vide ur. 52 ; v. 272, 272. Either thou, Macbeth, etc. If Notes. “thou" is correctly taken as the nom. 326. No sooner ... but, for "no sooner here, where is its predicate ? Either thou, than," frequently to be met with in Shakeor else I sheathe my sword, is hardly a speare. logical disjunction. Malone suggests that * 339. Thy kingdom's pearl, i.e., the best a line has been lost here. It is not neces and truest men of thy realm. sary to suppose anything of the kind. It 347. What's more to do, n. cl., obj. of is more likely that “thuan" is here used as “ we will perform," l. 356.

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