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when she had it not in her power, eitherto enforce her pleasure by violent means, or to effect it by the machinations of her party within the realm. The king of Pruflia, with a well appointed army, was at hanď to vindicate their rights against the one in the field; and his party was in such full poffeffion of power, as effectually to drown the voice of the other in the fenate. This must have proved a mortifying circumstance to the Empress of Russia, and some attempts have been fince made by her, in conjunction with the present Emperor, to obtain an influence in Poland. How far they will succeed, time only will discover. In the mean while, the new Emperor seems to feel that he has a very delicate part to act, between the Empress of Russia on the one hand, and the king of Prussia on the other; neither of whom, he fees, it is his interest at“present to break with. Hitherto he has acted, in this trying situation, with such address, as gives a favourable prefage of his political fagacity.

Some overtures have been made of late for a change of the constitution of Poland ; but whether thefe will be effected at all, or, if it be, whether that will be carried into effect by calmnefs or violence, cannot at present be foreseen. Nor is it poflible, till the modifications they shall adopt be fully known, to form an idea of the tendency which this change will be naturally fitted to produce. Time alone can bring these things to light. 3.1.00,

. ; Turkey. It is impoffible for any liberal minded person, to cast an eye over the map of the Turkish dominions, and not to feel à kind of melancholy regret, at contemplating the fad changes that a barbarous and despotic government has produced on the finest countries in the world. Ruin and defoJation mark the boundaries of her dominion. Those countries, which the classic page has rendered dear to every man of letters, and which were remarkable for the extent of their commerce, the judiciousness of theirdlegislators, the wisdom of their philofophers, the elegance of their arts, and the power of their arms, are now, by the chilling influence of despotifm, reduced to one undistinguished mass of rude barbarilin and indolence. The cities in ruins, the harbours choaked up, the people difpirited, and their once fertile fields converted into moraffes or exrequive defarts. It is impossible to contemplate these things, walkout feeling an

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ardent wilh, that the dread power, which produces these baneful effects,' were totally annihilated: And the first fenfation that occurs, when a war with Turkey is mentioned, is a wish, that the enemies of that illiterate people may finally prevail against them. But, when we think of the change that would probably take place, in consequence of one barbarous government being overturned by another; of the havock that must enfue among the people, and of the numberless evils that would unavoidably result from a change of government, where ignorance universally prevails ; it is inpoflible for the human mind not to shrink back with horror from the frightfülidea of it. On this principle, the philanthropift will look upon the combination, that was lately formed for overturning the Ottoman empire, with averfion, and commend the humanity, as well as the policy of those European powers, which endeavour to frustrate the aims of the aggreffors. That such incidents may occur, as to humble and humanize that imperious court, and gradually to enlighten and civilize that barbarous people, is devoutly to be withed; and that this may be in fome measure the consequence of their present humiliation, is highly probable. May the time soon arrive, when the principles of equity shall there exert their beneficent influence, in improving their government, and protecting the people, so as to bring back that country to its former power, and restore to it that influence among nations, which the fertility of the soil, and its fingular advantages for trade, ought naturally to ensure ! :D - From the beginning of the present contest between the Porte and the confederated imperial powers, the Turkish Divan seems to have been impressed with a serious fenfe of danger, and to have left no means of defence unattempted, that the state of knowledge they poffefs, and the nature of their government, admitted. Their beft generals were apud pointed to command; their inftru&ions seem to have been peremptory to defend every thing as long as possible, their troops have been excited to ardour by the allurements of a's religious enthusiasm, and they have fought with a defperal tion that has few examples in inodern times. They have been beaten, it is trụe ; but every victory has been puri" chased at such an expence of blood and treasure, as to leave the conquerors little room to boalt of their fuccefs. :' .

The Porte not only prepared herself for defence by every: means within her own power, but also, 'imitating the policy of European states, the tried to weaken her enemies by exciting a powerful diversion from another quarter.,' - The king of Sweden, allured by the temptation of a high subsidy from them, made thạt ràpid irruption in Ruslian Finland, above described; and by cutting out employment for the Russian fleet in the Baltic, prevented the Empress from attempting any naval expedition of consequence into the Mediterranean, which, had it been permitted, would have diftressed the Turk more than any other mode of attack.' For. tunately for them, Russia had behaved to Britain 'with such a haughty and insidious policy, when she had it in her power io annoy it, as made that court look with a jealous eye on any measure that tended to aggrandize her; so that it is probable, had Sweden remained quiet, the Russian fleet, in consequence of the coolness of Britain, and the present state of the other maritime powers in Enrope, would have found it a difficult matter to do any thing effectual in the Medi-, terranean. : And now even when Sweden has withdrawn, there seems to be reason to expect that Russia will still experience other checks to retard the progress of her arms by sea, which will ultimately compel her to accede to terms of pacification little suited to the hope, she entertained at the commencement of hostilities. Nothing can be more foolish than war in modern tinies : If success attends the exertions of any potentate, new enemies spring up in consequence of every victory, so as to compel the most powerful to accept of peace at last, on terms little proportioned to the vigour of her exertions. Y...,

.For many centuries, the Turk was the terror of Christen. dam: but these days are long past;, and she will now, it is hoped, begin, from necessity, to court the alliance of other nations, and with that view will be obliged to think and to ac in such a manner as to secure their favour. Should, that happen, commercial freedom and security must first bei granted to the subjects of these friendly powers; and this: kind of security will be gradually extended to the fubjects themselves of the state. A police capable of discovering and punishing the guilty, and of protecting the innocent, will be found necessary. The benefits that will by this

means accrue to the revenue, will come to be felt; and it will be perceived, that fiscal wealth results from the prosperity of the people, and the consequent increase of trade. The effects of a naval force will be perceived in regard to național defence; and this, it will be found, can only be kept up by encouraging private trading vessels. A more general intercourse with foreign nations must ensue : knowledge with this must increase ; and that religious bigotry which tends so strongly to excite enmity between different nations, subfide; and thus, by degrees, without any violent revalation, an empire may be eftablished at Constantinople, which shall be as friendly, as that which has hitherto pre

vailed there has been hurtful to the industry of mankind. : When that time shall arrive, what a glorious spectacle will

this exhibit to admiring nations ! The Phoenix rising from her ashes, in all the ardour of youth, with renovated lustre, one would think, had been devised as a type of that happy reformation.

A Catalogue of New Publications. Thoughts on the present scheme of extensive taxation, London, Stockdale, Is.

Letters to the Right Honourable Mr. Burke, occasioned by his reflections on the Revolution in France, 2s, 6d.

A Syftem of Anatomy and Physiology, with the comparative Anatomy of Animals, 3 vols, 8vo. Robinsons, il. is. boards. .

Medical Commentaries for the year 1790, by Andrew · Duncan, M. D. Robinsons, 8vo. 6s.

Questions to be resolved; or a New Method of exercising the attention of young people. Translated from the French of Madame de la Fite. Murray, 12mo, 25. 6d.

A treatise on the Extraction of the Cataract, by D. Auguftus Gottlib Richter. Tranflated from the German, Murray, 8vo. 45.

Sacred Biography; or the History of the Patriarchs, by Henry Hunter, D. D. vol. 5. Murray, 6s. ' Remarks on the Advertisement of the Committee on the

Abolition of the Slave Trade. Egertoo, 8vo.

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Curfory Hints and Anecdotes of the late Doctor WILLIAM . CULLEN of Edinburgh, continued from page 56..

That Doctor Cullen poífessed genius, no man will deny. The universal reputation he obtained, seems to be a demonstrative proof of this : But when this is admitted, it conveys no definité idea of the talents of Cullen. There are many, men, who have equally obtained the name of men of genius, who could never perceive the nature of that charm by which he enchanted so many persons in such an extraordinary degree. They perceived not in him those wonderful talents that others complimented him with; and they were ready to ascribe the enthutafm” they saw, to a kind of fascination. ;

The truth, however, is, that our language is by far too imperfect to admit expressions on this subject iuiniciently distinctive. The indefinite term Genius is indifcriminately applied to denote a superior degree of mental faculties, of whatever kind or denomination they may be. It is a wonder then, that among this diver,

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Vol. I.

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