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149 Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.

150 ing up of vessels during the incle- the water being retained by the gates mencies of winter, and a quay had during the recess of the tides. The also been found for the shipping and dry Docks are those into which the unshipping of their cargoes. The in- water flows, and from which it retires crease of trade, however, rendered this without any obstruction. The graving mole and this quay insufficient for Docks are those into which the tide is all the purposes of commerce. An permitted to enter, or from which it act was therefore procured in 1710, is excluded, as conveniency requires : empowering the inhabitants to con- in these docks the ships enter for the struct a wet dock, in which vessels purpose of caulking, or to undergo might enter, and lie continually afloat. repairs. These are connected with This was at a time when all the ship- the other docks, and there is an enping belonging to the port amounted trance into three from the dry Dock, only to eighty-four sail, averaging less which we noticed in the preceding pathan 70 tons each, and navigated by ragraph. no more than eleven men at a me- The second wet dock that was condiam.

structed in Liverpool, is denominated The dock thus provided, and which Salthouse Dock, from its being contifrom the period of its construction, is guous to a salt work formerly estadenominated the Old Dock, runs in blished there, but which has since an eastwardly direction, considerably been removed up the river to Garston. into the town. It is Surrounded with The form of this dock is not quite rehouses, shops, and merchant's ware- gular. Its area includes 22,420 square houses ; and several of the most po- yards, and its quay nearly 640. Its pulous and busy streets open imme- gates are 34 feet wide, and 35 feet diately on its wharfs. The custom- deep. The upper end is chiefly occuhouse stands at its eastern extremity. pied by ships that are laid up, and This dock is 195 yards long ; in its the lower by corn and timber vessels. broadest part it is 92 yards, and in its George's Dock extends from the narrowest 78. The whole area is corner of St. Nicholas's church-yard, 17,070 square yards, and the extent of to Moor-street. It was completed at the quay with which it is encircled is an expense of £21,000. The act for 652 yards. The gates are 33 feet wide, its construction was obtained in the and 25 feet deep. A handsome cast- 11th of George II. Its dimensions iron bridge is thrown over the en- are 246 yards in length, and 100 in trance, which opens as necessity re- breadth, enclosing an area of 26,068 quires. West India ships, Irish square yards. The gates are 38 feet traders, and vessels from the Medi- wide, and 26 deep. Ships from the terranean, generally frequent this West Indies generally frequent this dock. The site which it occupies, dock, the quay of which is about 700 is that where the Pool originally square yards. The Old Dock, Saltstood; and it is worthy of remark, house Dock, and George's Dock, have a that in the act which was granted for communication with each other, so its formation, the land is described as that vessels can remove from one to being “ in or near a certain Pool, on the other, or to the graving docks, the south side of the said town of Liver- without being exposed to the inconpool.

venience of going into the river. Without the gates is a dry Dock, in A small dock belonging to the Duke which sloops from various parts of the of Bridgewater, and thence denomicoast,importing corn, provisions,slates, nated The Duke's Dock, lies between and other articles of a similar descrip- Salthouse Dock, and the King's Dock. tion, generally lie. These having dis- This is chiefly appropriated to the accharged their respective cargoes, take commodation of his flats and barges, back West India produce, and goods but many other vessels arriving from that had been imported from the Baltic the neighbouring coasts, occasionally and the Mediterranean. The quays enter, and find security. This also is which surround this Dock, occupy an a wet dock. An extensive warehouse extent of about 360 yards.

stands on the margin, in which are deThe Docks of Liverpool are of three posited the various kinds of merchankinds; the wet, the dry, and the grav- dise, with which these vessels are ing Docks. The wet Docks are those freighted. in which ships are continually afloat, The King's Dock lies at the south

151

Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.

152

of the Duke of Bridgewater's. This cured from the tides, a spacious parade capacious receptacle is 270 yards in will be formed, from which an extenlength, and 95 in breadth, forming an sive survey may be taken of the hararea of 25,650 square yards. The bour, and also of the shipping either gates of this dock are 42 feet wide, lying at anchor, or entering and deand 26 feet deep. An elegant cast- parting from the port. iron bridge, which turns on a pivot, is The extensive range of wharfs and thrown across its entrance. Contigu- quays connected with these Docks, ous to this dock a vast range of when taken in the aggregate, scarcely buildings called the King's Tobacco admits a rival in any sea-port in Engwarehouse. Into this dock all vessels land. Extended in one continued laden with this commodity are obliged line, they might have presented a to enter, it being the only place in more imposing aspect to the eye of which they are permitted to discharge the spectator, but in this case, what their cargoes. Ships from the Baltic, theywould have gained in magnificence, from America, and from the East In- they would have lost in accommodadies, likewise enter here, but those of tion and utility. In constructing the the latter description can only unload draw-bridges which cross the entrance on the western side.

to George's and Salthouse Docks, the The Dry Dock, or basin, which lies Dutch plan has been adopted. The between King's Dock and Queen's contrivance is admirable; as they can Dock, communicates with both.- be lifted from, and restored to their Queen's Dock is 470 yards long, and proper positions with the greatest 227 broad, forming an area of about facility. The gates also are furnished 54,025 square yards, thus constituting with sluices and apertures, by means the largest dock in the harbour. The of which the water within, may be redimensions of its gates correspond gulated according to the state of the with those of King's Dock. It is fre- tides without, and men are appointed quented by ships from various parts, to open and close them as circumand its extensive wharfs and quays stances may require. furnish every facility that commercial To remove the mud which would transactions can require. On its east- otherwise accumulate, to the great anern side near the centre, an extensive noyance of the shipping, a curious shed of cast-iron is supported by pil- contrivance has lately been called into lars of the same materials. This af- operation, through which, by means of fords shelter to such merchandise as a steam engine of ten-horse power, is taken on shore when the weather about fifty tons of mud can be raised is inclement, and that cannot instantly per hour. This, wbile the machine is be removed. Its quay is remarkably afloat, is taken up from the bottom, spacious; and two graving docks with on the principle of dredging, and imwhich it can command a communica- mediately thrown by the same machine tion, adds to its general commodious- into mud barges built for the purpose,

and carried to a place beyond the The Prince's Dock, though nearly reach of the tides. finished, has not yet been opened for To prevent disorder and confusion, the reception of ships. This it is ex- Dock-masters, and a Harbour-master, pected will take place during the ensu- are appointed, to whose management ing summer, 1821. It is the north- the regulation of the shipping and the ernmost of all the docks, and is very docks is consigned. These have their capacious, extending in length 500 respective departments, and to these, yards, and in breadth 106, covering an such as want situations for their vesarea of 53,000 square yards. This sels, either to discharge or receive Dock has gates at each end, with locks cargoes, must apply. so constructed, that vessels may have To prevent the dreadful calamities ingress and egress at half tide. Those which must ensue, should a fire take on the south open into the basin of place in any ship, every precaution is George's Dock, and those on the north adopted. No ship, while lying in any into a basin of its own. Its strength of the docks, is suffered to have fire seems to be adapted to its peculiar si- on board, not even a lighted candle, tuation. The whole length on the east- unless secured in a lantern; nor is the ern side is enclosed with a lofty brick smoking of tobacco allowed, under a wall, and on the west, strongly se- penalty of forty shillings for each

ness.

153

Extraordinary Preservation.

154

offence. The same fine is levied on all his creatures. Should you deem it every vessel that has gunpowder on worthy a place in your interesting board ; and combustible matter left by publication, its insertion will oblige, night either on the quay or on deck, is

Yours, respectfully, visited with a penalty of ten pounds.

A CONSTANT READER. Scarcely a week elapses in which some fines are not levied either on the care- “ In the evening, I made a safe harless or the obstinate. Under certain bour, in a little lagoon, on the sea regulations, steam vessels have recent- shore. I drew up my light vessel on ly been permitted to enter the Docks. the sloping coast, that she might be

The revenues arising from the Docks safe from the beating waves in case of are considerable; and as the com- a sudden storm of wind in the night. merce of Liverpool becomes more and Having collected a sufficiency of dry more extended, those revenues must wood to keep up a light during the regularly increase. In 1724 the Dock night, and to roast some trout which duties amounted only to £810. 11s. 6d.: afforded me a wholesome supper, I in 1752, to £1776. 88. 2d. : in 1800, to hung the remainder of my broiled fish £23,379. 13s.6d. in 1810, to£65,782. 18.: on the snags of some shrubs over my and in 1819, to £117,962. 14s. 6d. The head. I at last, after reconnoitering Docks are vested in the corporation as my habitation, returned, spread abroad trustees; and the accounts are ex- my skins and blanket upon the clean amined and settled annually by seven sands by my fire-side, and betook mycommissioners, not belonging to the self to repose, body corporate, who are appointed for All now being silent and peacethis purpose.

able, I suddenly fell asleep. At midBut large and numerous as these night I awoke; when, raising my head Docks are, they seem to be inadequate erect, I found myself alone in the wilto the multitudes of ships that frequent derness of Florida, on the shores of the port. Hence Brunswick Dock, Lake George: alone indeed, but lying at the south of Queen's Dock, under the care of the Almighty, and has been begun; but some consider- protected by the invisible hand of my able time must elapse before this can guardian angel. When quite awake, be completed. This will be 430 yards I started at the heavy tread of some in length, and 120 in breadth. It has animal; the dry limbs of trees upon also been in contemplation to make an the ground cracked under his feet; the addition to George's Dock of 241 close shrubby thickets parted and bent yards in length, and 214 in breadth. under him as he rushed off. I reShould these works be completed, it kindled my sleepy fire. The bright has been proposed to fill up the old flame ascended, and illuminated the Dock entirely, and to establish on the ground and groves around me; when site, a custom house, excise office, looking up, I found my fish carried off, dock and police office ; to devote a part though I had thought them safe on the to commercial purposes ; and to appro- shrubs, just over my head; but their priate another portion to a market- scent, carried to a great distance by place. But the accomplishment of the damp nocturnal breezes, I suppose these plans must be the work of future were too powerful attractions to resist. years.

Perhaps, it may not be time lost, [To be continued.]

to rest awhile here, and reflect on the unexpected and unaccountable incident; which however pointed out to me an extraordinary deliverance or

protection of my life, from the rapaSir,- Reading, a few days ago, the cious wolf that stole my fish from over journal of that ingenious and enter- my head. prising traveller, Mr. Wm. Bartram, “ How much easier and I was forcibly struck with the follow- eligible might it have been for him to ing account of his singular preserva- have leaped upon my breast in the tion from the jaws of a rapacious dead of sleep, and torn my throat, Wolf; which, I think, strikingly illus- which would have instantly deprived trates the watchful care and superin- me of life, and then glutted his stomach tending providence that our Father for the present with my warm blood, “who is in heaven” exercises towards and dragged off my body, which would No. 24. – VOL. III,

L

66

EXTRAORDINARY PRESERVATION,

more

155

St. Michael's Steeple.

156

have made a feast afterwards for him greatest caution and silence rear up, and his howling associates! I say, and take them off the snags one by would not this have been a wiser step, one, then make off with them, and that than to have made protracted and so cunningly as not to awaken me until circular approaches, and then, after he had fairly accomplished his purespying the fish over my head, with the pose ?"

ST. MICHAEL'S STEEPLE.

The representation which accompanies this brief description, is connected with a Chureh of correspondent elegance, ereeted in Kent-street, Liverpool. The work was undertaken about two years since ; and, through persevering industry, the exterior of this magnificent structure received its completion in the autumn of 1820.

The entire height of the steeple from the pavement to its summit is 223 feet. It consists of an ample, but plain basement, which supports a solid Ionic order with its entablature. This is surmounted by a beaatiful Corinthin order with its entablature. Over this rises a beautiful octagonal spire, which is terminated with a gilt ball and cross, resembling those of St. Paul's in London. The point thus decorated, when glittering in the sun, exhibits a pleasing spectacle. Being conspicuous at a considerable distance, it greatly augments the ornamental appearance of the town, and invites the observer to a nearer inspection, without fearing to suffer any disadvantage from the most minute examination.

The houses indeed, which are extended before its front, approximate so nearly, as, in a partial manner, to obstruct the view. Several of these, we hear, are to be taken down. Should this be accomplished, a survey of the whole may be taken at a convenient distance, which will exhibit its magnificence, without diminishing the effect.

Although it is placed at no great distance from St. Thomas's Steeple, which exhibits one of the most beautiful spires in this country, being 240 feet, which is 17 feet more than St. Michael's, yet the latter, from its elevated situation, preserves an apparent superiority. And independently of all comparison, it is a fabric which for lightness, elegance, and harmonious proportion of parts, has not been surpassed, if equalled, by any erection in England, during many years.

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157

Solutions to Mathematical Questions.

158

SOLUTIONS OF MATHEMATICAL QUERIES.

a

e

Solutions to the three Questions of G. D. (R. N.) Portchester, inserted in

No. 21, Col. 959. By H. Perkins of Liverpool. Question 1st.-Let a, b, c, d, and e, represent respectively the number of days,

1 1 1 in which each man would perform the work alone:

and the

b c d work done by each man in one day, and

1 1 1 1

1

and the work 20' 22' 24'26'

28 done by each company per day, from which, together with the Question, we derive the following equations. 1 1

120120ths
+
b

d 20 6060
1
b
+
d

5460
22

+
+

a

+

C

e

1

+

+ + +

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d

e

24

+

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[blocks in formation]

1 1 1 1 and +

+

4290
b

28
Let these equations be all added together, and we have
4

4 4 25381
+ +

+
b
d

120120
1

25381
or by Division

+
b
d

480480 Let the five original equations be ņow severally subtracted from this last ; when we shall have 25381-24024 1357

480480

Days
102

for E.
480480

or 354
480480
1357

1357
25381--21840 3541

480480

2445

for A.
480480
480480

3541

3541 25381--20020 5361

480480

1117

89 for B.
480480
480480

5361

1787 25381-18480 6901

480480

4311
69

for C.
480480
480480

6901

6901
25381-17160

8221
480480

3662
.. d=

or 58

for D.
480480
480480

8221

8221 2445 1117 4311 So that 135

3662

102
89
69
58

and 354 respectively, 3541' 1787 6901' 8221'

1357 are the number of days, in which A, B, C, D, and E, would perform the work alone. Again, let the time required to complete the work, when they all work to

1 1

25381 gether be but X,

+

the work done in .6

480480 one day by the whole; therefore,

Days. the work done in 25281 as 1 : x ::

: 1, one day, viz.

480480 or the whole work; whence by multiplying extreams and means, x will be found = 18

which is the time required to complete the work when

25381 the men all work together.

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