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lives without becoming capitalists; a state of society in which no man will live on the fruits of another man's labor, and no man will be denied the fruits of his own labor. This is what I mean by industrial democracy. More specifically, it means the universal diffusion of the economic virtues temperance, honesty, and truth; the coöperation of the head and hands in an industrial partnership; a just and equitable division of the products of their joint industry between the tool-owners and the tool-users; a fair opportunity for the tool-user to become part owner of the tools that he labors with; growing coöperation between the laborer and the capitalist, or the tooluser and the tool-owner, in both ownership of the tool and the direction of the industry; and a frank recognition of the fundamental truth that every individual is entitled to the product of his individual industry, to a just proportion of the product which in joint industry he has helped to create, and to a participation in that common wealth which, being produced by no individual industry, belongs of right to the entire community. Democracy appears to me to be slowly but surely coming to a recognition of these principles. In the recognition of these principles and their incorporation in the industrial life of the community is the solution of our labor problem.

CHAPTER X

THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF GOVERNMENT

IN November, 1909, three hundred miners were entombed in a mine at Cherry, near Spring Valley, Illinois, for a week. The living were here imprisoned with the dead. At the end of that time twenty-two miners were rescued alive. They had kept themselves free from the fatal gas by building a barricade. Saved from death by suffocation, they were threatened with death by thirst. Two of these men, self-constituted leaders by virtue of their character, gave orders for the protection of the little community. They directed that the three members of the party who were sick should have the first chance at the little pools of water that were in the depressions that had been scooped out of the veins of coal. Against these orders some of the men revolted, and one was discovered stealing water from one of the sick miners. He was seized by the guard whom the self-constituted leaders had appointed and, after a struggle, was felled to the ground and made a prisoner.

Such is always the origin of government. For

the protection of the community some man, or some body of men, exercise control, to which usually the majority yield willing obedience, and, if the government is successful, the minority an unwilling obedience. This government is always based upon power. A command is not a command unless there is power to enforce it. Without such power it is only advice. When one man, or a group of men, get such control in a community that they can make the rest obey their commands, there is the beginning of government; and all governments in the history of the world have begun in this way. Parental government is no exception to this fundamental principle. In the well-ordered family the child obeys the requirements of his parents because they are his parents and have a right to demand submission to their authority, as in a well-ordered State the citizens obey the government because it is the government and has a right to demand submission to its authority.

This government may be that of one strong man ruling over the rest, in which case it is an autocracy; it may be a small body of men, or class of men, ruling over the rest, then it is an oligarchy; it may be the many ruling over the rest, then it is a democracy. But it is not a government at all unless the ruler, be he one, few, or many, has a recognized authority to issue com

mands and power to enforce obedience to them. This power may be that of an armed force, then the government is a military government; it may be a traditional or inherited power exercised by a class and resting upon tradition, then it is an hereditary aristocracy; it may be that of a selected body of office-holders intrusted by long custom with practically irresponsible power, then it is a bureaucracy ; it may be the power of concentrated wealth exercised through political forms that may be either monarchic, oligarchic, aristocratic, or democratic. Then, whatever the political forms, the government is a plutocracy.

To these historic forms of government our fathers attempted to add another-self-government. It was founded upon three fundamental principles, the truth of which was tacitly assumed rather than explicitly expressed. They were:

First, that the mass of men are better able to govern themselves than the few are to govern them; that the perils from the ignorance of the governed are less than the perils from the selfishness of the governors.

Second, that therefore men should be left free to manage their own affairs, and only their own affairs; that therefore each man should govern himself in respect to those things that concern only himself, and each community should govern

itself in those things which concern only itself. Hence grew up local self-government and the Federal system: the town government for the town, the municipal government for the city, the county government for the county, the State government for the State, and, finally, the Federal Government for those National interests which concern the people of all the towns, cities, counties, and States. Hence the provision of the Constitution that "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." "

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Third, that men are not born able to govern themselves as fish are to swim, or birds are to fly, but that all men have a dominant capacity for self-government; that they must be, and they can be, educated; hence the public-school system.

Thus was the new Nation born, inspired by a new ideal, and founded on a new political faith - faith in humanity.

But it needed education in a school of conflict. The Declaration of Independence was deemed, both in the South and in the North, to be applicable only to the white race. Slavery, which both

1 It is true that this is a subsequent Amendment to the Constitution, but there is no doubt that it expresses the spirit of the original document, and of those who framed that document.

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