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made the principal figure. Early in the stance, was, during three months, in the year a fire happened at Constantinople, end of summer and beginning of auwhich did considerable damage. But tumn, grievously afflicted with the plague, on the 4th of July a terrible one broke which carried off great numbers of

perout, and continued burning a day and a fons. e

half. It was reckoned, that by it be The Turkish councils have for a contween 12 and 15,000 houses were redu. fiderable time been reckoned to be much

ced to ashes, and that upwards of 1000 under the influence of the courts of Veri

persons lost their lives. They told us, sailles, Berlin, and Stockholm. This that no such fire had happened there was in a great measure owing to those fince the reign of Sultan Amurath. It courts being on the side oppofite to the cannot be supposed bat that fires should courts of Vienna and Petersburg, the now and then be accidentally kindled in close connection between which was any city, especially in one of such ex matter of jealousy to the Porte. One tent and so built as Conftantinople, would be apt to imagine, that France They are, however, reckoned to be free must have lost much of the favourable quently the effects of design, being the ear the ufed to obtain at Conftantinople; fignals to some infurrection, or the fruits and that if the Ottomans think at all aof a general discontent among the peo- bout a balance of power, they could not ple. Whether in consequence of them contentedly see the two Empresses, their fome of the removes in the ministry were already potent neighbours, further agmade, as a sacrifice to the populace, was grandise themselves by swallowing up not publicly said; but the janisaries gave his Pruffian Majesty's poffeffions. We several intimations of their being in bad formerly used to be told, when the jahumour. There was a violent insurrec nisaries discovered a keenness for war 2tion among them in the Morea ; and as gainst any of the Christian powers, that a party of them fided with the bashaw, they were fpirited up by French inand another opposed him, some bloody trigues; because as that nation wanted skirmishes ensued, in which upwards of neither money nor cunning, so it was 3000 men lost their lives, and near 9000 supposed to have abundance of ill-will houses were burnt down. The garrison to both Ruffia and the house of Austria, of Aleppo, composed of men of the same against either of which such a war would body, took up arms against the balhaw probably have been undertaken. As the commanding there, put him to death, court of Versailles has changed fides, and afterwards reduced his palace to and stipulated to concur in encouraging athes. We were informed, that the in- the Sultan's pacific disposition, if the jahabitants of Thyatira, one of the richet nisaries still continue in the same hoc cities in Natolia, had risen against their mour, it would seem natural to absolve' governor; and that at Conia, Salonica, the French from having any hand at Volo, and several other parts of the Ot. present in exciting them to it. Since the toman empire, they were ready to set up war in Germany broke out, we have had a standard to revolt. It was said, chat frequent accounts from Vienna of the the janisaries murmured no less against marks of friendship shewn by the Grand the present Sultan than his predeceffor, Signior to the Empress-Queen, of his on account of his pacific disposition ; nay, sending her a present of horses, and

perthat they had been projecting the eleva- mitting her to buy up several thousands tion of another to the throne, who would more in his dominions for remounting give scope to their eagerness for war. her cavalry. In the mean time there We have also been lately told, that the were advices from other quarters, that intrigues in the seraglio, which it was if the Ruffian troops actually marched hoped were entirely extinguished, begin to affift the Empress-Queen against his to revive. Besides these civil commo. Prussian Majesty, the Turks would make

tions, the city of Conftantinople, with a diversion in his favour, with an army $ its neighbourhood to a considerable di. of 100,000 men. VOL. XIX.



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In POLAND very little worth notice Empress-Queen, arrived at the frontier happened during last year. Near the towards the end of the year, the advices, beginning of June the King went from which came from thence at that time Dresden to Carga, a town on the fron- bore, that the Poles would not grant a tier of that kingdom, where he issued passage to it through their country, that the univerfalia for holding a general they would oppose any attempts to force diet. In most of the dietines for the e. one, and would even reclaim the affi. lection of deputies, the disputes were stance of the Turks for that purpose if carried on with sword and pistol, which necessary. It may not be amiss to reproduced the spilling of much blood, and collect, that three Turkish ministers, the loss of many lives. Such proceedings though without a public character from in the dietines use to be the certain signs the Grand Signior, were at Warsaw of a tumultuous and fruitless general during the last general diet in 1754, diet, such as have been for a good many pretty much contrary to the King of times successively, without any one thing Poland's inclinations ; -that they correof public concern being done. What sponded chiefly with the lords suppofed would have happened in the one last in. to be in opposition to the measures of dicted, we cannot know, because the the court; that one of them in particutroubles in Saxony prevented the assem. lar brought letters, intimating the great bling of it. The King of Poland ha. friendship of the Porte for Poland, re. ving set out from the fortress of Konig- presenting the protection and assistance stein, in consequence of his Saxon ar- The had afforded it as occafion required, my's surrender to the King of Prussia, as and offering the like fuccours for prebefore taken notice of, he arrived at venting any affairs taking a curn conWarsaw on the 30th of October, ac. trary to its true interest [xvi. 488.); and companied by his two sons the Princes that a large body of Ottomon troops Xavierus and Charles, and Count Bruhl have for some years been so posted, that his prime minister. There, before a they could, upon short warning, act tomeeting of the grandees who happened ward either Ruslia or Poland, as might to be in the capital, he expressed his fa- be judged proper. tisfaction at not having been the author Several things relating to RUSSIA of his own misfortunes, and congratu. have been necessarily anticipated, such lated himself upon bis having got among as her new alliance with France, her his dear Polanders. How far he had coldness towards the court of London, contributed to what had happened him and the march of her troops to aslift the in Saxony, may in some measure be Empress.Queen against the King of estimated from the papers found in his Prussia. The Rullians in motion have chancery at Dresden, and published by been very differently computed, namethe King of Pruffia (xviii. 651.]. It is ly, from 70,000 to 130,000. Latest well known, that the King of Poland accounts from that part of the world at has very little influence in that state, the end of the year made them amount sometimes called a kingdom, sometimes to about the latter number. It was once a republic. The Poles entertain a jea. imagined, that the papers found and lousy, that, with the assistance of the two published by the King of Prussia, would Empresses, he wants to render the crown, induce the court of Petersburg, as a very which is elective, hereditary in his fa- impartial power, to be neutral in the war mily; and this makes them generally begun between the courts of Vienna and thwart his measures. They have a par. Berlin ; but the contrary has happened. ticular, grudge at Russia for till keeping The Empress of Ruflia signified her high poffeffion of Coorland, a dachy that displeasure at the imputations thrown used to be dependent upon Poland, for upon her in the Prussian monarch's exa sum of money which Peter the Great position of the motives which induced lent

upon it. When part of a Russian him to prevent the designs of his enearmy, intended for the affiftance of the mies (xviii. 488.], and yet appears to


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juftify those very imputations by facts, In March the high committee of inquiry and by acknowledging that she intends made search into the scheme supposed to to have his power reduced within nar. be on foot for altering the form of gorower bounds. The accounts which vernment; and several more persons came from Petersburg in the end of the were imprisoned. It was said in favour year, represented her Imperial Majesty's of a change, that the liberties of the life as in great danger by an ulcer in her people suffered much more from the unbreast. For some years past the land. conftitutional power of a junto, than it forces of Russia have been reckoned at would from a proper exertion of the abouc 300,000 regulars, and 100,000 royal authority, which was daily more Cossacks and Calmucks. Her navy has and more absorbed. On the 22d of been said to consist of 43 ships of the June a conspiracy was discovered, which line, 300 galleys, and 160 smaller vef- was to have been put in execution the sels, having 40,000 registered seamen to next night. The conspirators had conman it.

certed measures for securing themselves A general diet of the states of Swe- on all sides, without the effusion of blood DEN assembled in October 1755, and if poflible. Next they were to march continued sitting about a whole year. up hastily to the royal palace, and invest They soon entered upon the considera. it; then they were to beseech the King tion of certain questions relating the to come down to them; and afterwards King's prerogative, and the privileges of to force the states immediately to confer the senate; in the discussing of which upon his Majesty the sovereignty, or futhe debates run high, their deliberations preme power. These proceedings were being greatly imbarrassed by shoals of to be followed by the imprisonment of pamphlets, that appeared on opposite some of the senators and principal memfides, started new difficulties, and in. bers of the diet. This plot being discreased the doubts and perplexities of covered, many of the persons concerned the members. The court of France has in it were taken into custody, and a good for several years been supposed to have number of them put to death. A corbeen encouraging a project for the re- poral, who made the discovery, was restoration of despotism in Sweden. Ear- warded by the states with 100,000 rixly last year two members of the diet dollars; besides which he was raised to were accused of having attached them- the dignity of noblesse for himself and his selves too strongly to the French intereft, issue. After this several demands were and upon that absconded. After that made upon the King by the diet, and several persons were taken into custody, such conduct was observed towards him for endeavouring to impress the public as he took much amiss. Several remonwith favourable notions of absolute power strances had formerly been made by the in the King. However fond the French senate, in which his Majesty had been may have been to get the form of go. loaded with heavy imputations. Now vernment altered in that country, when the diet appointed a committee to exathey thought it would serve their interest, mine the crown-jewels, which were in it cannot well be supposed they would in the Queen's hands. When their demand the least contribute towards the accom was made, her Majesty answered, that plishment of such a project, after they he could by no means submit to an inhad notice of the accommodation be- spection of that nature, especially as such tween his Britannic Majesty and the a step seemed to proceed from a manifest King of Prussia, considering that the distrust which the states of the kingdom latter's filter is Queen of Sweden, and a entertained of her; that therefore the politician, and especially fince they had would cause those jewels be immediatea prospect of entering into a close con- ' ly separated from her own, and be denection with Ruflia. If they had put livered to the states; for that she knew that affair into agitation, they had not herself too well to wear them more. been able to stop its progress all at once. This we were informed the actually did,


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The King addressed a very pathetic-let- for their support. He declared, that he ter to the states assembled, in which, a- could no longer hold the reins of go. mong many other things, he said, that vernment with any satisfaction, unless in the execution of his designs for the the states diftinctly informed him, on happiness of the kingdom, and especial. what footing he might for the future ly fince the meeting of the diet, he had exercise with reasonable eafe the rights met with difficulties which made him and prerogatives of his royalty, without very sensible of the weight of a crown; giving room for differences to spring up that he supposed, that in the exercise of every moment between him and the fethe royal power he was to have had no nate, and without incroaching on the lia other director, under the word of God berty of the states; and he said, that and his own conscience, than the form when the states should have marked out of government, his act of settlement, that path, they might be assured he would and the fundamental laws of the king- follow it, and that he would be the prindom; that he imagined none could, cipal support of their liberties and privia without his knowledge, lessen or extend leges. In fine, he declared, that if he their bounds, contrary to the spirit and were laid under an inability of manifeft. letter according to which he accepted ing the integrity of his heart, and his and swore to observe them; that he fervent zeal for the welfare of Sweden, thought that as he looked upon the pro. he had rather' renounce a crown, than mise he had made before God and the continue to wear it in continual anguith, states to be sacred and inviolable, he and on a footing unworthy of royal mamight require of his subjects the per- jesty. On the other hand, the states formance of their promise made to him caused several pieces be inserted in their with equal folemnity; that nevertheless journal. Among other things they faid, he had the mortification to find, on ea that in proposing to inspect the jewels of very occasion, his prerogative induftri- the crown, they demanded nothing but ously incroached upon, and harder con. what was agreeable to the laws and ditions prescribed to him than those che constitutions; and could not see without King his predecessor fubmitted to; that great displeasure, that the Queen should by the manner in which the fenate in. impute this step to any diftruft on their ter preted the laws, he was reduced to a part, and make use of such expressions, worse fate than that of the meanest as that she knew herself too well to wear Swede, who could not be compelled to those jewels longer. Besides this, ob act against his conscience ; that he knew fervations were made on the part of both not whether he was master in his own the King and the senate; after which house; and that the things which chief- the grand committee of the fates exaly wounded his delicacy, degraded the mined the whole, and among other royal authority, and imbittered the ex. things reported, that his Majelty's de. ercise of its functions, were the repeated claration, that he could not confirm harsh and undeserved reproaches con with his fign-manual what his own contained in divers remonstrances, accusing science rejected, and what he thought him of acting contrary to his act of feio contrary to the fundamental laws, was a tlement, of admitting foreigners into the declaration that he could not govern by administration of the laws, of giving oc- the laws of the land, as he had sworn to casion to measures destructive of the do; those laws requiring him to sign re. public liberty, of suffering himself to be folations of the fenate which he did not led by evil counsellors, and other fimilar approve, though they permitted him to imputations, which he could not call to enter bis protest, and appeal to the states. mind without blushing. He protested, This, with the rest of the committee's that the liberties of the kingdom were report, the ftates confirmed by a refoluas sacred and dear to him as to any tion, which concluded with an earnest Swede whatever, and that he would exhortation to his Majesty, to restore chearfully spill the last drop of his blood peace to the kingdom and honour to the


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- throne, by executing those laws which terest of the weaker. This will be eafi

alone could make him great, by keepó ly understood, when it is recollected, ing his people free. The states, after that the Swedes in general think with

deliberation, fent five members of the much regret on the fine provinces along =

order of the clergy to his Majesty at the bottom of the Baltic, conquered from Ulrichsdal, whither the royal family had them by Peter the Great of Russia ; that retired, with a new act of fecurity for for a considerable number of years they the preservation of the established form have hoped to recover those provinces, of government. To this the King gave on a proper occasion, by the assistance his confent; and at the fame time the of France in particular; and that the Queen delivered to that deputation a court of Versailles last summer guaranwritten declaration, bearing that the de- tied all the poffeffions of the Empress of tested the dangerous conspiracy rome Russia, in such a manner as to support time before formed. What were the ar no claim upon any of the conquefts made ticles of this new act of security, and by her or her predecessors upon Sweden. whether his Majesty received such clear We have already declared our opinion, and precise explanations for regulating that it is at present more than ordinarily his conduct in the exercise of his royal difficult to form a judgment concerning prerogative as he wanted, we have not the systems of several courts in Europe:

heard. We have been informed, that For some years we have heard the 1,

previous to that deputation there were land-forces of Sweden computed at high debates in the grand committee, in bout 64,000 men; and her marine at which a nobleman of great parts and twenty ships of the line, and seventy

probity faid, that it was very unjaft to galleys, for the manning of which there de charge the effects of their own factious were 20,000 registered seamėn. o intrigues upon their Majefties, who, it Since the Protestant interest in Ger

was evident, were imbarrassed, and knew many began to be represented as in parnot how to act; that, for the honour, ticular danger, their Britannic and Prufa

Cafety, and prosperity of the nation, fian Majesties have applied to the court W there ought to be a settled permanent of DENMARK for her assistance to sup

government; and that the humour of port that interest; any applications to reviewing and altering the constitution, Sweden for the fame purpose being every diet, must keep up a perpetual fer- fcarcely heard of, on account of her dilo

ment, and in the end make that necefs jointed circumstances. Both of those ith fary which they seemed so much to kingdoms have for a confiderable time

dread. This is said to have had great had a subfidy from France. We have effect in preventing their driving things just taken notice of what might produce to extremities.

an alteration in the sentiments of many Great number of the middling and Swedes. It is also to be observed, that

lower people in Sweden continue to ac. there has, for a good many years, been 1.71 cufe several of the nobles of too strong a difference between the court of Co

an attachment to France, upon felfis penhagen and the declared heir to the

views, and of improper behaviour to. crown of Ruflia, in relation to the duchy by wards fome respectable powers, even of Sleswick, and some other diftricts,

those related to the royal family. In the which the Great Duke alledges his Da

end of the year it was faid, that there nith Majesty unjustly detains from him. Anne had been private meetings among some Repeated negotiations have been on foot

of the principal nobility, who began to for settling that affair, without effect; perceive, that the Swedish nation had and in what light the court of Copen. been made the dupes of an ally ever un- hagen will consider the junction of those faithful and ungrateful, which no sooner of Petersburg and Versailles, with the faw an opening at another court, than danger that the Proteftant religion is

the eagerly embraced the fronger power, supposed by fome powers to be in, muft be without in the least considering the in. be explained by time.


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