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most ample catalogue of Scottish tes- tree, about 30 years old, and 15 feet tacea hitherto formed; containing 126 high, was nearly cut off, in the time species of multivalve and bivalve, and of the intense cold, by reason of the 142 species of univalve shells : in all, conservatory in which it is kept being 268.
incapable of excluding the frost, the At the same meeting, the Secreta- timber work being rotten, and full of ry read a communication from George crevices.-As an instance of the power Montagu, Esq., of Knowel House, of habit in rendering tender plants giying an account of a non-descript more liardy, I may mention, that the fish, 5 feet long, taken on the coast of fine assafoetida plants (natives of PerDevonshire last summer. It is of the sia) which have for many years stood apodal order, and must constitute a in the open ground in this garden, rinew genus : Mr Montagu has bestow- pened their seeds last autumn ; and ed on it the generic name of Zipho- that several young plants are now theca, and the specific one tetradens.- come up in the lan-stove from the The communication likewise contain- seeds so ripened. ed accurate descriptions of four rare Feb. 20.-Snow drops and winter species of English fishes ; and was ac- aconite are in flower in the borders. companied with correct and elegant - 25.-The shoots of officinal drawings of these, as well as of the zi- rhubarb, and of common lovage, peep photheca. At the same time, Mr above ground. Montagu presented the Society with
28.- From the 16th to the copies of his 'Testácea Britannica and 20th of this month, very high winds, Supplement, 3 vols
. 4to, with colour. from W. and S. W., prevailed. From ed plates, and of his Ornithological the former date to the end of the Dictionary, 2 vols. 8vo.
month the weather has been genial,
ed by the heavy snow-storms. Monthly Memoranda in Natural His- March 3.-CANINE MADNESS. tory.
A proclamation was this day issued
by the Magistrates of Edinburgh, anFeb. 18. 1809. THE West , India nouncing, that mad dogs had appeared
shrub Solandra' in the city, and ordering the inhabi-
few remarks on this subject
become worse. Du- pressed. Because a large mastiff is ring the late severe weather, several seen running at full speed through the uncommon plants have perished, and streets, lolling his tongue, biting at others have been much injured, thro' such dogs as interrupt his progress, the insufficiency of the wood-work and escaping as fast as he can into the about the stoves. A fne camphor. country, we are not certainly war
ranted to conclude that such animal is riers have lost their lives on the occamad. The mastiff, we may easily sup- sion, through the zeal, not so much of pose, has wandered to town from the the police officers with their dog-descountry ; he becomes alarmed on find- troying hatchets (for, it is believed, ing himself in the midst of a crowded no reward for each cur's head was at street; he runs, and consequently soon this time held forth as an encouragelolls out his tongue; all the town- ment to their exertions) as of the apbred curs yelp and bark at him as he prentice-boys belonging to tanners and passes along; no wonder if he snarls curriers in the neighbourhood, who and snaps at them; and he very wise- are always ready to lend their unasked ly makes the best of his way into the assistance in enforcing such orders, becountry again. We do not positively cause they find their account in the affirm that there was no foundation value of the skins, which they are thus for the late alarm ; but we do say, enabled with impunity to appropriate that we have not been able to find to themselves,mto the great vexation any satisfactory evidence of a truly and distress of the owners of the anirabid animal having appeared ; and, mals, and their families. Upon the however strange it may appear, we are whole, it seems to reinain a problem, persuaded, that the visit of a country whether we have escaped a dreadful bandog, in the circumstances above malady by the vigilance of our Mafigured, is sufficient, owing to prepos- gistrates, favoured, we may suppose, session and prejudice, to alarm the by the coolness of the season of the Good Town, and give rise to the hue year, (it being yet near six months to and cry of Mad Dog! It unfortu- the dog-days); or whether we have nately happens, that popular fear and not been guarding against an imagisuperstition, excited to the utmost nary danger; and, by " strictly conpitch by proclamations by tuck of fining” our dogs, or pursuing them drum, advertisements blazoned in eve.. with hatchets and pitch-forks when ry newspaper, and stuck on every they happened to get loose, have not, lamp-post, quickly destroy all means in effect, been rather lending our aid of investigation as to the reality of to engender disease where there was the existence of the malady,-by de- none before. voting to instant death all and sundry March 7.-Turze, chickweed, and the dogs bitten or suspected to be bit- Lamium amplexicaule, show their ten by the mad dog. Were such un- blossoins plentifully. Vegetation is fortunate animals to be secured by a proceeding rapidly. It is about six chain, and furnished with plenty of weeks earlier than last year. meat and drink, we should look with
18.- Whitlow-grass, Draba some confidence for their speedy re- verna ; Niarch violet, Viola odorata ; convalescence. If the result should and both the common species of Tusunexpectedly prove otherwise, no harm silago (farfara and petasites) are now could ensue. As soon as unequivocal in tower. Daffodils and Cynoglossum symptoms of hydrophobia (as, for in- omphalodes begin to flower in garstance, the horror at the sight of wa
dens. ter) were evinced, we should agree to
24. The seed-time has hithe signing of the death warrant of therto been very propitious, as favourthe dog, unless perlaps in one or able indeed as the best that has octwo cases
lor experiment. In the pre- curred for the last twelve years. Some sent instance, we have not heard of rain fell this day, sufficient only to lay any mischief having happened to the the March dust which has been flying lieges from the supposed mad dogs for a fortnight past. themselves; but it is alleged that P. S. INDAGATOR received. some perfectly sane spaniels and ter: Edirir 95th March, 1809. N.
Particulars of the SIEGE of SARA- vide resources for a siege, and also to GOSSA.
place the rest of the kingdom in a (From Vaughan's Narrative.)
state of defence, should the capital fall.
He soon found frum 12 to 1400 THE walls of Saragossa appear to soldiers who had escaped from Ma
have been constructed merely to drid, and he united with them a small facilitate the means of levying taxes division of militia stationed at Calataupon every article brought into the ynd. With this force, in compliance town for sale : the gates, which are with the urgent desire of his soldiers, nine in number, are of the most sim- he resolved to attack the French; but ple construction, and the alignement he was defeated, and the wreck of this between them is, in some places, pre- little force retired to Calataynd, and served by the mud-wall of a garden, afterwards, with great difficulty, threw in others by buildings, or by the re- themselves into Saragossa. mains of an old Moorish wall, which About the last day of June, 2 have a slight parapet, but without any powder magazine, a very strong buil. platform even for musketry.
ding in the heart of the city of SaraThe population of Saragossa may gossa, blew up, and in a moment nearbe estimated at about 60,000 souls ; ly a whole street was reduced to a although the census taken in 1787 heap of ruins : the inhabitants of Sagives only 42,600.
ragossa had scarcely recovered from At the commencement of Palafox's théir consternation at this fatal, and command on the 25th of May, the irreparable loss, and from the labour neighbouring provinces of Navarre of extricating their fellow-citizens and Catalonia were possessed by the from the ruins of their houses, when French ; the passes of the Pyrenees the French, who had received morleading directly into this kingdom tars, howitzers, and cannon, (12 pounwere open, and Murat, with the main ders, of sufficient calibre for the mudbody of the French forces, was sta- walls of Saragossa) opened a destructioned at Madrid. Thus surrounded tive fire upon the city. by his enemy, the General mustered The attack of the enemy seemed the regular troops quartered at Sara. to be directed principally against the gossa, and found that they amounted gate called Portillo, and the castle to 220 men, and that the public trea- near it without the walls, and which sury of the province could furnish him is nothing more than a square builonly with a sum equal to 201. 16s. 8d. ding made use of as a prison, and sur
a The Arragonese had hastily plant- rounded by a deep ditch. T'he sandcd some cannon before the gates of bag battery before the gate of Portil. the city, and also in favourable posi- lo was gallantly defended by the Artions without the town, particularly at ragonese. It was several times desthe Torrero, and upon the height near troyed, and as often re-constructed
under the fire of the enemy. The carOn the 15th of June, the French nage in this battery, throughout the sent a detachment against the out- day, was truly terrible. It was here, posts upon the canal, while their main that an act of heroism was performed body attempted to storm the city, by by a female, to which history scarcely the gate called Portillo ; but they affords a parallel
. Augustina Zarawere repulsed.
goza, about 22
years of As soon as the French were repul- some woman, of the lower class of sed, General Palafox set out in order the people, whilst performing her du. to collect re-inforcements, and pro ty of carrying refreshments to the
age, a hand
gates, arrived at the battery of the French bombarded Saragossa from Portillo, at the very moment when their batteries opposite the gate of the the French fire had absolutely des- Carmen. A foundling hospital, which troyed every person that was stationed contained the sick and wounded, who, in it. The citizens, and soldiers, for from time to time, had been conveyed the moment hesitated to re-man the there during the siege, unfortunately guns ; Augustina rushed forward over caught fire, and was rapidly consuthe wounded and slain, snatched a med, During this dreadful calamity, match from the hand of a dead artil. the exertions of every description of leryman, and fired off a 26-pounder, people were almost unparalleled ; all then jumping upon the gun, made a
made a attention to private property was insolemn vow never to quit it alive du- stantly abandoned, and every body ring the siege, and having stimulated was seen hastening to the relief of the her fellow-citizens by this daring in- sick and helpless children who occutrepidity to fresh exertions, they in- pied the building; but in this act of stantly rushed to the battery, and humanity none were more conspicuagain opened a tremendous fire upon ous than the women, who persisted in the enemy. When the writer of these their humane exertions, equally unpages saw this heroine of Saragossa, daunted by the shot and shells of the she had a small shield of honour em- enemy, and the flames of the building broidered upon the sleeve of her
before them. with “ Saragossa," inscribed upon it, On the 4th of August, the French and was receiving a pension from the opened a tremendous fire upon this government and the daily pay of an quarter of the city, and in an instant artilleryman.
the mud-walls opposite to their batterDefeated in various attacks, the ies vanished, and the splendid conenemy proceeded to invest the place vent of the Santa Engracia was on still more closely. Having cut off the fire, and tottering in ruins. only communication by which the be- The French columns immediatesieged could receive any supplies, ei ly availed themselves of this entrance, ther of provisions or ammunition, the to rush into the city; and after a seactive and intelligent General, in this vere and sanguinary conflict, penecritical situation, caused corn-mills, trating to the Calle de Cozo, nearly worked by horses, to be established in the centre of the town, were in in various parts of the city, and order- possession, before the day closed, of ed the monks to be employed under one half of Saragossa. The French skilful directors in manufacturing gun- General immediately demanded the powder. All the sulphur which the capitulation in the following note : place afforded was put into immediate Quarter General - Santa Engracia. requisition, the earth of the streets
The Capitulation. was carefully washed in order to furnish saltpetre; and charcoal was made
The answer immediately returned of the stalks of hemp, which, in that part of Spain, grows to a very
Quarter General-Saragossa: size; and on this simple foundation
War, even to the knife ! - PALAFOX. there has been formed since the siege Nothing in the whole course of a regular manufactory of gunpowder, the siege more embarrassed Palafox which yields thirteen arrobas of Cas- than the enormous accumulation of țile per day, or 325 pounds of twelve the dead. To an Aragonese it was alounces.
most certain death to appear in the On the night of the 2d of Au- middle of the street; and the expegust, and on the following day, the dient resorted to was, to push forward
French prisoners, with a rope attached your y, delicate, and beautiful woman, to them, amidst the dead and dying, cooliy attending to the duties she had to remove the bodies of their coun- prescribed to her self, in the midst of trymen, and bring them in for burial. the most tremendous fire of shot and
The batteries of the contending shells ; nor were they even able to parties were so close to each other, perceive, from the first moment, that iha:, in one instance, a Spaniard crept she entered into these novel scenes, from his own side, and insinuating that the idea of personal danger could himself under the intermediate bodies . produce upon her the slightest effect, of the dead, attached a rope to one of or bend her from her benevolent and the French cannon; in the struggle patriotic purpose. The loss of women which ensued, the rope broke, and and boys during the siege was very the Arragonese were deprived of their great, and fully proportionate to that prize, at the very moment that they of men; in fact, they were always the thought themselves secure of it. most forward; and the difficulty was
A council of war, that was held to teach them a prudent and proper on the 8th, came to the following ever- sense of their danger. . memorable resolves :— that those During the night of the 13th of
quarters of the city in which the Ar. August the French fire was particuragonese yet maintained themselves, larly destructive, and when their batshould continue to be defended with teries ceased, flames were observed to the same firmness which had hitherto burst out in many parts of the buildbeen so conspicuous : should the ene- ings in their possession ; and on the my at last prevail, the people were morning of the 14th, to the great surinmediately to retire by the bridge prise of the Arragonese, their columns over the Ebro into the suburbs, and were seen at a distance retreating having destroyed the bridge, to de- over the plain, on the road to Pampeferd the suburbs till they perished.'- Jona. Tlus resolution of the General and It is a very singular fact to add, his Officers was received by the peo- that though the writer of these few ple with the loudest acclamations. pages saw in Saragossa many a parent
For eleven successive days, the who had lost his children, and many a mosi: sanguinary conflict was continued man reduced from competence to pofrom street to street, from house to verty, he literally did not meet with house, and from room to room, (the one human being who uttered the enraged populace always gaining by slightest complaint : every feeling degre es upon the disciplined troops of seemed to be swallowed up in the methe French) until the space occupied mory of what they had recently done, by the enemy was gradually reduced and in a just hatred of the French. to about one-eighth part of the city.
The spirit displayed by the men This narrative contains other interwas se conded in the most admirable esting particulars, which recommend manner by the women of Saragossa ; it to general perusal. Our readers the Countess Buritá, a lady of great are aware, that there has been a subserank in that country, formed a corps quent siege of Saragossa, and that its of woinen for the relief of the wound former successful defence has been aled, and for the purpose of carrying most eclipsed by the glories of its fall. provisions and wine to the soldiers. A subscription, we believe, has been Many persons of the most unquestion- opened in London for the relief of the able veracity in Saragossa, declare, sufferers in the siege, that they have frequently seen this