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hither, and slay them before me.” (Luke xix. 27.) Thus sin, Satan, and death, being the enemies to his kingdom, shall all' be destroyed in their order. “ For he must reign till be hath put all his enemies under his feet: and the last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.” (1 Cor. xv. 25, 26.) Thus is
“ Jesus” become “ the Prince of the kings of the earth ;" (Rev. i. 5.) thus is the “ Lamb" acknowledged to be “ Lord of lords, and King of kings.” (Rev. xvii. 14.)
Wherefore seeing we have already shewed that the prophetical, sacerdotal, and regal offices were to belong unto the promised Messias, as the proper end and immediate effect of his unction; seeing we have likewise declared how Jesus was anointed to these offices, and hath and doth actually perform the same in all the functions belonging to them: there remaineth nothing for the full explication of this particular concerning the Christ, but only to shew the manner of this unction, which is very necessary to be explained. For how they were anointed under the Law, who were the types of the Messias, is plain and evident, because the manner was prescribed, and the materials were visible: God appointed an oil to be made, and appropriated it to that use; and the pouring that oil upon the body of any person was his anointing to that office for which he was designed. But being that oil so appropriated to this use was lost many hundred years before our Saviour's birth, being the custom of anointing in this manner had a long time ceased, being howsoever we never read that Jesus was at all anointed with oil; it remaineth still worthy our inquiry, how he was anointed, so as to answer to the former unctions; and what it was which answered to that oil, which then was lost, and was at the first but as a type of this which now we search for.
- The Jews* tell us, that the anointing oil was, hid in the days of Josiah, and that it shall be found and produced again. when the Messias comes, that he may be anointed with it, and the kings and high-priests of his days. But though the loss of that oil bespake the destruction of that nation, yet the Christ which was to come needed no such unction for his consecration; there being as great a difference between the typical and correspondent oil, as between the representing
oil, which they call the hiding of it,
, O'zan TV5, 221 7787 Dy being, they confess, that after that
, In the days of the Messias God will because they had no power to make restore unto his people, the oil of
the same oil. So plainly confesseth tion which Moses made, which was hid
: ; kings and ' -. in those days. Abarbanel Comment. 85 D'UITP 2?7277778OY ad 30. Exodi. Now the loss of that
* בימות המשיח עתיר הקדוש -may well be thought to foretell the pe ברוך הוא להחזיר לעמו, אותו ,riod of the Mosaical administration שמן המשחא שעשה משה שנגנז ,ihey never had any priests anointed והכהנים הגדולים בימי ההם:
לא היה בהן :the same Abarbanel משוח בבית שני לפי שכבר היה den with the Ark
and represented Christ. The prophet David calleth it not by the vulgar name of oil of unction, but the “ oil of gladness." (Psal. xlv. 7.) For though that place may in the first sense be understood of Solomon, whom when Zadok the priest anointed, “ They blew the trumpet, and all the people said, God save king Solomon. And all the people came up after him, and the people piped with pipes, and rejoiced with great joy, so that the earth rent with the sound of them;"(1 Kings i. 39, 40.) though from thence it might be said of him, " Thy God hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows:” (Psal. xlv. 7.) yet being those words are spoken unto God, as well as of God, (“therefore God, thy God”*) the oil with which that God is anointed, must in the ultimate and highest sense, signify a far greater gladness than that at Solòmon's coronation was, even the fountain of all joy and felicity in the Church of God.
The ancientst tell us that this oil is the Divinity itself, and in the language of the Scriptures it is the Holy Ghost. St. Peter teacheth us “ how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost, and with power.” (Acts x. 38.) Now though there can be no question but the Spirit is the oil, yet there is some doubt, when Jesus was anointed with it. For we know the angel said unto the blessed Virgin," the Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God.” (Luke i. 35.) From whence it appeareth that from the conception, or at the incarnation, Jesus was sanctified by the Holy Ghost, and the power of the Highest; and so consequently, as St. Peter spake, he was “ anointed then with the Holy Ghost, and with power.”I Again, being we read that after he' was
* Duas personas, ejus qui unetus pótepa čv. And again: XplotÒS dè dié est Dei, et qui unxit, intellige. Unde inv Deóryta' (not that his Divinity.was et Aquila Elohim 097758 verbum He- anointed, or Christ anointed in respect braicum non nominativo casu, sed vo- of his Divinity; but that he was cativo, interpretatur, dicens Oɛé: et anointed in his humanity by bis Divinos propter intelligentiam Dee posui- nity) xpious ydp ayrn rñs åv pwrótNTOS, mus, quod Latina lingua non accipit, ουκ ενεργεία, κατά τους άλλους χριστους ne quis perverse patet Deum dilecti αγιάζουσα, παρουσία δε όλου του χρίονet amantissimi et Regis bis Patrem τος' ής έργον, άνθρωπον ακούσαι το χρίον, nominari.' S. Hieron. Epist. 104. kai noiñoai geòv to Xplóuevov. Orat. 2.
Quod sequitur, Unxit te, Deus, Deus de Filio, ad fin. tuus, primum nomen Dei vocativo casu 1 Χριστός εχρίσθη ως βασιλεύς και intelligendum est, sequens nominati- lepeùs TỘ xplouate rñs oapKiows. Gervo; quod satis miror cur Aquila non, manus Constant. Rer. Eccl. Contempl. ut coeperat in primo versiculo, voca- Biblioth. Patr. Gr. vol. ii. p. 132. Ketivo casu interpretatus sit, sed nomi- xpioJai dè o'x ērépws papèv tòv viòv, i nativo, bis nominans Deum, qui su- Őti katà oápra yevójevov, dnlovóti kal' pradictum unxerit Deum.Idem. Ibid. pãs, kaì évav pwthoavra. Titus Bo
+ So Greg. Naz. expounds the place: strens. ad Luc. iv. 18. ibid. p. 783. “Ov čxploev članov ảyallıáoews napà ‘Deus est qui ungit, et Deus qui seTous peróxous aútoũ, xpioag riv åvopw- cundum carnem ungitur Dei filius. πότητα τη θεότητι, ώστε ποιήσαι τα αμ- Denique quos habet unctionis sue
thirty years of age, the Spirit “ like a dove descended and lighted upon him;" (Matt. iii. !6.) and he, descending in the power of the Spirit into Galilee, said unto them of Nazareth, “ This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears, (meaning that of Isaiah, lxi. 1.) The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the Gospel;" (Luke iv. 18.) hence hath it been also collected, that his unction was performed at his baptism.* Nor need we contend which of these two was the true time of our Saviour's unction, since neither is destructive of the other, and consequently both may well consist together. David, the most undoubted type of the Messias, was anointed at Bethlehem; for there “ Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward.” (1 Sam. xvi. 13.) Of which unction those words of God must necessarily be understood,“ I have found
id my servant; with my boly oil have I anointed ." (Psal. Ixxxix. 20.) And yet he was again anointed at Hebron; first “ over the house of Judah," (2 Sam. ii. 4.) then over all the tribes of Israel.” (2 Sam. v. 3.) As therefore, David at his first uncţion received the Spirit of God, and a full right unto the throne of Israel, which yet he was not to exercise till the death of Saul and acceptation of the tribes; and therefore when the time was come that he should actually enter upon his regal office, he was again anointed: so our Jesus, the son of David, was first sanctified and anointed with the Holy Ghost at his conception, and thereby received a right unto, and was prepared for, all those offices which belonged to the Redeemer of the World: but when he was to enter upon the actual and full performance of all those functions which belonged to him, then doth the same Spirit which had sanctified him at his conception, visibly descend upon him at his inauguration. And that most properly upon his baptism; because, according to the customs of those ancient nations, washing was wont to precede their unctions:t wherefore Christus nisi in carne participes ? Vi- tur. Cujus unctio illo expleta est des igitur, quia Deus a Deo unctus, tempore quando baptizatus est in sed ju assumptione naturæ unctus Jordane, et Spiritus Sanctus in specie humanæ Dei Filius designatur.' S. Columbæ descendit super eum, et Ambros. de Fide, l. i. c. 3. 'Hæc om- mansit in illo. Comment. in Esaiam, mia carni conveniunt, cui piissimum c. 61. 'Io illa columba quæ super et gloriosissimum Verbum unitum est ipsum post baptisma descendit, cum pro salute cunctorum.' Cassiodorus sacramento baptismatis, et veri sacerin Psal. xliv.
dotii jura suscepit, fuso videlicet super St. Jerome, mentioning that place eum oleo exsultationis, de quo Psalof the Psalm: 'Quan consortes no- mista canit; Unxit te, inquit, Deus, minantur, naturam carnis intellige; Deus tuus.' Petrus Damianus, Opuquia Deus consortes substantiæ suæ scul. vi. c. 4. non habet. Et quia erat unctio spi + As appears by those entertain-. ritualis et nequaquam humani corpo- ments so frequently mentioned by ris, (ut fuit in sacerdotibus Judæ- Homer in his Odyssey; as when Teoram) idcirco præ consortibus, id est, lemachus is entertained by Nestor : cæteris sanctis, unctus esse mémora
" Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: And lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove.” (Matt. iii. 16.) As David sent Solomon to be anointed at Gihon: from whence arose that ancient observation of the Rabbins, that'kings were not to be anointed but by a fountain.'*
Now as we have shewn that Jesus was anointed with the Holy Ghost, lest any should deny any such descension to be a proper or sufficient unction, we shall farther make it appear, that the effusion, or action of the Spirit, eminently containeth whatsoever the Jews have imagined to be performed or signified by those legal anointings. Two very good reasons they tender why God did command the use of such anointing oil, as in respect of the action. First, that it might signify the divine election of that person, and designation to that office: from whence it was necessary that it should be performed by a prophet, who understood the will of God. Secondly, that bý it the person anointed might be made fit to receive the dis
Τόφρα δε Τηλέμαχον λούσεν καλή Πολυκάστη,
Αυταρ έπει λούσέν τε και έχρισεν λίπ’ ελαίω. Οd. Γ. 463.
"Ες δ' άσαμίνθους βάντες εξέστας λούσαντο
Τους δ' επεί ούν δμωαι λούσαν και χρίσαν ελαίω. Οd. 4. 48. Thus Ulysses is entertained, Od. e. thus Pyræus and Telemachus, Od. P. And Venus returning to Paphus, is so ordered by the Charites;
"Ενθα δέ μιν Χάριτες λούσαν και χρϊσάν ελαίω
'Αμβρότο, οία θεούς επενήνοθεν αιέν εόντας. Οd. θ. 364. So Heléna speaks of her entertaining Ulysses in a disguise;
'Αλλ' ότε δή μιν έγών ελβευν και χρϊον ελαίω. . Οd. Δ. 252. It is apparent that this was the custom of the ancient Greeks. Of which Eustathius gives this reason; Έλαίω εχρίοντο οι λουσάμενοι εμπλάτοντες τους σωματικούς πόρους, ώς αν μετά λουτρόν στέγοιεν την υγρότητα. This custom was so ancient and general, that the Greeks had one word to express this anointing with oil after washing with water, which they called žúrla and χυτλώσαι. Εtymol. Χυτλώσαι, ουχ απλώς το αλείψαι, αλλά το επί λουτρό αλείψασθαι. Schol. Αristoph. Vesp. ν. 506. Χύτλα δε κυρίως, το υγρού έτι από ύδατος όντος του σώματος αλείψασθαι. Ηesych. Χύτλα, το εφ' ύδατος έλαιον and, χυτλώσαι, το αλείψαι μετά το λούσασθαι. Hence, when Nausicaa went unto the pools to wash, her mother gave her a box of oil, Od. z. 79.
Δώκε δε χρυσείη εν ληκύθο υγρόν έλαιον,
Eίως χυτλώσαιτο σύν αμφιπόλοισί γυναιξίν. Where the old Scholiast, χυτλώσαιτο, λουσαμένη αλείψαιτο" and Eustathias, Eίως χυτλώσαιτο, αντί του, όπως μετά λουτρόν χυτλωθείη άλειψάμένη" which exposition is warranted by the performance aftermentioned,
Αι δε λοεσσάμεναι και άλειψάμεναι λίπ’ ελαίω. ν. 96. And as this was the ancient custom of the Greeks, so was it also the com. mon custom of the Jews, as appears by the words of Naomi to Rutb, " wash thyself, therefore, and anoint thee, and put thy raiment upon thee.” Ruth iii. 3.
• They say in the Germara, that this his kingdom, who was s0 anointed; is a maxim of the doctors, 1798 and the original is referred to the ΠΝ 7Π2 Ν 222 223 NP32 anointing of Solomon, 1 Kings i. 39.
nyon Sy 85 baon Abarbanet For so it followeth in the Talmud, τη 30 Exod. The end of which cere- mm 3 ΟΥΣ» Το η) mony was to shew the prolonging of :77793 TIMUN M711 Abarbanel ibido
vine influx. For the first, it is evident there could be no such infallible sign of the divine designation of Jesus to his offices, as the visible descent of the Spirit attended with “ a voice from heaven," instead of the hand of a prophet, saying, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” (Matt. iii. 17.) For the second, this spiritual unction was so far from giving less than an aptitude to receive the divine influx, that it was that divine influx, nay, the Divinity itself, the Godhead dwelling in him bodily.
In respect of the matter, they give two causes why it was oil, and not any other liquor. First, because of all other, it signifies the greatest glory and excellency. The olive was the first of trees mentioned as fit for sovereignty, in regard of its “fatness, wherewith they honour God and man.” (Judg. ix. 9.) Therefore it was fit that those persons which were called to a greater dignity than the rest of the Jews, should be consecrated by oil, as the best sign of election to honour. And can there be a greater honour than to be the Son of God, the beloved Son, as Jesus was proclaimed at this'unction, by which he was consecrated to such an office, as will obtain him a name far above all names? Secondly, they tell us that oil continueth uncorrupted longer than any other liquor. And indeed it hath been observed to preserve not only itself, but other things from corruption ; * hence they conclude it' fit their kings and priests, whose succession was to continue for ever, should be anointed with oil, the most proper emblem of eternity. But even by this reason of their own, their unction has ceased, being the succession of their kings and priests is long since cut off, and their eternal and eternizing oil lost long before; and only that one Jesus, who was anointed with the most spiritual oil, "continueth ever; and therefore hath an unchangeable priesthood, as being made not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life.” (Heh. vii. 24. 16.)
Beside, they observe, that simple oil, without any mixture, was sufficient for the candlestick; but that which was designed for unction must be compounded with principal spices, which signify a good name, always to be acquired by those in places of greatest dignity by the most laudable and honourable actions. And certainly never was such an admixion of spices: as in the unction of our Saviour, by which he was endued with all variety of the graces of God, by which he was enabled to "offer himself a sacrifice for a sweet-smelling
' Unguenta optime servantur in from that famous ivory statue made by alabastris, odores in oleo.' Plin. Hist. Phidias. Otros yåp uerà tò karaokeván 1. xiii. c. 2. ' Existimatur et ebori sai Ilioaiov čidwlov, (+€ Répavtos dė vindicando a carie utile esse. Certe τούτο ήν) έλαιον εκχείσθαι προσέταξεν simulacrum Saturni Rome intus oleo αμφί τους πόδας, έμπροσθεν του αγάλο repletum est.' Id. l. xv. c. 7. And. Maros, áfávatov els dúvapiv puháoçur whosoever made that statue at Rome, aúró. Proclus apud S. Epiphan. Hær. seems to have had his art out of Greece, Ixiv. §. 18.