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Through E draw an indefinite line MN, making the angle MED equal to the given angle between the diagonals. With B as center and the larger base as radius describe an arc cutting MN in C, and join BC. Draw DA parallel to BC and ABCD is the required trapezoid. For by construction the triangles BEC and AED are similar, and as BE: ED= the ratio of the given bases and BC is one of them, AD must be the other. Hence ABCD meets all the required conditions. J. C. Gregg, Brazil.
114. A and B agreed to saw and split a a pile of cord wood for $15.00. A can saw 2 cords while B splits 3 cords, and A can split 5 cords while B saws 3 cords. How must they divide the money?
Solution.- Let x=the labor of splitting one cord.
the labor of sawing one cord. 2mx:3x or 2m :3 is the ratio of A's ability to that of B, and so also is 5x: 3mx or 5: 3m.
.:. 2m : 3=5:3m.
m= 10 and putting this value in the first ratio above,
2m: 3 becomes V 10:3 and dividing $15 in this ratio we get, V 10
15 $7.698, A's share.
15 = $7.302, B's share.
J. C. Gregg, Brazil. 115.
900 Also BC2 =1600
60 Equating these we have,
- 120x3 + 3600x2 + 48600 x
-1458000=0. One value
is approximately 18.1376 +. This gives AB=49.6206
BC - 33 7312
S. P. Shull, Kouts. 116. From 1 mile subtract 7 furlonge, 39 rods, 5 yards, 1 foot 5 inches.
Give a brief explanation. 1 mile may be written
7 fur. 39 rd. 5 yd. 1 ft. 6 in.
Remainder 1 in.
CREDITS. Gregg, J. C., 112, 113, 114, 116; Lawrence, D. W., 116; Morrow, John, 112, 114, 115, 116; Shull, S. P., 115.
PROBLEMS FOR SOLUTION. 121. A straight fence through a triangular field cuts off just one acre. The sides of the fi-ld are 56 rd. , 39 rd. and 25 rd. If the cross tence is the shortest possible, find its length and position.
S. P. Shull, Kouts. 122. 24 =- (V 2+1 3+V5)= ? Can this problem be solved? If not, why not?
B. F. Wells, Kingsbury. 123. Draw two circles tangent to each other and to a given line MN at the points P and Q and whose radii are as m : n.
J. C. Gregg, Brazil.
124. Solve 2 (x+1)
125. A clock which indicates correct time at sea level, loses 40 seconds a day when carried to the top of a mountain. What is the height of the mountain, supposing the earth a sphere of 7,912 miles diameter?
[NOTE.-Send solutivos to Robt. J. Aley, Bloomington, Ind., on or before October 14. Write on one side only. ]
[Enterod at the Indianapolis Postoffice as second-class matter.]
D. M. GEETING, EDITOR.
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These are a few hints to the uninitiated gust. In order to accommodate our
teacher, but there is nothing in all the
world that will help a commencing friends more fully, hereafter, twelve numbers will be issued each year.
teacher, new or old, better than good, native common sense, and lots of it. If
you haven't this, all the books and all The First Day of School.
the magazines and all the advice will not
help you out of difficulties into which you The opening day is the most impor- will be bound to get. tant. Why? Because a bad beginning makes a bad ending. Now, what is nec
Our Faces. essary in order to make the opening a success? (1) Good health and good spirits. At a teachers' institute, while sitting A sick teacher and a melancholy teacher where the entire audience could be seen, has no business to open a school. He a principal of much experience remarked: may be tolerated after it is in running or- “I think the teachers' faces are improvder, but let him stay away from the com- ing." Let a teacher sit before a hundred mencement. (2) Well-digested plans. art students, or before a hundred minisThere is not one teacher in ten thousand ters, or before a hundred lawyers, and he who is not able to arrange his plans the will see there is a mark on the face that first day. Don't consult the pupils about shows the degree of cultivation. A what to do. By all means, never consult teacher is one who strives to have intelliparents in reference to their pet schemes. gence exist in another, and it would seem The teacher should be master of his own necessary that his countenance should situation. (3) Get to work as soon as abound with interest, and enthusiasm, possible. The sooner you get your pupils and intelligence. But on most teachers' to doing something, the sooner they will faces there is an expression of repression; be kept out of mischief. (4) Make the it seems as though it asks repression of first lessons interesting. The pupil who the pupils perpetually. This wrong concommences with an interest will make a ception of education marks itself on the long leap ahead before many days of the face. Teaching is a joyous labor; it does not consist in keeping the pupils maturity. We know that a majority of from whispering: On the whole, the readers will catch the spirit of the true countenance of the teacher may show teacher from the discussions given, then whether he looks at edu tion from the with the suggestive devices they will wrong or right point of view.
carry on their work to the highest degree
of success. In these suggestions we shall The Great Law of Teaching.
try to lead our readers to understand the
true reason for doing things. We shall A lady whose fame as a teacher is
continue methods and ways, for few of us world-wide recently stated in a conversa
can rise above the technicalities of our tion that her first lesson in teaching came
work, hence these devices will be based to her by observing the way a hen acted
on correct pedagogical principles. We towards three little chicks that seemed
shall try to meet the immediate needs of afraid of her. The motherly heart was
our readers in these, but through them stirred within the hen, and she put her
and by them we want to lift them up into head down beside the frightened little
a higher appreciation of our work. Why ones, and turning it sidewise crooned to
should every teacher study his profesthem affectionate little sounds that they
sion? Why should he progress? In short, understood. Now, after all that has been
why should he be progressive, aggressive, said, and can be said about method and
pushing, earnest? Why? Because he has principle, it must be said to the teacher
others depending upon him. His work is that he is to have a heart of love. Meth
to lead, go ahead, and call, “Come on.” It ods and principles do but little, but love
is hard to push humanity up, it is easy to does a great deal. We educate for love's
attract them up. A leader is always popsake; this generation so loves the children
ular. Leading is inspiring, strengthenthat it spends much time and money on
ing; driving is depressing, debilitating. them. It is the heart of love that builds
We want to help the teachers by giving the schoolhouses and equips them. The
them a progressive, professional magacentral principle of love must be largely
zine. As teachers, we have instinctive deand finely exemplified in the schoolroom,
sires to get away from our surroundings. and when this is done, the methods grow
This longing is natural and right if it ing out of it are the best the teacher can
leads us to seek, to grow better. An indevise.
definite longing is bad; a spirit of unsat
isfaction—not dissatisfaction—is good; a Come, Let Us Reason Together.
poet has said concerning this spirit: What are the most valuable features of
"Most times, however, she doth lift a good school journal? Manifestly, it is
Her gaze beyond to something far; a spirit animating its columns leading to
I look, and through a cloudy rift, a better appreciation of the real object of
I see the shining of a star. school work. Each month, however, for
"But as I cry, 'Oh, why? Oh, why?' the coming year, this journal will see to
She turns on me a wondering gaze, it that its schoolroom department will be
And wonderingly doth make reply: filled with novel devices in arithmetic,
'I lead you out of slothful ways.'' new plans in spelling, fresh suggestions in history, helpful outlines in geography Sloth-educational sloth-is what we and grammar, all these will receive added must get rid of, and the best way is emphasis. But, above all, the spirit that through the reading of a live educational animates its columns will be the love for journal. The greatest encouragement we the children. It urges teachers to gain a have is in the fact that those who have knowledge of the nature of the child-all been longest with us are those who are there is of the child, the moral powers, most enthusiastic in our support. These body, and mind; how the child grows, friends are increasing, and we beliere what influences should be brought to bear they will increase until every progressive to lead it to a healthy and symmetrical teacher shall be one of us. Here are a OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.
that, as a teacher, your paper has done more than that for me.
S. S. S.
few words of encouragement from those who appreciate our work:
To tell you how much good your valuable papers have done me is an impossibility. Physiology informs us that our bodies are renewed every seven years; seems to me,
I have taken your paper for a year, and am still taking it. I find it a great help, a practical help. Shall want it as long as I teach.
W. C. S.
John M. BLOSS, ANTHONY, IND.
flicting punishment. The case is an important one and especially interesting to school officers who rery often in a general way instruct their teachers what to do in specific cases.
SALARY OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT. A very important decision touching the per diem of the county superintendent was recently made in Colorado. The law is the same as that in Indiana governing the county superintendent; hence its importance to us. Under the law there the county school superintendent receives $5 a day while actually and necessarily employed for the county. The court held that he is entitled to daily compensation for each day on which official service is performed regardless of the time occupied in performing the same. The court further held that where the county superintendent made out and verified this bill for compensation according to law, a prima facie case was established, and the burden of proof was on the county board attacking the same to overcome the case as presented.-Board of Commissioners of Garfield County v. White.
THE CONSTITUTIONAL LIMIT OF INDEBTEDNE s.
A question of unusual general interest was recently decided in Wisconsin which will apply to many school corporations in this State. A school town contracted for a school building which increased its indebtedness beyond the constitutional limit. The work was completed by the contractor and an attempt was made to enjoin payment, basing the complaint upon the grounds that the indebtedness was beyond the constitutional limit. The court held that the contract was enforceable, when fully performed by the contractor, up to the amount of such constitutional limit. The case is known as McGillivay v. Town of Melrose.
CORPORAL PUNISHM NT. In the case of Haycraft v. Grishy, Missouri Supreine ('ourt, an action against a teacher and director of a school for severely punishing plaintiff, it was shown that the director had advised and encouraged immoderate whipping. The court held that the director and not the teacher was liable. The defense tried to show that such advice was not malicious; hence the director should not be held liable, but the court's decision was against the director because such advice was unwise and against good policy. That many a teacher would feel bound to carry out the instructions of his superior officer without carefully and co siderately weighing the matter before in
MUSIC IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. In the case of W. P. Myers Pub. Co. v. White River School Township, our court has set forth the law governing the teaching of music in the public schools. The law provides that certain studies shall be taught in the common schools of the State, music not being specifically mentioned. The law provides, also, for the licensing of a teacher capable of teaching certain named studies, music not being mentioned. It was held by the court, nevertheless, that the school trustees have power to prescribe the teaching of music in the public schools. The law also provides that the county boards of education shall consider the general wants and needs of the schools “and all matters relating to the purchase of school furniture, books, maps, charts, etc." Under the law which declares that the trustee shall provide “furniture, apparatus and other articles and educational appliances," it was held by the court that music charts not being general text-books for the use of individual pupils, but a few sufficing for the school, could be purchased by the trustee for the use of his schools. In the complaint against the township for the value of the music
charts, it was shown that these charts had been placed for the use of the public schools of the township where they had been used by the pupils. The court held that this sufficiently showed that the trustee directed that music be taught therein. So many different ideas prevailed about the introduction of music as a study into our public schools, that a careful study of this decision becomes necessary, covering as it does every phase of this subject.
TOWNSHIP INSTITUTE, I.
DICKENS AS AN EDUCATOR.
GEOEGE H. Tapy, SUPERINTENDENT WHITLEY
COUNTY SCHOOLS, COLUMBIA CITY, IND. “Kommt, lasst uns unsern Kindern leben!”-Froebel.
Froebel and Dickens. Probably no two men, since the days of the Great Teacher himself, have had so broad and profound an influence on the educational history of the world as they. Froebel, the philosopher; Dickens, the literary genius whose pen touched into life this philosophy. There have been great educators and great writers before their time and since; but in all its entanglements of social movements and individual men, whether mysterious or intelligible, history does not reveal a happier coincidence than the birth of the world's greatest novelist just in time to immortalize the principles of a great educator in burning words and living human characters.
The age was peculiarly fitted for the work of these two men. The educational world had passed through fire and flood. Religious and political upheavals, persecution, bigotry, and neglect had left it without system or plan; and popular education was a vision that had appeared in the dreams of theorists only.
The age of Louis the Fourteenth-the age of the Jesuits-had passed; but its influence deep-rooted still remained. And partly against its influence and partly in harmony with its better elements the work of Rousseau, of Pestalozzi and of Froebel was directed. The spirit of Jesuit learning was
monastic and decidedly opposed to popular education. It delved into the old Latin lit. erature and was altogether blind to the real life of the time. It fostered seclusion, bigotry, and superstition. Moreover, the Jesuits, by cultivating the religious ardor of their sect, sought political domination over France rather than the education of the people. To this end they neglected the history and language of France and everything that tended to prepare for real life. But when the power of the people, against which king and pope and noble and Jesuit could not stand, began to manifest itself in the approach of the French Revolution, the entire foundation of education changed. Preparation to live succeeded preparation to die.
• The forerunner of this educational revolution was Rousseau. Acquainted with the hardship and misery of the poor of France he hated the oppressors of the people; and his contemplated reforms were not merely educational but social, religious, and politi. cal as well. Rousseau, unlike Froebel, was a theorizer. He was all sentiment and imagination. The Emile is not a scientific treatise on education but an inspiration that sprang like a poem or song from the imaginative brain of its author. With matchless courage he attacked the evils of his day: in his impulsive, brilliant, and often erratic manner he pointed the way where later less zealous teachers achieved practical results; but in the light of modern education his doce trines, many of them, are eccentric. His doctrine is altogether the theory and not the practice of education.