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all those fruits and advantages that the human state is capable of affording. And here the author observes, (1.) that as the art of navigation, has discovered new countries and carries on a correspondence even betwixt the most distant parts of the globe; great opportunities are thus afforded of procuring the necessary informations for enlarging the bounds of knowledge. (2.) That as we may plainly perceive the errors which the ancient philosophers fell into, and the reasons why they failed in promoting the more serviceable sciences; if the errors they committed are carefully avoided, and a different method to be taken, there are grounds to hope for better success in future. (3.) That therefore the art of experimenting and the art of reasoning are to be joined together; or a new art to be formed by a mixture of the two, in order to procure a Sylva, or suitable collection of . prepared and well-digested materials for philosophy. (4.) That natural philosophy must be kept pure and uncorrupted with logic, mathematics, and divinity. (5.) That the mind must discharge itself of all prejudice, false notions, phantastical theories, and useless philosophies, and become fit to receive such notions as are just and purely philosophical, without any way corrupting or debasing them. (6.) That a just foundation must be laid for experience, in a

history of nature, collected with the greatest exactness, diligence, fidelity, and judgment; so as to make it extensive, or to measure of the universe, without admitting anything faulty, for reign, or superfluous. (7.) That, in particular, the more leading and informing experiments are to be carefully sought and procured. (8.) That a true order or just method of experimenting be introduced, so that experiments may not remain casual things, but an art of experimenting beformed. (9.) That no inventions or particular ways of working or combining the materials of philosophy, be trusted to thought and contemplation, but the whole process be exactly wrote down, or described on paper. (10.) That the matters of a pure history of nature be not left in loose particulars but be regularly digested and brought into tables, according to the nature of every subject, that the understanding may work thereon to the best advantage. (11.) That axioms be formed from these tables, so as to point out new experiments, and thence afford still higher axioms leading to greater works. (12.) That these axioms be formed, not in the way of the ancio ents, by rising, at once, from particulars to the most general conclusions, but by careful steps in a safe and guarded manner, so that the axi

oms, thus raised, shall not afterwards deceive,

but be thoroughly verified, and remain just and

pregnant expressions of the laws and facts of nature and art. (13.) That a new method of induction be employed in raising these axioms, viz., such a method, as is suited at once, to discover and demonstrate arts and sciences; by investigating the real and internal natures of things. On this new method, or art of induction, the author builds his principal hopes of improving philosophy: and to deliver this art was the principal purport of the Novum Organum; the part we are now upon being only introductory thereto. And to give some intimations for perfecting this art, the present Appendix is wrote. (14.) The last foundation of hope, in the way of forsaking past errors, is this, that natural philosophy may be extended, or made to afford matter to the sciences, and they again be brought back to philosophy, so as to make them centre therein, without mutilating or dismembering the sciences, whilst they, together with natural philosophy, constitute one serviceable corps of knowledge. ... (15.) The next fountain of hope for the improvement of knowledge, is the prospect which men may have of future discoveries, if they will put themselves into the proper way of enquiry. For since many discoveries have been hit upon unexpectedly, or by accident; as by the instinct of brutes, &c. without going in quest of them, greater success may be, doubtless, expected from a proper method of enquiry, and the art of experimenting with reason, industry, and sagacity; more especially by the method of induction abovementioned, which is a contrivance for the speedy bringing of new discoveries to light. (16.) Some considerable improvement of philosophy may be also reasonably expected, if the requisite time, expence, and application shall be used in collecting such a history of nature as was mentioned above, which is a thing that has never hitherto appeared, but may be procured, and is no impossible or impracticable scheme. (17.) And, lastly, though we had less encouragement to hope for success than we have, yet a course of trial and experimenting should be undertaken, because there is thus, at least, a chance of improving philosophy, at the expence of a little labour: whereas, to sit down desponding, or resolved against all trial and attempt, seems unworthy of human nature. The seventh and last section of this preparatory part of the Novum Organum, is calculated to give some tolerable notion, not only of the design of the second part, but also of the whole; that the nature and use of the new me-thod of induction may be better understood. And here the author declares, that he has no view to found a sect in philosophy, or procure

followers; but only to lead men by the hand a little, in order to shew them the way of following nature, and freeing themselves from the necessity of following any philosopher whatever. And in order to prevent all misunderstanding or misconstruction of this his real design, he proceeds to answer the more considerable objections, that might be apt to arise against it, from the prejudices and false notions which men commonly imbibe. And first because men are naturally impatient, and immediately desire to see the advantages of new undertakings, the author guards his reader against all rash and hasty endeavours after profit and advantage, as what will prove highly pernicious, and tend to prevent the good effects expected. But for those who cannot wait, he leaves them at liberty to use, in their own way, the several helps he has afforded towards the production of considerable works and effects, for he would by no means hinder, but as much as possible promote and expedite the discovery of all advantageous arts and works. But till a tolerable history of nature is procured, he judges that no very considerable progress can be made in what he calls the genuine interpretation of nature, or forming of rich axioms, that shall lead to new arts and capital works. Such a history, therefore, himself proposes to procure.

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