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An account of the culture of the plant; called by Linnets Oldenlandia Umbellata, and by the Indians on the Coromandel-coast, Che, it the roots of which afford the fine, permanent red dye ta, cottonit Communicated by James Anderson, M. D. phyficianto the prefdency At Madrass in a latter to fames Anderson L. LID. at Gatfield near Leither Dated: August 31788. ve

no al 03 soubous allo w t9TEM The seeds of Oldenlandia or Chei are gathered in January, and sown in July : The roots are dug up in March. When the seeds are fresh gathered, I shall send you enough to arrive without any rik of losing their vegetative power,

It grows every where here a small weed; but it is only by particular culture the roots become poflefled of the beau tiful and permanent:red dye, the seeds of which only are preserved for crop.

To enable you to judge whether our West India iftands are capable of its culture or not, I must give you a sketch of the Coromandel coast, and the nature of the foil employed for raising Che: Of the climate you have somewhat in the philofophical tranfactions.

en 144 od fium It appears to me, that the decomposition of the mountains washed down by the freshes, have extended a clay foil which encroaches fome, miles on the ancient bed of the fea, fosasto form a level plain along the coast, about two or three feet higher than the fea's surface.. ; *! hreite 11.911111

This being established, there are rivulets at a few miles only from each other, which wash great quantities of fand from the soil of the inland country, till it reaches the fear when it is carried off at a right angle by the current, and turown out by the surf, fo as to form the beach

Now, the high winds that frequently blow here, drive. this fand farther backwards ; so that in ages, the clay foil is. in many places covered with pure fand to the height of two or three feet, and here and there a sand hill, thirty or forty, feet high.

It is in those parts, where the sand is evenly spread, the Che is cultivated. The sandy plain is evenly laid out in

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beds like a garden, on which the seeds are fown and carefully watered every third morning at fun-rife for the first month, 1 nist a "The value of the root here prevents its being fent to Exrope, as well as that the power of the sun's rays are neceffary to obtain the full effect of the dye, fo that a dyer must fometimes repear his process 250 times before he hits the right colour. Ad uno ti Aurii

The root, which is very slender and long, when dried, is put up in bundles about a span in girt, and brought thus to market, where it sells according to its quality, at the rate of from ten pagodas, or four pounds Sterling, to seventy pagodas, or twenty-eight pounds Sterling the maund, or quarter of ant hundred weight. T h is son,

679 W Toy Vanny 3*** ,' we Translation from the Talinga for the cultivation of the 13896917In

Che' or Chay*. The way of gathering feeds of Chay root, when the plants are well grown and ręd-coloured, and after they have flowered and produced fruit and long roots, then it is time to get the feed; as the seeds are very small, and drop down under the plants, it can only be gathered with the sand, which must be kept as in a heap till next year,, as it cannot be ufed that year. The ground fould be fandy, and where there is sweet water, weil manured with sheep's dung; or heep fhould be kept on the ground for that purpose, and then ploughed, the more frequently the better, seven or eight times. It must be perfectly level, without grass, and divided into beds of one yard breadth, and four yards long, with a narrow water course. The seeds must be sown thinly therein, and Palmira leaves placed over the surface, and the water poured on them to prevent the feed being washed out of the ground until they shoot up, which will be in 5 or 6 days. For two months after this, the ground must be kept constantly, wet and sprinkled besides with water, having cow dung mixed with it, every morning, to prevent the shoots being blown off by the wind ; during the remaining months the cow dung may be omitted, and the ground only watered twice a-day, morning and evening Grass must not be allowed to grow. If managed as above, it will be grown in fix months, when it must be dug up with a large iron bari to prevent the roots being broké, and bound into small bundles, that are to be dried and bound into larger bundles, of two maunds weight, or. 1.50..pound weight.

sunt this was read in the Royal Society of Edinburgh, November 3d ; and I the original, from whence the translation was made, lodged with the fiecretary of the society:

: After cutting or beating off the upper part, the roots must be well powdered, and mixed up with four times theic quantity of water in a pot, and boiled for fome time, both for painting and dying red. : For the painted Calengary qe Chintz, the painters use other stuffs together with Chay root, according to their convenience, as Brasil wood, to fhew them where the red is to be put, but the Che root is the princi, pal.--The ground that is plantesi with Chay root cannot be used for the same purpose again for five years.

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N. B. Seeds of the Oldenlandia Umbellata were fent by three different conveyances, which all arrived safe in Britain. ...One parcel was given to the royal society for the promotion of arts, in the Strand, London; another parcel to the fociety of agriculture, Bath; and another to the philofophic and literary society at Manchester; with a request to the first, that a small parcel of the feeds should be communicated to Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. and another to the king's gardener at Kew ;-the remainder to be distributed among such persons here, and in the West Indies, as were most likely to give this plant a fair trial. It was also requested, that the members of the other societies would take the trouble to send these feeds, chiefly to their correspondents in the West Indies, so as to give it a chance of a fair trial

in different places. At the same time, as the root is of so · great value, it could admit of being imported dire&tly from

India as an article of commerce, and some of the roots have been accordingly ord ed home for a trial.

It must, however, be admitted, that the use of this drug is not now so much wanted here as forrmerly, fecing an ingenious gentleman, now at Glasgow," has discovered a method of dying cotton of a permanent red, little inferior te that from India.' *

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sobre la 81WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16. 1791.

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Sir, YOUR publication, which, though yet in its infancy, I flatter myself will be of extensive utility to the world, invites the philosopher, the scholar, the merchant, or the observer, alike to communicate their ideas, which, after being fanctioned by your approbation, are thus given to the public. Perhaps in the present situation of the cominercial world, the number of Bankruptcies which have of late happened, may claim a few thoughts, as a subject highly interesting to a mercantile nation. To remedy the evil entirely is perhaps impollibles while trade exifts, and fortune is capricious; but ought not some distinction to be made in the eye of the world, between the situation of the extravagant unthinking villain, the hasty speculator, and the worthy man, who has been ruined by their schemes, strug. gling under the burden of a numerous family, and deeply affected with his fallen condition ? A man in the situation of the latter, is most deserving compaffioni on him the creditor ought not to wreck that vengeance VOL. I.

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which is only destined for guilty heads." Yet how of ten do we see him reduced to poverty and want, exposed to the misery of a jail, without friends and with. out help! A man in this situation is an object of pity! he who refuses it is unworthy of a better lot.'' On the other hand, the more fplendid spendthrift, who indulged himself in all the fashionable follies of sensuality and extravagance, who'perhaps was the ruin of the former, whose credit was never supported but by the most ruinous means, viz. wind bills, and perfonal affurance,” often meets with that pity which the other never has found: in a short time surmounts his difficulties or seeming embarrassments : overleaps the bounds of prudence, and begins again his ruinous career with undiminished fplendor ; defpifing alike the censures of the world, and of his own conscience, hackneyed in iniquity. Ought not the one to be admired in his misfortunes, and the other reprobated in his fplendor, and detefted, though surrounded with the glare of tink felled shew ?

As matters have stood for some time past, there is no man who deals extensively but must fuffer; and the fraudulent bankrupt is generally the one who lives most fplendidly. .

When we trace bankruptcies to their fource, we ge. nerally find extravagance at home, ruinous fpeculations, or misfortunes, the cause to which they have been ow. ing. Could not fome mode be adopted to check the growth of this growing evil? Could not some mark of odium be stamped upon them by the public? Thé wife most furely would applaud a scheme for that purpose : 'tis a pity it has not been already put in execution. For instance when it was clearly proved that a man had fairly ruined himfelf by heedless expenditures, which hc well knows his circumstances could not admit of; 'if he is a member of a mercantile fociety, and it is insi. nuated that either fraudulent practices, or some other cause, owing to himself, have been the causes of his

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