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use or origination of the Greek, much less into the etymology of the correspondent Latin, as to search into the notion of the Jews, and the language of the Scriptures, according unto which the evangelists and apostles spake and wrote.
And first, it cannot be denied, but that the word which we translate the Lord was used by the interpreters of the Old Testament sometimes for men, with no relation unto another than human dominion.* Apd as it was by the translators of the Old, so is it also by the penmen of the New. But perly made use of in that language, 12. 1 Pet. iii. 6. so Eleazer luis master tells us the gods may be called Osoi or Abraham, Gen. xxiv.frequently. Thus Aaiuoves, but mentions not Kúplos, as Rachel saluteth her father Laban, neither proper, nor any name of God Gen. xxxi. 35. and Jacob his brother with them at all. "Nor did they an- Esau, Gen. xxxiii. 8. Potiphar is the ciently use it in their economics'; kúpos of Joseph whom he bought, Gen. where their constant terms were not xxxix. 2, &c, and Joseph in power is Κύριος, but δεσπότης and δούλος: and so saluted by his bretliren, Gen. xli. they had then another kind of notion 10. and acknowledged by his servant, of it, as appears by the complaint of Gen. xliv. 5. The general name in the servant in Aristophanes. Plut. 6. the law of Moses for servant and masi Tού σώματος γάρ ουκ έα τον κύριον ter is rais and kúplos, Exod., xxi. 2.
Kpareiv daiuwv, állà Tòv ćwvnuévov. 4. · It is indeed so plain that the anIn. wbicb words, if they were inter- cient Jews used this word to signify preted by the Scripture usage, Kúplos no more than human power,' that we would signify the master, and twvnué- find DTX the name of man so transa
the person bought, that is, the ser- lated, as 1 Sam. xvii. 32. as 55 58 vant; whereas the place requires any.DTX un dj, ovj TEOÉTw kapdia Toy interpretation wholly contrary; for kvpiov poŨ Én' avtóv. έωνημένος is not here ήγορασμένος, but † For Kúplos is 'used with relation ảyopáoas, or ávnoduévos, as the scho- and in opposition to tardiorn, Acts Jiast, Suidas, and Moschopulus have xvi. 16. in the sense which the latter, observed, that is, not the servant, but not the ancient Greeks used it: Ilaithe master who bought him. And diokn, TQVTO ÉTÈ Tñs Depanaivns oi vũv Tlthough those grammarians bring no θέασιν οι δε αρχαίοι επί της νεάνιδος, as other place to prove this active signi- Phrynichus observes. Asit is opposed fication beside this of Aristophanes, to oicéans, Luke xvi. 13. (according to by which means it might be still ques- that of Etymol. Kúpos Tūv apósti tionable whether they had rightly in- εστίν, έχει δε προς τον οικέτην.) το δούterpreted him without any authority, dos, Matt. x. 24. xviii. 25. &c. And yet Phrynichus will sufficiently secure in the apostolical rules pertaining to us of this sense : "Etuxov ćwvnuévos Christian economics, the master and οικίαν ή αγρόν. ενταύθα ουδέν εγχωρεί servant are δούλος and κύριος. As also τών από το πρίασθαι μένει το εωνημέ- by way of addition κύριος του θερισμού, νος δόκιμον. 'Έωνημένος. then here is Μatt. ix. 38. κύριος του αμπελώνος, he which buyeth, that is, the master; Matt. xx. 8. cópios rñs oixias, Mark and consequently kúplos not the mas- xiii. 35. Insomuch as cúpu is someter, but the servant bought, whom he times used by way of address or salusupposeth originally to bave power tation of ope man to another, (as it is over his own body. Indeed it was not now generally among the later Greeks, only distinguished, but in a manner and as Dominus was anciently among opposed to deoTÓTNS: as appears by the Latins. ' Quomodo obvios, si nothat observation of Animonius, thus men non occurrat, Dominos salutadelivered by Eustathius in Odyss. e. mus. Sen. epist. 3.) not only of serKúplog yuvaukos xai viñv åviip kai ta- vants to masters, as Matt. xiii. 27. or τηρ, δεσπότης δε αργυρωνήτων. sons to parents, as Matt. xxi. 30. or
* As 1178 is generally translated inferiors to men in authority, as Matt. KÚPIOS, when it signifieth lord or master xxvii. 63. but of strangers; as when in respect of a servant or inferior. So the Greeks spake to Philip, and deSarah called her husband, Gen. xviii, sired him, saying, Kúpie, Téloueu TÒŲ
it ismost certain that Christ is called Lord in another notion than that which signifies any kind of human dominion, because as so," there are many Lords,” (1 Cor. viii. 5.) but he is in that notion Lord, (1 Cor. viii. 6. Eph. iv. 5.) which admits of no more than one. They are only “ masters according to the flesh;” (Coloss. iii. 22.) he “the Lord of glory, the Lord from heaven,” (1 Cor. ii. 8. xv. 47.).“ King of kings, and Lord of all other lords.” (Rev. xix. 16.)
Nor is it difficult to find that name amongst the books of the Law in the most high and full signification; for it is most frequently used as the name of the sapreme God, sometimes for El or Elohim, sometimes for Shaddai or the Rock, often for Adonai, and most universally for Jehovah, the undoubted proper name of God, and that to which the Greek translators long before our Saviour's birth, had most appropriated the name of Lord, not only by way of explication, but distinction and particular expression. As when we tead, “ thou whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high in all the earth,” (Psal. Ixxxiii. 18.) and when God so expresseth himself, “ I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known unto them.” (Exod. vi. 3.) In both these places, for the name Jehovah the Greek translation, which the Apostles followed, hath no other name but Lord; and therefore undoubtedly by that word which we translate the Lord* did 'Inooûv ideīv, John xii. 21. and Mary Hebræorum verborum substitui conMagdalene speaking unto Christ, but suevit, ideo illius etiam interpretatio taking him for a gardener, Kúple, ei où. huio accommodatur,' says Crellius de Báoraoag avrov, John xx. 15. And Deo et Attrib. c. 14. But first it is it cannot be denied but this title was not probable that the LXX. should sometimes given to our Saviour him- think cúpuog to be the proper interpreself, in no higher or other sense tban tation of ITX, and give it to Jehovah this; as when the Samaritan woman only in the place of Adonai ; for if they saw him alone at the well, and knew had, it would have followed, that no mure of him than that he appeared where Adonai and Jehovah had met to be one of the Jews, she said, Kúpie, together in one sentence, they would αντλημα ουκ έχεις, και το φρέαρ έστι not have put anotlier word for Adonas, Balù,"John iv. 11. And the infirm to which rúpros was proper, and place man at the pool of Bethesda, when rúpos for Jehovah, to whom of itself he wist not who it was, said unto him, (according to their observation) it did Kúpu, ävepwnov oủk éxw, John v. 7. not belong. Whereas we read not The blind man, to whom he had re- only Thy ITX translated on OTA stored his sight, with the same saluta- kúpie, Gen. xv. 2. 8. and 1777 77777 tion maketh confession of his igno- sixy • deonórns rúplog Eaßawe, Isa. rance, and his faith, Tis toti, Kúpu ; i. 24. but also 173877) nuplov rom and TOTEÚw, Kúpie, John ix. 36.38. Otoñ ñuñv, Nebem. x. 29. Secondly,
I know it is the vulgar opinion, the reason of this assertion is most unthat kópios properly answereth unto certain. For though it be confessed
, used for my is no other than because where they found 7777, and Josepbus the Jews were wont to read Adonai before them expresses the sense of the in the place of Jehovah. Of which Jews of his age, that the Tetpaypáupaobservation they make great use who tov was not to be pronounced, and deny the Divinity of Christ. "Quia before him Philo speaksas mach; yet enim Adonai pro Jehovah in lectione it followeth pot from thence, that the
אדני and the reason why it was also that the Masoreths did read ,אדני
they understand the proper name of God, Jehovah. And had they placed it there as the exposition of any other name of God, they had made an interpretation contrary to the manifest : Jews were so superstitious above three grammaton itself, TNT' which by the hundred years before; which must be ignorance of tļie Greek scribes, who proved before we can be assured that understood not the Hebrew characthe LXX. read Adonai for Jehovah, ters, was converted into four Greek and for that reason translated it Kúplos. letters, and so made a word of no sigThirdly, as we know no reason why nification, II. This is still extant the Jews should so confound the in the copy of the text of Isaiah printed names of God; so were it now very by Curterius with the Commentary of irrational in some places to read '97X Procopius, and St. Jerome gives an for 77777: - As when God saith, Exod. account of it in the Greek copies of vi. 3. “I appeared unto Abraham, his age: Nomen Terpaypájparov, unto Isaac, and, unto Jacob,” 5x quod ávexdúvntov, id est, ineffabile,
, though the Vulgar translation renders jodhe Tvau i he 7, quod quidam non it, In Deo omnipotente, et nomen meum intelligentes, propter elementorum Adonai non indicavi eis, and thereby similitudinem, cum in Græcis libris make an apparent sense no way con- repererint, pipi legere consueverunt. gruous to the intended importance of Epist. 136. Neither did the Greeks the Holy Ghost (for it cannot be ima- only place this line in the margin of gined either that God should not be their translations, but when they deknown to Abrahạm by the name Ado- scribed the Hebrew text in Greek nai, or that it were any thing to the characters they used the same NITI present intendment, which was to en- for 7WT, and consequently did not courage Moses and the Israelites by read Adonai for Jehovah. An examthe interpretation of the name Jeho ple of this is to be found in that exvah); yet we have no reason to believe cellent copy of the prophets according that the LXX. made any such hete- to the LXX. collated with the rest of rogeneous translation, which we read, the translators, in the library of the και το όνομά μου Κύριος ουκ εδήλωσα most eminent Cardinal Barberin; ; avrois. Thus again, where God speaks where at the 13th verse of the 2nd unto Moses, Oőrws èpcīs rots viois 'Io- chapter of Malachi these words are ραήλ, Κύριος, ο θεός των πατέρων υμών, written after the translation of Aquila, απεσταλκέ Me tpos ópās, toĪTÓ Mov łotiv Symmachus, and Theodotion, out of övoua aiúviov, Exod. ij. 15. whoso- the Hebrew text, after the manner of ever thinks Kúpos stands for Adonai, Origen's Hexapla, of which there is doth injury to the translators; and an excellent example in that MS. Ovwhosoever readeth Adonαι forJehovah, ζωθ, σηνιθ, θεσoυ, χεσσoυθ, δεμα, εθμαζputs a force upon the text. As also Brv, (1. Bnx) FILTTI, Bext, ovavaka, unny, when the propbet David saith, “that wd, pevvwo, el, apuava, ovlaket, pakwv, men may know that thou whose name perdnxejl, which are a very proper exalone is Jehovah, art the most high pression of these following Hebrew over all the earth.” Ps. Ixxxiij. 18. I words, according to the punctuation confess the ancient fathers did, toge- and reading of that age, nyw nxi
, Jehovah , de Ponderibus, §. 6. 'Adwvai, Ylexà, By which'it is evident that Origen in kapusi, louarı, ießßerd, áról: which his Hexapla, from whence undoubtedvery corruptly represents part of the ly that ancient scholiast took his vafirst verse of the 141st psalm, 1777 rious translations, did not read 'Adavai
; plainly enough render JT 'Adwvai, characters, which they who onderNotwithstanding it is very observable, stood them not, formed into those that they were wont to distinguish Greek letters Tit. And certainly the Kúpros, in the Greek translations where preserving of the name Jehovah in the it stood for Jehovah, from Kúplog wbere Greck translations was very ancient, it stood for Adonai; and that was done for it was described in some of them by adding in the margin the tetra- with the ancient characters, as St.
דמעה את־מזבח ther with the Jews
read Adonai for תעשו כסות יהוה בכי ואנקה מאין עוד פנות
-Jehoval in the Hebrew text
, as ap אל המנחה ולקחת רצון מידכם peareth by those words of Epiphanius
intention of the Spirit: for it cannot be devied but God was known to Abraham by the true importance of the title Adonai, as much as by the name of Shaddai; as much by his domi nion and sovereignty, as by his power and all-sufficiency: but by any experimental and personal sense of the fulfilling of his promises his name Jehovah was not known unto him: for though God spakė expressly unto Abraham, “ All the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever," (Gen. xiii. 15. xxvi. 3.) yet the history teachethus, and St. Stephen confirmeth us, that“ lie gave him none inheritance in it, no not so much as to set his foot on, though he promised that he would give it to him for a possession." (Acts vii. 5.) Wherefore when God saith he was not known to Abraham by his name Jehovah, the interpretation of no other name can make good that expression and therefore we have reason to believe the word which the first Greek translators, and after them the apostles, used, may be appropriated to that notion which the original requires; as indeed it may, being derived from a verb of the same signification with the Hebrew root,* and so denoting the essence or existence of God, and whatsoever else may be deduced from thence, as revealed by him to be signified thereby.
Jerome testifieth: ‘Et noneu Domini Schiol. otwv ékupov, avri toő, érúpouv, Tetragrammaton in quibusdam Græ- rauTÒV TÝ ŠTúyxavov. Hence was kúpoi eis voluminibus usque hodie antiquis by the Attics used for čotw sit ; so) take expressum literis invenimus.' Ep. 106. it from the words of the scholiast upon Being then we cannot be assured that Sophocles: tò kupū Teplot Wuévws onoiv the LXX. read '978 for 717 being ý ovvhdkia kai 'Artikoi, èv dè euktikOTS they have used Κύριος for Jehovah, βαρύνουσιν αυτό'Αττικοί μετά εκτάσεως when they have made use of the ge- τού υ, κύροι λέγοντες, αντί του, κυρoίη. neral word oos for Adonai ; being in Not that they used it by an apocope, some places Adonai cannot be read taking in from xvpoin, but that xúpoi for Jehovah, without manifest violence was taken in the sense of kupoin or offered to the text: it followeth, that Kupoiro, from kúpw, utrápxw, kúpot, ein it is no way probable that Kúplos should orů nápxou, as the scholiast upon tbose therefore be used for Jehovah, because words of Sophocles, Electr. V. 849, it was taken for the proper significa- Δειλαία δειλαίων κυρεϊς Κυρεϊς, ήγουν, tion of Adonai.
ůrágxels. Neither know I better how * It is acknowledged by all that 'to render kupeīs than by úzápxels in That is from 1777 or TT, and God's the place of Æschylus's Prometheus, own interpretation proves no less v. 330. ΤΟΝ ΕΝ ΤΟΝ Εxod. iii.14. And Zηλώ σ' όθ' ούνεκ' εκτός αιτίας κυρείς, though some contend that futurition Πάντων μετασχών και τετολμηκώς έμοί. . is essential to the name, yet all agree As the Arundelian scholiast upon the the root signifieth nothing but essence Septem Thebana, kupci, ůnäpxel, and or existence, that is, to elvai, or in the same tragedy, én" åoridos kvpęīv, Ünápxelv. Now as from 1797 in the is rendered by the more ancient schoHebrew 17", so in the Greek and liast, elvat ési rñs åonidogo as in the του κύρειν Kύριος. • And what the Persα, σεσωσμένος κυρεϊ, is by the proper signification of κύρειν is, n0 same interpreter explained κυρεϊ και man can teach us better than Hesy- υπάρχει σεσωσμένος. So the same chius, in whom we read Kúpel, ůráp- poet in his Agamemnon, v. 1371. χει, τυγχάνει, κύρω prima longa, κυρώ Ταύτην επαινείν πάντοθεν πληθύνομαι, prima brevi. Sophocl. Edip. Colon. Tpavõs'Arpeionv éidévai xvpoūvu wg. v. 1158.
Which the scholiast renders thus: Παρ' η
'Επαινούμαι διαφόρως ταύτην γνώμην θύων έκυρον
το μαθείν εν δίφ έστι καταστάσει ο βασι
Being then this title Lord thus signifieth the proper name of God Jehovah, being the same is certainly attributed unto λεύς. And no other sense can be some would persuade us, whom we imagined of that verse in Sophocles, have already refuted) or because they Edip. Tyr. V. 362.
had no letters in the Greek language Φονέα σε φημί τάνδρός ου ζητείς κυρεϊν, by which they could express the than by rendering it, είναι or υπάρχειν: Hebrew name, whereas we find it and Edip. Col. v. 726.
often expressed even among the Gen-Και γάρ ει γέρων κυρώ, tile Greeks, but becanse they thought Το τηςδε χώρας ου γεγήρακε σθένος the Greek κύριος to be a proper inand Philoctet. v. 899.
terpretation, as being reducible to 'Αλλ' ενθάδ' ήδη τούδε του πάθους κυρώ: the same signification. For even or of that in Euripides's Phænissæ, they which are pretended to have V. 1067.
read Adonai for Jehovah, as Origen, 'Ώή, τίς εν πύλαισι δωμάτων κυρεϊ; &c. do acknowledge that the beathens This original interpretation appeareth and the ancient herețics descending farther in the frequent use of cupów from the Jews had a name by which for τυγχάνω, as it signifteth no more they did express thie Hebrew Jehovah. than sum: as in Sophocles, ευθύνων We know that oracle preserved by κυρεϊς for ευθύνεις, μισών κυρής for Macrobius, Saturnal. lib. i. c. 18. μισης, επεικάζων κυρώ for επεικάζω, ών Φράζεο τον πάντων ύπατον θεόν έμμεν κυρεϊς for είς, εξειδώς κυρώ for εξοιδα,
Ιαώ. κυρώ λεύσσων for: λεύσσω, δρών κυρεϊς And Diodorus hath taught us from for δράς, ήπατημένος κυρώ for ηπάτη- whence that name first came, meliμαι, είρηκώς κυρεϊ for: είρηκεν, είπών tioning Moses in this manner, 1. i. c. κυρεϊς for είπες, έκύρει ζώσα for έζη: 94. Παρά δε τοϊς Ιουδαίοις Μωσής τον and in Euripides, έχων κυρεϊ for έχει, Ιαώ επικαλούμενον θεόν.. And Theoείσβαίνουσα κυρεϊ for εισβαίνει, ήδι- doret more expressly, Quest. 15. 1η κημένη κυρή for αδικήται, οι αδικηθή, Εκod. Καλούσι δε αυτό Σαμαρείται μεν as the scholiast., From all which it Iαβε, Ιουδαίοι δε Ίαώ. Porphyrius, undeniably appeareth, that the an- I. iv. cont. Christian, tells us, Sanchocient signification of cúpw or kupê niathon had his relations of the Jews, is the same with είμι, or υπάρχω, παρά Ιερομβάλου του ιερέως θεού του sum, I am (wlich is much confirmed 'Ievu. Eusebius (as we formerly menby that it was anciently observed to tioned) said, 'Γωσουέ εστιν, Ταώ σωτηbe a verb, transitive, as it was used by ρία. - Hesychius, Ιωάθαμ, Ίαώ συντές the forementioned author: κυρώ συζυ- λεια, taking ιώ in composition for the γίας πρώτης των περισπωμένων, το πε- contraction of 'Ιαώ. Ας Ιωνάς ερμηριτυγχάνω" αντί δε του υπάρχω κατά νεύεται, υψίστου πονούντος. And the τους τραγικούς αμετάβατον. So an LΧΧ. Jer. Χxiii. 6. have rendered ancient Lexican); and therefore kúpos 1273 TITY'IWOEdèc, id est, Dominus immediately derived from thence justus, saith St. Jerome.' And as the must be ó ñv, or å ünápxwv: and con- heathens and the first Christians, so, sequently the proper interpretation of the heretics had among them the DIT descending from the root 79,7 pronunciation and expression of the of the same signification. And well name 717. As the Valentinian was may we conceive the LXX. for this baptized év tõã óvópati ToŨ 'Iaú. Iren.' reason to have so translated it, be- 1. i. c. 21. §. 3. and the Ophiani had cause we find the origination delivered their several gods, among the rest: by them in that notion, rendering Aπό μέν μαγείας τον Ιαλδαβαώθ και ΤΟΝ ο Ων, Εxod. iii. 14. εγώ είμι και τον Ασταφαίον, και τον “Ωραίον" από δέ"Ων, and again, ο "Ων απεσταλκέ με πρός των Εβραϊκών γραφών τον Ιαώ, Ια: υμάς. Froτη whence considering the παρ' Εβραίοις ονομαζόμενον. Origr. name 77 proceeding from that root, cont. Cels. I. vi. . 32. So I read it, and giving relation to that sense, they not as it is in the edition of Hoeschemade use of the word kúpos for the lius, 'Iawta in one woril, or 'lawva, as standing interpretation of that name, our learned countryman Nicolaus as being equivalent to è "Qv. We Fullerus bath endeavoured in vain to have no reason then to conceive rectify it;' but iaw ià, that is, the either that they so translated it out Ophiani took the name 'Iaw from the of the superstition of the Jews (as Jews, among whom it siguifies the