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Sat. Thanks, sweet Lavinia.-Romans, let us go:
Ransomless here we set our prisoners free:
Proclaim our honours, lords, with trump and drum.

[Flourish. Saturninus courts Tamora in dumb-show. Bas. Lord Titus, by your leave, this maid is mine.

[Seizing Lavinia.

Tit. How, sir! are you in earnest, then, my lord?
Bas. Ay, noble Titus; and resolv'd withal
To do myself this reason and this right.

Mare. Suum cuique (19) is our Roman justice:

This prince in justice seizeth but his own.

Luc. And that he will, and shall, if Lucius live.

Tit. Traitors, avaunt!-Where is the emperor's guard?— Treason, my lord,-Lavinia is surpris'd!

Sat. Surpris'd! by whom?


By him that justly may

Bear his betroth'd from all the world away.

[Exeunt Bassianus and Marcus with Lavinia. Mut. Brothers, help to convey her hence away, And with my sword I'll keep this door safe.

[Exeunt Lucius, Quintus, and Martius. Tit. Follow, my lord, and I'll soon bring her back. Mut. My lord, you pass not here.


Barr'st me my way in Rome?


What, villain boy!

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Re-enter LUCIUS.

Luc. My lord, you are unjust; and, more than so,

In wrongful quarrel you have slain your son.

(19) cuique] "(Fol. 'cuiquam' [the first quarto 'cuiqui']). Pronounce 'cuique. Cui and huic-which in ancient Latin poetry (with the exception of Seneca, e.g. Tro. 851,

'Quolibet tristis miseras procella
Mittat, et donet cuicunque terræ ')

are found only, I believe, in the early and very late writers-were in the schools of Shakespeare's time pronounced as lissyllables, as they are still perhaps in some of the Scotch ones; and were supposed to be admissible in Latin verse composed after the Augustan models. See, for instance, Casimir Sarbievius." Walker's Crit. Exam., &c., vol. iii. p. 216.

Tit. Nor thou, nor he, are any sons of mine;
My sons would never so dishonour me:
Traitor, restore Lavinia to the emperor.

Luc. Dead, if you will; but not to be his wife,
That is another's lawful-promis'd love.

Sat. No, Titus, no; the emperor needs her not, (20)

Nor her, nor thee, nor any of thy stock:

I'll trust, by leisure, him that mocks me once;
Thee never, nor thy traitorous haughty sons,
Confederates all thus to dishonour me.

Was there none else in Rome to make a stale,(21)
But Saturnine? Full well, Andronicus,

Agree these deeds with that proud brag of thine,
That saidst, I begg'd the empire at thy hands.


Tit. O monstrous! what reproachful words are these? Sat. But go thy ways; go, give that changing piece To him that flourish'd for her with his sword: A valiant son-in-law thou shalt enjoy;

One fit to bandy with thy lawless sons,

To ruffle in the commonwealth of Rome.

Tit. These words are razors to my wounded heart. Sat. And therefore, lovely Tamora, queen of Goths,― That, like the stately Phoebe 'mongst her nymphs, Dost overshine the gallant'st dames of Rome,If thou be pleas'd with this my sudden choice, Behold, I choose thee, Tamora, for my bride, And will create thee empress (22) of Rome.

(20) Sat. No, Titus, no; the emperor needs her not, &c.] In the old eds. this is preceded by a stage-direction, "Enter aloft the Emperour with Tamora and her two sonnes, and Aaron the Moore."-Mr. Collier is justified in remarking that "the stage-arrangements in this scene are not easily understood."

(21) Was there none else in Rome to make a stale,] So the second folio, except that it has " to make a stale of."-The earlier eds. have "Was none in Rome to make a stale.”—Mr. Knight thinks that he has set all right by a new arrangement (which the author evidently did not intend); "Was none in Rome to make a stale but Saturnine? Full well, Andronicus,

Agree these deeds," &c.

Walker (Crit. Exam., &c., vol. ii. p. 260) proposes "What, was there none in Rome," &c.

(22) empress] See note 16.

Speak, Queen of Goths, dost thou applaud my choice?
And here I swear by all the Roman gods,-
Sith priest and holy water are so near,
And tapers burn so bright, and every thing
In readiness for Hymenæus stand,--

I will not re-salute the streets of Rome,

Or climb my palace, till from forth this place

I lead espous'd my bride along with me.

Tam. And here, in sight of heaven, to Rome I swear, If Saturnine advance the Queen of Goths,

She will a handmaid be to his desires,

A loving nurse, a mother to his youth.

Sat. Ascend, fair queen, Pantheon.(23)--Lords, accompany Your noble emperor and his lovely bride, Sent by the heavens for Prince Saturnine, Whose wisdom hath her fortune conquerèd:

There shall we cónsummate our spousal rites.

[Exeunt Saturninus attended, Tamora, Demetrius, Chiron, Aaron, and Goths.

Tit. I am not bid to wait upon this bride :Titus, when wert thou wont to walk alone, Dishonour'd thus, and challengèd of wrongs?

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Marc. O Titus, see, O see what thou hast done!
In a bad quarrel slain a virtuous son.

Tit. No, foolish tribune, no; no son of mine,—
Nor thou, nor these, confederates in the deed.
That hath dishonour'd all our family;
Unworthy brother, and unworthy sons!

Luc. But let us give him burial, as becomes;
Give Mutius burial with our brethren.

Tit. Traitors, away! he rests not in this tomb:This monument five hundred years hath stood, Which I have sumptuously re-edified:


(23) Ascend, fair queen. Pantheon.] As earlier in the present scene we find "the Pantheon," Walker observes that here "possibly the author wrote 'Ascend, fair queen, the Pántheon." Shakespeare's Versification, &c., P. 216.

Here none but soldiers and Rome's servitors
Repose in fame; none basely slain in brawls :-
Bury him where you can, he comes not here.

Marc. My lord, this is impiety in you:
My nephew Mutius' deeds do plead for him ;
He must be buried with his brethren.




And shall, or him we will accompany.

Tit. "And shall"! what villain was it spake that word?
Quin. He that would vouch't in any place but here.
Tit. What, would you bury him in my despite ?
Marc. No, noble Titus; but entreat of thee

To pardon Mutius, and to bury him.

Tit. Marcus, even thou hast struck upon my crest, And, with these boys, mine honour thou hast wounded: My foes I do repute you every one;

So, trouble me no more, but get you gone.

Mart. He is not with himself ;(24) let us withdraw.
Quin. Not I, till Mutius' bones be buried.

[Marcus and the sons of Titus kneel
Marc. Brother, for in that name doth nature plead,-
Quin. Father, and in that name doth nature speak,-
Tit. Speak thou no more, if all the rest will speed.
Marc. Renowned Titus, more than half my soul,-
Luc. Dear father, soul and substance of us all,- (25)

(24) He is not with himself;] "Non est penes seipsum, apud seipsum.” Walker's Crit. Exam., &c., vol. iii. p. 217.

(25) Dear father, soul and substance of us all,-] On this line Mr. Collier, in the second edition of his Shakespeare, remarks, "There is a somewhat similar passage in Marlowe's Second Part of "Tamburlaine the Great,' where Amyras exclaims to his father,

'Thy soul gives essence to our wretched substance.'

Marlowe's Works, by Dyce, i. 222. By a singular, but unquestionable misprint, 'substance' is subjects in the old copies, and so the error is allowed to stand, twice over, in the reprint of 1850."

The passage of Tamburlaine is;

66 Amy.

Your soul gives essence to our wretched subjects,

Whose matter is incorporate in your flesh.

Cel. Your pains do pierce our souls; no hope survives,

For by your life we entertain our lives.

Tamb. But, sons, this subject, not of force enough

Marc. Suffer thy brother Marcus to inter
His noble nephew here in virtue's nest,
That died in honour and Lavinia's cause.
Thou art a Roman,-be not barbarous :
The Greeks upon advice did bury Ajax,
That slew himself; and wise Laertes' son
Did graciously plead for his funerals :(26)
Let not young Mutius, then, that was thy joy,
Be barr'd his entrance here.


Rise, Marcus, rise :—

[Marcus and the others rise.

To hold the fiery spirit it contains,

Must part, imparting his impressions

By equal portions into both your breasts," &c.;

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and "I allowed the speeches to stand" as above, not only in "the reprint of 1850," but in that of 1858, when Mr. Collier's emendation, "substance," was not unknown to me; for the words "subjects" and "subject" are certo certius the language of Marlowe, though Mr. Collier so dogmatically pronounces them to be wrong. Compare, in the same play, the speech of Tamburlaine before killing his son Calyphas;

"Here, Jove, receive his fainting soul again;
A form not meet to give that subject essence
Whose matter is the flesh of Tamburlaine,
Wherein an incorporeal spirit moves,

Made of the mould whereof thyself consists," &c. Act iv. sc. I.

and the following lines in Chapman's Continuation of Marlowe's Hero and Leander;

"Then, ho, most strangely-intellectual fire,

That, proper to my soul, hast power t' inspire
Her burning faculties, and with the wings
Of thy unsphered flame visit'st the springs
Of spirits immortal! Now (as swift as Time
Doth follow Motion) find th' eternal clime
Of his free soul, whose living subject stood
Up to the chin in the Pierian flood,

And drunk to me half this Musæan story,
Inscribing it to deathless memory," &c.

Third Sestiad.

It only remains for Mr. Collier boldly to assert that in the two passages last cited "subject" is a misprint for "substance."


and wise Laertes' son Did graciously plead for his funerals:]

See note on the passage in Julius Cæsar, act v. sc. 3,

"His funerals shall not be in our camp," &c.

• See his Preface to Coleridge's Seven Lectures on Shakespeare and Milton, 1855, p. cxviil. VOL. VI.


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