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Ihands which increased to the size of Avicenna, the Arab physician, speaks
trees, and yielded a liquor that was of sugar as being a produce of reeds ;
sweet and agreeable to the palate. This but it appears he meant the sugar called
plant he concludes to be the sugar cane; Tabaxir or Tabbarzet, as he calls it by
but I think the passage in Pliny, Hist. that name.
Nat. lib. vi. cap. 22. scarcely implies

It does not appear,

that
any

of the so much. Hitherto we have had no above-mentioned writers knew of the account of any artificial preparation of method of preparing sugar, by boiling sugar, by boiling or otherwse; but there down the juice of the reeds to a conis a passage in Statius, Sylv. I. vi. 15. fistence. It is also thought, the sugar that seenis, if the reading be genuine, they had was not procured from the to allude to the boiling of sugar, and is sugar cane in use at present, but from thought to refer immediately thereto by another of a larger size, called TabarStephens in his Thesaurus.

zet * by Avicenna, which is the ArunArrian, in his Periplus of the Red do Arbor of Caspar Bauhin, the Saccar Sea, speaks of the honey from reeds, Mambu of later writers, and the Aruna called sacchar (Exxae) as one of the do Bambos of Linnæus. This yields articles of trade between Ariace and a sweet milky juice, and oftentimes a Barygaza, two places of the hither In- hard crystallized matter, exactly resemdia, and some of the ports on the Red bling sugar, both in taste and appearance. Sea.

The historians of the Crusades make Aelian, in his natural history, speaks the next mention of sugar of any that of a kind of honey, which was pressed have fallen under my observation, from reeds, that grew among the Prasii, The author of the Historia Hieroso. a people that lived near the Ganges.

lymitana (A. D. 1100) fays, that Tertullian also speaks of sugar, in the Crusaders found in Syria certain his book “ De Judicio Dei," as a kind reeds called Cannameles, of which it of honey procured from canes.

was reported a kind of wild honey was Alexander Aphrodifæus appears to made ; but does not say that he saw. have been acquainted with sugar, which any so manufactured. was, in his time, regarded as an Indian Albertus Agnenfis relates, that about production. He says, " that what tbe the same period,“ the Crusaders found Indians called fugar, was a concretion sweet honeyed reeds, in great quantity, of honey, in reeds, resembling grains in the meadows about Tripoli, in Syria, of salt, of a white colour, and brittle, which reeds were called Zuçra. These and possefling a detergent and purgative the people (the Crusaders army) fuckpower like to honey; and which being cd, and were much pleased with the boiled, in the fame manner as honey, sweet taste of them, with which they is rendered lefs purgative, without im- could scarcely be satisfied. This plant pairing its nutritive quality.!!

(the author tells us) is cultivated with Paulus Ægineta speaks of sugar, as great labour of the husbandmen every growing, in his time, in Europe, and year,

At the time of harvest, they also as brought from Arabia Felix; the bruise it, when ripe, in mortars; and sét latter of which he seems to think less

Some of the writers say, that it was so fweet than the sugar produced in Eu- called from the name of a place, Laya? rope, and neither injurious to the fto- Tαθαρζες, τοπος εω καλεμενος εις Συριαν, mach, nor causing thirst, as the Euro- Constantinus a Secretis, MS, quoted from pean fugar was apt to do.

Du Cange Gloss. Griec. The word TabarAchnet, a writer, who, according

zet signifies white, and is translated, by Du to fome, lived about the year 830, the Persians called by that name the hardest

Carge, Saccar Album. Herbelot. fuys, that speaks familiarly, of sugar as common and most refined sugár. Bibliotheque Orienin his time.

tale, p. 810.

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by the strained juice in vessels, till it is Marinus sanutus mentions (A. D. concreted in form of snow, or white 1300) that in the countries subject to Lalt. This, when fcraped, they mix the Sultan, sugar was produced in large with bread, or rub it with water, and quantity, and that it likewise was made take it as pottage ; and it is to them in Cyprus, Rhodes, Amorea, Marta; more wholesome and pleasing than the Sicily, and other places belonging to the honey of bees. The people who were Christians. engaged in the fieges of Albaria Marra, Hugo Falcandus, an author who and Archas, and suffered dreadful hun. wrote about the time of the Emperor ger, were much refreshed hereby.”. Frederic Barbarossa, speaks of sugar

The fame author, in the account of being in his time produced in great the reign of Baldwin, mentions eleven , quantity in Sicily. It appears to have camels, laden with sugar, being taken been used in two states; one wherein by the Crusaders, so that it must have the juice was boiled down to the conbeen made in confiderable quantity. listence of honey, and another where it

Jacobus de Vitriaco mentions, that was boiled farther, so as to forni a solid “ in Syria reeds grow that are full of body of sugar. honey, by which he understands a sweet The foregoing are all the passages juice, which by the pressure of a screw that have occurred to my reading on this engine, and concreted by fire, becomes subject. They are but few and inconfugar." This is the first account I liderable, but may save trouble to others, have met with of the employment of who are willing to make a deeper inheat or fire in the making of sugar. quiry into the history of this substance.

About the same period (A. D. 1124) Willermus Tyrensis speaks of From Memoirs of the Literary and Phisugar as made in the neighbourhood of losophical Society of Manchester, Vol. 4. Tyre, and sent from thence to the

Part 2. farthest

parts of the world. THE GOOD FRIAR OF AUGSBURGH-A CONVERSATION.

-TOUCHED with the sensa. Carmelites.- Obferving my error, I tions natural to a man who loved to fee suddenly turned about, in order to dehis fellow creatures happy, my heart part, when a friar, a goodly person of expanded to a system of peace and bar. á man, elderly, and of a benign aspect, mons, comprehending the whole globe: called me, and, advancing toward me, my mind expátiated involuntarily on the alked, in terms of politeness, and in blessings and advantages derived from the French language, why I was refuch a syftem ; and, taking flight from treating so abruptly ? - I was conuf1: the bounds of practicability, to which but truth is the enemy before whom our feeble nature is pinned on this confusion every fies; and I told him. earth, into the regions of fancy, had the whole of my mikake, and the reared a fabric of Utopian mold, which, thoughts from which they arose. I verily believe, exceeded in extrava- The good father, waving further gance the works of all the Utopian discourse on the subject, but with a architects that ever constructed castles smile which I thought carried a mixin the air.

ture of benevolence for myself, and Hurried on by this delightful vision, contempt for my ideas, brought me my perfon paid an involuntary obedi- through the church, and shewed me all ence to my mind; and the quickness the curiofities of the place, and parti. of my pace increasng with the impe- cularly pointed out 'to me, as a great tuskry of my thoughts, I found my- curiosity, a sun-dial. made in the form self, before I was aware of it, within of a Madonna, the head enriched with the chapel door of the convent of the

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rays

rays and stars, and in the hand a answered them: but you are youngsceptre which marked the hours.

you are an Englishman--two characQuitting the chapel, and going to-ters impatient of reproof: the dogmas ward the refectory, the friar stood, and of a priest, I thought, therefore, would looking at me with a smile of gayetý, be sufficiently difficult to be digested of said, 5 I have yet something to shew themselves, without any additional difyou, which, while lady Madonna marks taste caught from the chilling austerity the time, will help us to pass it ; and, of a chapel." as it will make its way with more force I looked unintentionally at the earthand subtlety to your senses than those I en jug, and smiled. have

yet thewn you, will be likely to " It is very true," said he, catching be longer retained in remembrance.”

my very inmost thoughts from the exHe spoke a few words in German, pression of my countenancem".it is which of course I did not understand, very true! good doctrine may, at certo a vision bearing the shape of a hu- tain times, and with certain persons, man creature, who, I understood, was be more effectually enforced under the a lay-brother; and, turning down a cheering influence of the social board, long alley, brought me to his cell, than by the authoritative declamation where we were soon followed by the ac and formal fanctity of the pulpit ; nor foresaid lay-brother, with a large earth. am I, though a Carmelite, one of those en jug of liquor, two glasses, and a plate who pretend to think, that a thing in with some delicately white biscuit. itself good, can be made bad by, decent

“ You must know," said the friar, hilarity, and the animation produced “ that the convent of Carmelites at by a moderate and wise use of the goods Augsburgh has "for ages' been famed of this earth.” for beer unequalled in any part of the

I was astonished world ; and I have brought you here 5. You fell into a reverie," continued to have your opinion--for, being an he,“ produced by the contemplation Englishman, you must be a judge, the of the happiness of a society existing Britons being famed for luxury, and a without any difference, and where no perfect knowledge of the scavoir vivre." human breath should be wasted on He poured out, and drank to ile : it figh, no ear tortured with a groan, no looked more like clear champaigné than tears to trickle, no griefs or calamities beer- I never tasted any thing to equal to wring the heart." it; and seemed highly gratified by my “ Yes, father!" said I, catching the expressions of praise, which I lavished idea wiih my former enthusiasm; " that upon it, as well from politeness, as re- would be my with-that my greatest, gard to truth.

first desire." After we had drank a glass each, " I'hen feest thou," interrupted he, “ I have been reflecting,” said the friar, “ the extent of thy with, fuppose you

on the singular fight of fancy that could realize it, which, thank God! directed your steps into this convent

you cannot." Your mind was diseased, my son! and 6 What ! thank God that I cannot? a propitious fuperintending power has are these your thoughts?” guided your steps to a physician, if you “ Yes, my fon; and ere Madonna will but have the goodness to take the marks the progress of ten minutes with medicine he offers."

her fceptre, they will be your's too." I stared with visible marks of asto- Impoflible!” nishment.

" Hear me, my son !- Is not death " You are surprised,” continued he, a horrible precipice to the view of hu" but you shall bear! When first you man creatures ?”. disclosed to me those fickly flights of Affuredly,” said 1- the most your mind, I could on the instant have

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horrible; human laws declare that, by, to-day impress this undeniable maxim resorting to it for punishment, as the on your mind-o limited is man, to ultimatum of all terrible inflictions." impertect in his nature, that the ex

When, then,” said he, “ covered tent of his virtue borders on vice, and as we are with misery, to leave this the extent of his wisdom on trror.world is so insupportable to the human I thought he was inspired; ani, just reflection, what must it be if we had as he got to the left period, every organ nothing but joy and felicity to taste of of mine was opened to take in his words. in this life? Mark me, child !" fid 'Tis well, my son!” said he--." I be, with an animated zeal that gave an perceive you like my doctrine : then expression to his countenance beyond (changing his manner of speaking, his any thing I had ever seen : “ the mi- expreflive countenance the whole tine feries, the calamities, the heart-rend almost anticipating his whol: wert: ) ings, and the tears, which are so in- take some more of it,” said he gay's, timately interwoven by the Great Artist pouring out a fresh glass. I pleaded is our natures, as not to be separated the fear of inebriety-. Tear not," in a single instance, are, in the first said hc; 16 the beer of this convenc place, our security of a future state, never hurts the inteil. et.'' and, in whe next place, serve to flupe Our conversation continued till ncar the way before us, and by gradual 0. dinner-time ; for I was so delighted, I peration, fit our minds for viewing, with scarcely knew how to snarch myeli aa fome sort of fortitude, that hideous way: such a happy melange of pietv chasm that lies between us and that and pleasan:ry, grave wifiom a id hustate-death. View those miseries, mour, I had never met.

At length, then, as special acts of mercy and the convent bell tolling, I ref: he commiseration of a beneficent Creator, took me by the hand, and, in a tone who, with every calamity, melts away of the most complacent admonition, a link of that earthly chain that fetters said, " Kemember, my child! as long our wishes to this dismal world. Ac- as you live, remember the cunvent or Capt his blessings and his goods, when the Carmelites ; and in the innumcr. he sends them, with graritude and en- able erils that certainly a wait you if you jovment: receive his afflictions, too, are to live long, the words you have with as joyous acceptance, and as heard from old friar Augustine will afhearty gratitude. Thus, and not other- ford

you

comfort." wil, you will realize all your Uropian “ Father!" rerurned I, “ be assured flights of desire, by tarning every thing I carry away from you a token that to matter of comfort, and living con- will never lufær me to forget the hoftented with difpenfations which you pitality, the ad: ice, or the politeness cannot alter, and, if you could, would of the good father Augustine. Puor most certainly alter for the worst.as I am in natural means, I can make

I fat absorbed in reflection-The no other return than my good wishes, friar, after some pause, proceeded- nor leave any impresion behind me :

“ Errors arising from virtuous dis- but as my efterm for you, and perhaps positions and the love of our fellow. my vanity, make me with not to be creatures, take their complexion from forgotten, ar cept this, (a seal ring, with their parent motives, and are virtue a device in hair, which I happened io ous. Your wishes, therefore, my son! have on my finger,) and whenever you though erroneous, merit -reward, and, look at it, 'lt it remind you of one of I trult, will receive it from that Being those, I dare fay innumcrable, infan. who sees the recesses of the heart ; ces, in u hich you have contributed to and if the truths I have told you have the happinefs and improvement of your not failed to make their way to your fellow-creatures.” understanding, let your adventure or

The

The good old man was affected, took fible, and take one glass more of the the ring, and attended me to the con

convent ale. vent-gate, pronouncing many bleffings, From Mr Campbell's Journey over and charging me to make Augsburgh Land to India. Ally way back again to England, if pof

1

THE LOST EMPEROR. A TYROLESE TALE. LEAVING Augsburgh, I travelled winding in different courses, and hasthrough Bavaria a long way before I tening to pour their tribute into its boreached the Tyrol county, of the natu- som. ral beauty of which I had heard much, Here I felt my heart overwhelmed and which I therefore entered with with sensations of transport, which all great expectation of that fublime grati- the works of art could never inspire : fication the beauties of nature never fail here nature rushed irresistible upon my to afford me. I was not disappointed; fenfes, and, making them captive, ex. indeed, my warmest expectations were acted their acknowledgment of her fu. exceeded.

premacy: here vanity, ambition, luft of The first thing that strik:s a travel fame and power, and all the tinielled, Jer from Bavaria, on entering it, is the gaudy frippery, to which habit and fort of Cherink, built between two in- worldly custom enslave the mind, retiraccesible rocks which separate Tyrol ed, to make way for sentiments of har. from the bishopric of Freifingen. So mony, purity, implicity, anj truth : amply has nature provided for the secu. here Providence seemed io speak in lanrity of this country against the incur. guage molt perfuative, come, filly fion of an enemy, that there is not a man, leave the wild tumult, the enda país which leads to it that is not through less struggle, the glittering follies, the fome narrow defile between mountains false and spurious pleasures which artialmost inaccessible; and on the rocks fice creates, to seduce you from the and brows of those passes, the Emperor true-dwell here and in the lap of has constructed forts and citadels, so nature study me: Here, oh! hear, exadvantageously placed, that they come claimed 1, in a transport which bereft mand all the valleys and avenues be- ne, for the time, of every other conneath.

fideration, here will I dwell for evera After a variety of windiogs and turn. The charm was too finely spun, to withings through mountains of ftupendous stand the hard tugs of fact'; and all its height and awful aspect, I began to de precious delusions vaniihed before a host, scend, and entered the most delightful of gloony truihs--deranged affairsvalley I had ever beheld-deep, long, family far off, with the distance daily and above a niile in breadth, surround- increasing—the lazards and the harded with enormous piles of mountains, ships of a long untried journey—and the and diversified with the alternate beau- East Indies, with all its liorrors, in the ties of nature and cultivation, so as to rear. I hung my head in forrow; and, form an union rarely to be met with, offering up a prayer to protect my famiand delight at once the eye of the far- ly, strengthen myself, and bring us once mer, and the fancy of him that has a more together in some spot heavenly as true taste for rural wildness. From the that I pafled through, was proceeding keights in descending, the whole ap- on in a ftate of dejection proportionate peared in all its glory ; the beautiful to my previous transports, when I was iiver Inn gliding along through it lon- roused by my poftilion, who, pointing gitudinally, its banks (tudded with the to a very high lleep rock, defited me to most romantic little villages, while a take notice of it. I did so; but seeing number of inferior streams were scen nothing very remarkable in its appear

ance,

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