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vernor and captain-general of the islands | His Majesty being seated on the throne, of Grenada,' Grenadines, &c. in the commanded the gentleman usher of the West Indies; a new writ ordered, Black Rod to let the Commons know, “ It 1775.-- Frederick Stuart ; fourth son of is his Majesty's pleasure that they attend the earl of Bute.

him immediately in this House." Who SIXTEEN PEERS OF SCOTLAND. being come, Duke of Gordon,

Sir Fletcher Norton said,
Earl of Cassilis; died in 1775; (earl of
Dunmore in his stead.)

“ Most gracious Sovereign;
Strathmore; died in 1776; (earl “ Your Majesty's dutiful subjects, the

of Eglintoun in his stead.) Commons of this your realm in parliaAbercorn.

ment assembled, have, in pursuance of Galloway.

your Majesty's direction, and of their anLoudoun. Dalhousie.

cient right, elected one of their members

to be their Speaker for this parliament ; Breadalbane, Aberdeen.

and their choice, Sir, having once more March and Ruglen.

fallen upon me for this high and important Marchmont.

trust, they now present me to your Ma. Roseberry

jesty for your judgment upon their elec. Bute.

tion. Needless will it be in me, Sir, to Viscount Stormont.

mention on this occasion, with regard to Irwin; died in 1778; (marquis of myself, what I fear cannot but be too well

Lothian in his stead.)
Lord Cathcart; died in 1976; (earl of known to your Majesty: it therefore best
Cassilis in bis stead.)

becomes me, with silence and submission,

to resign myself to your royal determinaSir Fletcher Norton re-chosen Speaker.] tion." The Commons being returned to their

Then the Lord Chancellor, receiving House,

directions from his Majesty, said, Lord Guernsey, son and heir apparent of the earl of Aylesford, addressing him. “ Sir Fletcher Norton, self to the Clerk, (who, standing up, “ You have appealed to the King's own pointed to him, and then sat down) pro- experience and knowledge for the decision posed to the House for their Speaker the of the weighty affair now under his conright hon. sir Fletcher Norton; in which sideration, and it is from thence his Mahe was seconded by lord Robert Spencer, jesty has formed his judgment. brother to the duke of Marlborough. « After having had such clear demon

The House then calling sir Fletcher stration of your abilities, zeal, and appliNorton to the chair, he stood up in his cation, in the service of himself and of place, and expressed the sense he had of your country, in the last parliament, his the honour proposed to be conferred on Majesty commands me to let you know, him, and submitted himself to the House. that he entirely approves the choice which

The House then again unanimously his faithful Commons have made, and alcalling sir Fletcher Norton to the chair, lows and confirms you to be their Speaker." he was taken out of his place by the said After which, lord Guernsey and lord Robert Spencer, and conducted to the chair : where being

Mr. Speaker said: placed, he again expressed himself truly « Since your Majesty has been pleased sensible of the high honour the House had to confirm the choice your Commons have been pleased to confer upon him, in unani- made of me to be their Speaker, it is my mously choosing him again to be their duty, Sit, with all humility, to conform Speaker.

myself to their appointment and your And then the mace (which before lay royal approbation of it; begging your under the table) was laid upon the table. Majesty's favourable acceptance of my Then sir John Shelley, treasurer of his humblest acknowledgments for this fresh Majesty's household, having congratulated instance of your Majesty's grace towards Mr. Speaker elect, moved to adjourn till myself, and that your Majesty would to-morrow.

vouehsafe to pardon my failings and infir

mities, at least not to impute them in any The Speaker's Speech on being presented wise to your faithful Commons. And that to the King and approved of.] Nov. 30. your Commons in parliament may be the better enabled to discharge their duty to into execution the laws which were passed your Majesty and their country, I do in in the last session of the late parliament, their name, and on their behalf, by hum- for the protection and security of the comble petition to your Majesty, lay claim to merce of my subjects, and for the restorall their ancient rights and privileges; ing and preserving peace, order, and good particularly that they, their servants, and government, in the province of the Mas. estates, may be free from arrests and all sachuset's Bay. And you may depend on other molestation. That they may enjoy my firm and stedfast resolution to withfreedom of speech in their debates, and stand every attempt to weaken or impair have liberty of access to your royal per- the supreme authority of this legislature son on all occasions; and that all their over all the dominions of my crown, the proceedings may receive from your Ma- maintenance of which I consider as essenjesty the most favourable interpretation.” tial to the dignity, the safety, and the welWhich done,

fare of the British empire, assuring myself The Lord Chancellor, by his Majesty's shall never fail to receive your assistance

that, while I act upon these principles, I further commands, said,

and support. “ Mr. Speaker,

“I have the greatest satisfaction in " The King has the greatest cor.fidence being able to inform you, that a treaty of in the duty and affection of this House peace is concluded between Russia and of Commons to his person and govern- the Porte. By this happy event the ment, and an high opinion of that wisdom, troubles which have so long prevailed in temper, and prudence, which they will one part of Europe are composed, and use in all their proceedings; and his Ma- the general tranquillity rendered complete. jesty does most readily grant and allow to it shall be my constant aim and endeathem all their privileges, in as full and vour to prevent the breaking out of fresh ample a manner as they have at any time disturbances; and I cannot but Aatter been granted or allowed by his Majesty, myself I shall succeed, as I continue to or any of his royal predecessors.

receive the strongest assurances from other " There is one suit, Sir, which you have powers of their being equally disposed to made on your own behalf: his Majesty preserve the peace, has received the surest pledge that no “ Gentlemen of the House of Commons; person in your station ever stood less in “ I have ordered the proper Estimates need of it than yourself: but that you for the service of the ensuing year to be may want no support in sustaining the laid before you; and I doubt not but that, burden of that important trust which is in this House of Commons, I shall meet reposed in you, his Majesty has directed with the same affectionate confidence, and me to assure you, that he will put the the same proofs of zeal and attachment to most favourable construction both on my person and government, which I have your words and actions."

always, during the course of my reign,

received from my faithful Commons. The King's Speech on Opening the Ses- “ My Lords, and Gentlemen; sion.) Then his Majesty was pleased to “ Let me particularly recommend to speak as follows:

you, at this time, to proceed with temper "My Lords, and Gentlemen; in your deliberations, and with unanimity " It gives me much concern that I am in your resolutions. Let my people, in obliged, at the opening of this parliament, every part of my dominions, be taught by to inform you that a most daring spirit of your example, to have a due reverence resistance and disobedience to the law still for the laws, and a just sense of the blessunhappily prevails in the province of the ings, of our excellent constitution. They Massachuset's Bay, and has in divers parts may be assured that, on my part, I have of it broke forth in fresh violences of a nothing so much at heart as the real prosvery criminal nature. These proceedings perity and lasting happiness of all my have been countenanced and encouraged subjects.” in other of my colonies, and unwarrantble attempts have been made to obstruct The Lords' Address of Thanks.] His the commerce of this kingdom by unlaw. Majesty having retired, ful combinations. I have taken such mea- The Earl of Hillsborough rose, and in a sures, and given such orders, as I judged long and able speech set forth the situation most proper and effectual for carrying of the colonies with the mother country, (VOL. XVIII.]


highly disapproving of the refractory spirit conjuncture our inviolable fidelity to his of the Americans, and hoping, that, with Majesty, and our serious attention to the temper and unanimity, such measures public welfare." might be adopted, as to bring about a re- The Earl of Buckinghamshire seconded conciliation. His lordship then moved, the motion. “ That an humble Address be presented

The Duke of Richmond spoke strongly to his Majesty, to return his Majesty the against the measures which he imagined thanks of this House for his most gracious were intended to be taken, and moved, Speech from the throne.

That an Amendment be made to the said “ To declare our abhorrence and detes- motion, by inserting, after the word tation of the daring spirit of resistance and throne,' at the end of the first paragraph, disobedience to the laws, which so strong. these words: ly prevails in the province of the Massa- “ And to desire his Majesty would be chusets Bay, and of the unwarrantable at- graciously pleased to give direction for tempts in that and other provinces of Ame- an early communication of the accounts rica, to obstruct, by unlawful combina- which have been received concerning the tions, the trade of this kingdom.

state of the colonies, that we may not pro“ To return his Majesty our humble ceed to the consideration of this most crithanks for having been pleased to commu- tical and important matter, but upon the nicate to us, that he has taken such mea- fullest information; and when we are thus sures, and given such orders as his Majes informed, we shall, without delay, apply ty hath judged most proper and effectual ourselves with the most earnest and se. for the protection and security of the rious zeal, to such measures as shall tend commerce of his Majesty's subjects, and to secure the honour of his Majesty's for carrying into execution the laws, which crown, the true dignity of the mother were passed in the last session of the late country, and the harmony and happiness parliament, relative to the province of the of all his Majesty's dominions." Massachuset's Bay. To express our en. Lord Lyttelton replied to him, and, tire satisfaction in his Majesty's firm and amongst other things, urged the necessity stedfast resolution to continue to support of asserting the sovereign right of Great the supreme authority of the legislature Britain over the colonies by the most over all the dominions of his crown, and speedy and resolute measures. His lordto give his Majesty the strongest assurances ship declared, that it was no longer a questhat we will cheerfully co-operate in all tion, whether we should relinquish the such measures, as shall be necessary to right of taxation, but whether that commaintain the dignity, safety, and welfare of merce, which had carried us triumphantly the British empire.

through the last war, should be subject to 1 " That as this nation cannot be uncon- | the wise and necessary regulations precerned in the common interest of Europe, scribed by the Act of Navigation, and conwe have the greatest satisfaction in being firmed by many subsequent acts of parliaacquainted with the conclusion of the ment, or. at once laid open at the will of peace between Russia and the Porte; that the factious Americans, who were now we confide in his Majesty's endeavours to struggling for a free and unlimited trade, prevent, as far as possible, the breaking independent of their mother country, and out of fresh disturbances; and from the for powers inconsistent with, and derogaassurances given to his Majesty by other tory to, the honour and dignity of the im. powers, we have the pleasing expectation perial crown of England: that if govern. That nothing is likely to intervene that ment should now in the least degree remay interrupt the present happy tranquil. cede, all would be over, and America, inlity in Europe.

stead of being subject to Great Britain, «. That it is no less our duty than our in. would soon give laws to it. clination to proceed with temper and una- Lord Shelburne spoke next; then lord nimity in our deliberations and resolu- Talbot. After him, tions, and to inculcate, by our example, a Lord Camden expatiated largely on the due reverence for the laws, and a just inexpediency of coercive measures at this sense of the excellency of our constitu- time: he said such measures might be very tion; and impressed with the deepest gra. properly exercised in the infancy of colo titude for the many blessings we have en nies, but that when they had acquired joyed during the course of his Majesty's power by commerce, and strength by the reign, to testify with unaffected zeal at this increase of numbers, it was wholly impo

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litic, if not dangerous to compel them to conceived with so little prudence, and pursubmit to laws, which tended to lay the sued with so little temper, consistency, or least burden or restraint on that trade by foresight, we were in hopes would be which alone they existed.

at length abandoned, from an experience Lord Dartmouth replied to lord Camden, of the mischiefs which it has produced, in and his speech closed the debate, when proportion to the time in which it was the question was put, and carried against continued, and the diligence with which it the Amendment; Contents 13; Not-con- has been pursued; a system which has tents 63. Then it was moved, That the created the utmost confusion in the colomotion for the Address should stand as nies, without any rational hope of advanfirst proposed; Contents 46; Not-con- tage to the revenue, and with certain detents 9.

triment to the commerce of the mother

country. And it affords us a melancholy Protest against the rejection of an prospect of the disposition of lords in the Amendment to the Address.] Upon which, present parliament, when we see the the following Protest was entered : House, under the pressure of so severe “ Dissentient,

and uniform an experience, again ready “ Because we cannot agree to commit without any enquiry, to countenance, if ourselves with the careless facility of a not to adopt, the spirit of the former fatal common address of compliment, in expres- proceedings sions, which may lead to measures in the “ But whatever may be the mischievous event fatal to the lives, properties, and designs, or the inconsiderate temerity, liberties of a very great part of our fellow which leads others to this desperate course, subjects. We conceive that an Address we wish to be known as persons who have upon such objects as are before us, and at ever disapproved of measures so pernicious such a time as this, must necessarily have in their past effects, and their future tena considerable influence upon our future dency, and who are not in haste, without proceedings ; and must impress the public enquiry or information, to commit ourwith an idea of the general spirit of the selves in declarations which may precipimeasures which we

mean to support. tate our country into all the calamities of Whatever methods we shall think it ad a civil war. (Signed) Richmond, Portvisable to pursue, either in support of the land, Rockingham, Stamford, Stanmere authority of parliament, which seems hope, Torrington, Ponsonby, Wyto be the sole consideration with some, or combe, Camden.” for reconciling that authority with the peace and satisfaction of the whole em.

The Address was then agreed to as fol

lows: pire, which has ever been our constant and invariable object, it will certainly add « Most Gracious Sovereign, to the weight and efficacy of our proceed- “We, your Majesty's most dutiful and ings, if they appear the result of full infor- loyal subjects, the Lords spiritual and mation, mature deliberation, and tempe- temporal, in parliament assembled, beg rate enquiry. No materials for such an leave to return your Majesty our humble enquiry' have been laid before us; nor thanks for your most gracious Speech from have any such been so much as promised the throne. in the speech from the throne, or even in “ We think it our indispensable duty any verbal assurance from ministers. In to declare on this occasion our abhorrence this situation we are called upon to make and detestation of the daring spirit of rean Address, arbitrarily imposing qualities sistance, and disobedience to the laws, and descriptions upon acts done in the co. which so strongly prevails in the province lonies, of the true nature and just extent of the Massachuset's Bay; and of the unof which we are as yet in a great measure warrantable attempts in that and other of unapprized; a procedure which appears your Majesty's provinces in America, to to us by no means consonant to that purity obstruct by unlawful combinations the which we ought ever to preserve in our trade of this kingdom. judicial, and to that caution which ought “We thankfully acknowledge at the to guide us in our deliberate capacity. same time, the communication it has

2. “ Because this Address does, in ef. pleased your Majesty to make to us of fect, imply an approbation of the system your having taken such measures, and adopted with regard to the colonies in the given such orders, as your Majesty judged last parliament. This unfortunate system, the most proper and effectual, for the protection and security of the commerce of of Thanks.* ] Dec. 5. His Majesty's your Majesty's subjects, and for the carry- | Speech being read, ing into execution the laws which were Lord Beauchamp, after animadverting passed in the last session of the late parlia- on the spirit of the colonists, their rement relative to the province of the Mas- solves, their meetings, and in particular sachuset's Bay. And in the utmost re- their intended non-importation agreement, liance on your Majesty's firm and stedfast moved, resolution to continue to support the su

6. That an humble Address be prepreme authority of the legislature over all sented to his Majesty, to return bis Maihe dominions of your crown, your Ma jesty the thanks of this House, for his jesty may be assured that we will cheer- most gracious Speech from the throne. fully co-operate in all such measures as shall be necessary to maintain the dignity,

* Mr. Gibbon, in the Vemoirs of his own the safety, and the welfare, of the British Life, gives the following description of this empire.

parliament: * As this nation cannot be unconcerned

“ By the friendship of Mr. (afterwards lord) in the common interests of Europe, it is Eliot, who had married my first cousin, I was with the greatest satisfaction we are ac- returned at the general election for the borougb quainted with the conclusion of the peace of Leskeard. I took my seat at the beginning between Russia and the Porte; we have of the memorable contest between Great Bris the fullest confidence in your Majesty's tain and America, and supported, with many a

sincere and silent vote, the rights, though not, endeavours to prevent, as far as possible, perhaps, the interests, of the mother country. the breaking out of fresh disturbances ; | After a 'feeting illusive hope, prudence conand from the assurances given to your demped me to acquiesce in the humble station Majesty by other powers, we have the of a mute. I was not armed by nature and pleasing expectation that nothing is likely education with the intrepid energy of mind to happen that may interrupt the present and voice happy tranquillity in Europe.

Vincentem strepitus, et vatum rebus agendis.' ** We beg leave humbly to assure your Timidity was fortified by pride, and even the Majesty that it will be no less our duty success of my pen discouraged the trial of my than our inclination, to proceed with voice. But'l assisted at the debates of a free temper and unanimity in our deliberations assembly; I listened to the attack and defence and resolutions, and to inculcate, by our of eloquence and reason ; I had a near prospect example, a due reverence for the laws, and of the characters, views, and passions of the a just sense of the excellency of our con- first med of the age. The cause of governstitution. Impressed with these sentiment was ably vindicated by lord North, a ments, and with the deepest gratitude for statesman of spotless integrity, a consummate the many blessings we have enjoyed during master of debate, who could wield, with equal the course of your Majesty's reign, it will dexterity, the arms of reason and of ridicule.

He was seated on the treasury-bench, between be our principal care to testify, with un

his attorney and solicitor-general, the two pil. affected zeal at this conjuncture, our in- lars of the law and state, magis pares quam violable fidelity to your Majesty, and our similes ;' and the minister might indulge in serious attention to the public welfare.” a short slumber, whilst he was upholden on

either band by the majestic sense of Thurlow, The King's Answer.]. His Majesty and the skilful eloquence of Wedderburne. returned this Answer :

From tbe adverse side of the House an ardent “My Lords ;

and powerful opposition was supported by the

lively declamation of Barré; the legal acute“ I thank you for your affectionate as

ness of Dunning; the profuse and philosophic surances of duty and loyalty.

fancy of Burke; and the argumentative vebe“ The zeal you express for the support mence of Fox, who, in conduct of a party, apof the supreme authority of the legisla- proved himself equal to the conduct of an emture, which I shall constantly maintain, is pire. By such inen every operation of peace very agreeable to me; and your resolu- and war, every principle of justice or policy, tion to proceed with temper and unani- every question of authority and freedom, was mity in your deliberations, gives me the attacked and defended; and the subject of the greater satisfaction, as it corresponds with momentous contest was the union or separation

of Great Britain and America. The eight sesthe hearty concern I shall ever have for sions that I sat in parliament were a school of the true interests of all my people.” civil prudence, the first and most essential vir

tue of an historian.”—Gibbon's Miscellaneous Debate in the Commons on the Address Works, vol. I, p. 146.

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