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Adam, which first died in his sins, was put into a place of torment; and the souls of all those which departed after with the wrath of God upon them were gathered into his sad society
Now as the souls at the hour of death are really separated from the bodies; so the place where they are in rest or misery after death, is certainly distinct from the place in which they lived. They continue not where they were at that instant when the body was left without life: they do not go together with the body to the grave; but as the sepulchre is appointed for our flesh, so there is another receptacle, or habitation and mansion, for our spirits. From whence it followeth, that in death the soul doth certainly pass by a real motion from that place, in which it did inform the body, and is translated to that place, and unto that society, which God of his mercy or justice hath allotted to it. And not at present to inquire into the difference and distance of those several habitations (but for method's sake to involve them all as yet under the notion of the infernal parts, or the mansions below), it will appear to have been the general judgment of the Church, that the soul. of Christ contradistinguished from his body, that better and more noble part of his humanity, his rational and intellectual soul, after a trae and proper separation from his flesh, was really and truly carried into those parts below, where the souls of men before departed were detained; and that by such a real translation of his soul, he was truly said to have descended into hell.
Many have been the interpretations of the opinion of the fathers made of late; and their differences are made to appear so great, as if they agreed in nothing which concerns this point: whereas there is nothing which they agree in more than this which I have already affirmed, the real descent of the soul of Christ unto the habitation of the souls departed. The persons to whom, and end for which he descended, they differ in; but as to a local descent into the infernal parts they all agree. Who were then in those parts, they could not certainly define; but whosoever were there, that Christ by the presence of his soul was with them, they all determined.
That this was the general opinion of the Church, will appear, not only by the testimonies of those ancient writers who lived successively,* and wrote in several ages, and delivered
• As Irenæus: Cum enim Dominus c. 6. And Tertullian proves that the inin medio umbræ mortis abierit, ubi animæ feri are a cavity in the earth where the mortuorum erant, post deinde corporali souls of dead men are, because the soul ter resurrexit-manifestum est, quia et of Christ went thither : Quod si Christus discipulorum ejus, propter quos et hæc Deus, quia et homo mortuus secundum operatus est Dominus, animæ abibunt in Scripturas, et sepultus secundum easdem, invisibilem locum definitum eis a Deo, huic quoque legi satisfecit, forma humanæ &c.' I. v. c. 26. Clemens Alexandrinus mortis apud inferos functus, nec ante adwas so clearly of that opinion, that he scendit in sublimiora cælorum quam de. thought the soul of Christ preached sal scendit in inferiora terrarum, ut illic ration to the souls of hell." Strom. I. vi. Patriarchas et Prophetas compotes sui
this exposition in such express terms as are not capable of any other interpretation ; but also because it was generally used as an argument against the Apollinarian heresy : than which nothing can shew more the general opinion of the catholics and the heretics, and that not only of the present, but of the precedent ages. For it had been little less than ridiculous to have produced that for an argument to prove a point in controversy, which had not been clearer than that which was controverted, and had not been some way acknowledged as a truth by both. Now the error of Apollinarius was, That Christ had no proper intellectual or rational soul, but that the Word was to him in the place of a soul: and the argument produced by the fathers for the conviction of this error was, That Christ descended into hell,* which the Apollinarians
faceret; habes et regionem inferum sub Cyril. Aler. Dial de Incarn. t. v. par. i. terraneam credere, et illos cubito pellere, p. 693. ο μεν τάφος αυτού σαμα μόνον qui satis superbe non putent animas fide υπεδέξατο, ψυχήν δε μόνην ο άδης. Anast. lium inferis dignas.' De Anim. c. 55. apud Euthym. Panopl. par. ii. tit. 17. -Touvij rápatos yerbuevos fuxi raia youvaic Postquam igitur exaltatus est, id est, a rapátov soulain txais. Orig.contra Celsum, Judæis in cruce suspensus, et spiritum 1. ii. 9. 43. 'Ipsa anima, etsi fuit in abysso, reddidit, unita suæ Divinitati anima ad jam non est, quia scriptum est, non dere inferorum profunda descendit.' Auctor linques animam meam in inferno.' S. Am Serm. de tempore. Corpore in sepulcro bros. de Incarn. c. 5. "Si ergo secundum seposito, Divinitas cum anima hominis hominem, quem Verbum Deus suscepit, ad inferna descendens vocavit de locis putamus dictum esse, hodie mecum eris in suis animas sanctorum.' Gaudentius Brir. Paradiso, non ex his verbis in cælo exi Tract. 10. la hoc Divinitas Christi virstimandus est esse Paradisus. Neque tutem suæ impassibilitatis ostendit, quæ enim ipso die in cælo futurus erat homo ubique, semper et ineffabiliter præsens, Christus Jesus, sed in inferno secundum et secundum animam suam in inferno animam, in sepulcro autem secundum sine doloribus fuit, et secundum carnem carnem. Et de carne quidem, quod eo suam in sepulcro sine corruptione jacuit; die in sepulcro sit posita, manifestum quia nec carni suæ defuit, cum animam est evangelium. Quod vero illa anima in suam in inferno dolere non sineret; nec infernum descenderit, apostolica doctrina animam suam in inferno deseruit, cum prædicat. Quandoquidem B. Petrus ad in sepulcro carnem suam a corruptione hanc rem testimonium de Psalmis adhibet, servaret.' Fulgent. ad Thrasimund. 1. . Quoniam non derelinques animam meam in
c. 31. inferno, neque dabis sanctum tuum videre • What the Apollinarian heresy was, corruptionem. Illud de anima dictum est, is certainly known: they denied that quia ibi non est derelicta, unde tam cito Christ had a haman soul, affirming the remeavit; illud de corpore, quod in se Word was to him in the place of a soul. pulcro corrumpi celeri resurrectione non Apollinaristas Apollinarius instituit, qui potuit.' S. August. Epist. 57. al, 187. ad de anima Christi a catholicis dissenseDardanum, c. 2. $. 5.
runt, dicentes, sicut Ariani, Deum ChriΚαταβάς μέχρι και χθονός
stum carnem sine anima suscepisse. In 'Επίδημος έφαμέρoις,
qua quæstione testimoniis evangelicis Κατέβας δ' υπό τάρταρα, ,
victi, mentem, qua rationalis est anima Ψυχών δθι μυρία
hominis, non fuisse in anima Christi sed Θάνατος νέμεν έθνέα. .
pro hac ipsum Verbam in ea fuisse, dixΦρίξεν σε γέρων τότε
erunt.' S. August. de Hæres. 53. Against 'Αίδας και παλαιγενής,
this heresy the catholics argued from the Και λαοβόρος κύων
descent into bell, as that wbich was ac'Ανεχάσσατο βηλού.
knowledged by them all, even by the Synes. Hymn. ix. 7. Arians (with whom the Apollinarians in Ψυχή δε η θεία, την προς αυτόν λαχούσα συν this agreed), as we have shewn before by δρομήν τε και ένωσιν, καταπεφοίτηκε μεν εις three several creeds of theirs in wbich έδου, θεοπρεπεί δε δυνάμει και εξουσία χρω they expressed this descent. This is the μένη, και τους εκείσε πνεύμασι κατεφαίνετο, S. argument of Athanasius in his fourth dia
could not deny; and that this descent was not made by his Divinity, nor by his body, but by the motion and presence of his soul, and consequently, that he had a soul distinct both from his flesh and from the Word. Whereas if it could have then been answered by the heretics, as now it is by many, that his descent into hell had no relation to his soul, but to logue De Trinitate, which is particularly thus express the reality and distinction with an Apollinarian : “Ωσπερ ουκ ήδύνατο of the soul and body of the same Christ : ο Θεός εν μνήματι και εν ταφή γενέσθαι, ει μη • Tam Christus filius Dei tunc mortuus είχεν το τιθέμενον σώμα" ούτως ούκ άν ελέχθη jacuit in sepulcro, quam idem Christus κατακεχωρίσθαι του σώματος, απανταχού ών filius Dei ad inferna descendit; sicut και τα πάντα περιέχον, ει μή είχε την χωρι beatus apostolus dicit, Quod autem ascenζομένην ψυχήν, μεθ' ης και τους έν άδου ευηγ dit, quid est nisi quod descendit primum in γελίσατο· διά γάς αυτήν αναχωρείν του σώμα inferiores partes terræ? Ipse utique Doτος λέγεται και έν άδου γεγενήσθαι» και τούτο minus et Deus noster Jesus Christus έστι το υτές ημών έν άδου γενέσθαι δια την unicus Dei, qui cum anima ad inferua ψυχήν και εν μνήματι τεθήναι διά το σώμα. descendit, ipse cum anima et corpore $.7. But because these dialogues may be ascendit ad Cælun.' Libel. Emendationis, questioned as not genuine, the same ar p. 23. And Capreolus, bishop of Cargument may be produced out of his book thage, writing against the Nestorian De Incarnatione Christi, written particu. heresy, proveth that the soul of Christ was larly against Apollinarius : πείσθητε ούν, united to his Divinity when it descended ότι ο έσωθεν ήμών άνθρωπός έστιν η ψυχή του into hell, and follows that argument, το και της πρώτης πλάσεως δεικνυούσης, και urging it at large; in which discourse της δευτέρας διαλύσεως δηλούσης, ου μόνον εφ' among the rest he hath this passage : ημίν τούτων δεικνυμένων, αλλά και εν αυτώ τα • Tantum abest, Deum Dei filium, incomθανάτου του Χριστού εδείκνυτο το μέντοι μέχρι τηutabilem atque incomprehensibilem, ab τάφου φθάσαν, και δε μέχρι άδου διαβάσα· διαι inferis potuisse concludi; ut nec ipsam ετών δε όντων των τόπων πολλώ μέτρων και adsumptionis animam, aut exitiabiliter του μεν τάφου σωματικής επιδεχομένου την susceptam aut tenaciter derelictam: sed επίβασιν, εκείσε παρών το σώμα, του δε άδου nec carnem ejus eredimus contagione aliασώματος: πώς εκεί παρών ο Κύριος ασωμάτως, cujus corruptionis infectam. Ipsius namως άνθρωπος ένομίσθη υπό του θανάτου; ένα que vox est in Psalmo, sicut Petrus interψυχαίς ταϊς εν δεσμούς κατεχομέναις, μορφής pretatur apostolus, Non derelinquesanimam ιδίας ψυχής ανεπιδεκτών ως δεκτικήν των δεσμών meum apud inferos,neque dabis sanctum tuum του θανάτου παραστήσας, παρούσαν παρούσαις, νidere corruptionem. Epist. ad Hispan. p.50. διαρρήξη τα δεσμά ψυχών τών έν άδου κα Lastly, The true doctrine of the incarnaTexouésor. I. i. §. 13. Thus Euthymius, tion against all the enemies thereof, Apolin his commentary upon the words of the linarians, Nestorians, Eutychians, and Psalmist, “ Thou shalt not leave my soul the like, was generally expressed by dein hell:” Τίθηση και της ελπίδος την αιτίαν. claring the verity of the soul of Christ Και γάρ ουκ εγκαταλείψεις, φησί, την ψυχήν really present in hell, and clie verity of μου εις άδην, όπου τών τετελευτηκότων αι ψυ his body at the same time really present χαί κατέχονται τόπος γάς ο άδης υπό γην άπο in the grave; as it is excellently deliverκεκληρωμενος ταϊς των αποθνησκόντων ψυχαίς: ed by Fulgentius: •Hunanitas vera Filii που τοίνυν ο λήρος 'Απολλινάριος, και την προσ Dei nec tota in sepulcro fuit, nec tota ληφθείσαν σάρκα δογματίζων άψυχον και in inferno; sed in sepulcro secundum άνουν και ως ανόητος. And from hence we may veram carnem Christus mortuus jacuit, et understand the words of Theodoret, who secundum animam ad infernum Christus at the end of his exposition of this Psalm descendit; et secundum eandem animam thus concludes: Ούτος ο ψαλμος και την ab inferno ad carnem, quam in sepulcro 'Αρείου και την Ευνομίου και Απολλιναρίου φρε- reliquerat, rediit, secundum divinitatem νοβλάβειαν ελέγχει. Which is in reference vero suam, quæ nec loco tenetur nec fine to those words, “ Thod shalt not leave my concluditur, totus fuit in sepulcro cum soul in hell.” In the same manner, Le carne, totus in inferno cum anima: ac pro porius Presbyter (quod male senserat de hoc plenus fuit ubique Christus ; quia non Incarnatione Christi, corrigens,' as Gen est Deus ab humanitate quam susceperat nadius observeth, Illust. Vit. cat. 60. and separatus, qui et in anima sua fuit, ut soparticularly disavowing that of the Arians lutis inferni doloribus ab inferno victris and Apollinarians, Deum hominemque rediret, et in carne sua fuit, ut celeri re. commixtum, et tali confusione carnis et surrectione corrumpi non posset' Al verbi quasi aliquod corpus effectum') does Thrasimund. I. ij. c. 34.
his body only, which descended to the grave; or that it was not a real, but only virtual, descent, by which his death extended to the destruction of the powers of hell; or that his soul was not his intellectual spirit, or immortal soul, but his living soul, which descended into hell, that is, continued in the state of death: I say, if any of these senses could have been affixed to this Article, the Apollinarians' answer might have been sound, and the catholics' argument of no validity. But being those heretics did all, acknowledge this Article; being the catholic fathers did urge the same to prove the real distinction of the soul of Christ both from his Divinity and from his body, because his body was really in the grave when his soul was really present with the souls below; it followeth that it was the general doctrine of the Church, that Christ did descend into hell by a local motion of his soul, separated from his body, to the places below where the souls of men departed were.
Nor can it be reasonably objected, that the argument of the fathers was of equal force against these heretics, if it be understood of the animal soul, as it would be if it were understood of the rational; as if those heretics had equally deprived Christ of the rational and animal soul. For it is most certain that they did not equally deprive Christ of both; but most of the Apollinarians denied a human soul to Christ only in respect of the intellectual part, granting that the animal soul of Christ was of the same nature with the animal soul of other men. If therefore the fathers had proved only that the animal soul of Christ had descended into hell, they had brought no argument at all to prove that Christ had a human intellectual soul. It is therefore certain that the catholic fathers in their opposition to the Apollinarian heretics did declare, that the intellectual and immortal soul of Christ descended into hell.
The only question which admitted any variety of discrepance among the ancients was, Who were the persons to whose souls the soul of Christ descended ? and that which dependeth on that question, What were the end and use of his descent ? In this indeed they differed much, according to their several ap
At first indeed the Apollinarians did negare non potuerunt. Videte absurdi80 speak, as if they denied the human tatem et insaniam non ferendam. Anisoul in both acceptations ; but afterwards mam irrationalem eum habere voluerunt, they clearly affirmed the buxh, and denied rationalem negaverunt;
dederunt ei the voüs alone. So Socrates testifies of animam pecoris, subtraxerunt animam therm : Πρότερον μεν έλεγον αναληφθήναι τον hominis.' S. August. Tract. 47. in loan. άνθρωπον υπό του θεού Λόγου εν τη οικονομία Ø. 8. This was so properly indeed the της ενανθρωπήσεως ψυχής άνευ: είτα ως εκ Apollinarian heresy, that it was thereby μετανοίας επιδιορθούμενοι, προσέθηκαν ψυχήν distinguished from the Arian. Nam μεν ανειληφέναι, νούν δε ουκ έχειν αυτήν, αλλ' Apollinaristæ quidem carnis et animæ είναι τόν Θεόν Λόγον αντί του εις τον αναλη . naturam sine mente adsumpsisse Domiperra äv@gamo. Hist. 1. ii. c. 46. Nam num credunt, Ariani vero carnis tantumet aliqui eorum fuisse in Christo animam modo. Facundus, l. ix. c. S.
prehensions of the condition of the dead, and the nature of the place into which the souls before our Saviour's death were gathered; some looking on that name which we translate now hell, hades, or infernus, as the common receptacle of the souls of all '
men,* both the just and unjust, thought the soul of Some of the ancient fathers did be- cles, one for the good and virtuous, the lieve that the word ain; in the Scriptures' other for the wicked and unjust (accordhad the same signification which it bathing to that of Diphilus, 'ap. Clem. Ales. among the Greeks, as comprehending all, Strom. v. c. 14. p. 721... the souls both of the wicked and the just; Και γάρ καθ' άδην δύο τρίβους νομίζομεν, and so they took infernus in the same'la Μίαν δικάιων, χατέραν ασεβών' οδόν titude. As therefore the ancient Greeks and'that' of Plato; in Gorgia, p. 166. OTTO did assign one mons for all which died, ούν επειδαν τελευτήσωσι, δικάσουσιν εν τα λείΠάντας όμως θνητούς αιδης δέχεται" and κοι μώνι εν τη τριόδων, εξ ης φέρετoν τω οδώ, η μεν τον άδην πάντες έξουσιν βροτοί as they made εις μακάρων νήσους, η δε εις τάρταραν» and within that one a dus two several recepta- : that of Virgil, Æn. vi. 540.
Hic locus est, partes ubi se via findit in ambas :
Exercet pænas, et ad impia Tartara mittit.) as they did send the best of men to once in the same place. 'oi di Siraso in ob Bry there io be happy, and taught rewards to ύν μέν συνέχονται, αλλ' ού του αυτό τόπο και be received there as well as punishments : και οι άδικοι. Μία γαρ εις τούτο το χωρίον (Λέγεται δε υπό του μελικού Πινδάρου ταυτί
rdbogos, &c. There was but one passage περί των ευσεβέων έν έδου,
into the hades, saith he; but when that Τοϊσι λάμπει μένος αελίου
gate was passed, the just went on the Τάν ενθάδε νύκτα κάτω,
right hand to a place of happiness, (TŪTA Φοινικορόδιαι τη λειμώνες
δε όνομα κικλήσκομεν κόλπον 'Αβραάμ) and Είσι προάστειον αυτών. .
the unjust on the left to a place of misery. Plut, de Consolat. ad Apollun. Ούτος ο περί άδου λόγος, εν ώ ψυχαί πάντων
-Ω τρισόλβιοι κατέχονται άχρι καιρού. δν ο Θεός ωρίσεν. p. Κείνοι βροτών, οι ταύτα δειχθέντες τέλη 923, Tertulhan wrote a tract, De ParaΜόλασ' ές άδου: τοϊσδε γαρ μόνοις εκεί diso, now not extant, in which he express
Ζην έστι, τοϊς δ' άλλοισι πάντ' έκεϊ κακά. ed thus much : Habes etiam de Para. Sophocl. ap. Plutarch. de Aud. Poet. c. 4.) diso a nobis libellum, quo constituimus so did the Jews also before and after our omnem animam apud Inferos sequestrari Saviour's time. For Josephus says, the in diem Domini.' De Anima, c. 55. St. soul of Samuel was brought up iç çdov, and Jerome on the third chapter of Ecclesidelivers the opinion of the Pharisees after astes : · Ante adventum Christi omnia ad this manner, Ant. Jud. l. xviii. c. 2. 'Add inferos pariter ducebantur : unde et Jaατόν τε ισχύν πίστις αυτούς, είναι και υπό cob, ad inferos pariter descensurum se χθόνος δικαιώσεις τε και τιμάς οίς αρετής και dicit; et-Job pios et impios in inferno κακίας επιτήδευσις εν τω βίω γέγονε" and of queritur retentari : et Evangelium, chaos the Sadducees after this manner : Yuxñs magnum, interpositųm. apud inferos; et τε την διαμονήν, και τας καθ' άδου τιμωρίας και Abraham cum Lazaro, et divitem in supτιμάς αναιρούσι. Therefore the Jews pliciis, esse testatur.' ad fin. And in bis which thought the souls immortal did be 25th, al. 22nd, Epistle: Perfacilis ad lieve that the just were rewarded, as well ista responsio est; Luxisse Jacob filium, as the unjust punished, itò xbords, or xal' quem putabat occisum, ad quem et ipse adou. And so did also most of the ancient erat ad inferos descensurus, dicens, Defathers of the Church. There was an scendam ad filium meum lugens in infernum: ancient book written De Universi Natura, quia necdum Paradisi januam Christus which some attributed to: Justin Martyr, effregerat, necdum flammeam államromsome to Irenæus, others to Origen, or to phæam et vertiginem præsidentium Che. Caius a presbyter of the Roman Church rubin sanguis ejus exstinxerat. Unde et in the time of Victor and Zephyrinus, a Abraham, licet in loco refrigerii, tamen fragment of which is set forth by David apud inferos cu Lazaro fuisse scribitur.' Hoeschelius in his Annotations upon Pho col. 57.. And again : Nequeo satis tius, delivering the state of adns at large. Scripturæ laudare mysteria, et divinum Περί δε άδου, ενώ συνέχονται ψυχαι δικαίων sensum in: verbis licet simplicibus admiτε και αδίκων, αναγκαίον είπεϊν. Here then rari : quod, Moyses plangitur : et Jesus were the just and unjust in hades, but not Nave, vir sanctus, sepultus fertur, et ta.