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tween kindred spirits, in time, will love as shall please and gratify the be perpetuated in eternity, between whole. Thus then, by the distraction the same individuals !--In answer to of the husband, or the jealousy of the which, I beg leave to make the fol- wives, that happiness, which on the lowing remarks.

earth was comparatively perfect, in Mutual affection, and the kindred such a case would be blasted and affinity of spirits, are mere relative destroyed. But these are terms inmodes of the human kind, in their applicable to the regions of bliss; and finite state ; and are consistent only therefore I should infer, that affection with our confined views of time; con- will not be transferred to eternity, sequently, they will cease to be, when without undergoing a considerable the finite term shall have expired, change from the state in which it at and the creature shall have entered present exists. on that which is infinite; that affection, therefore, which subsisted in Reply by J. M. of Torquay to a Query, time, will not be perpetuated in eter

on Witches, inserted col. 100. nity, between individuals; for (as I have dared to think) the spirits of the

THOUGH I am not prepared to assert Good, will, at the dissolution of time,

that Witchcraft has not had an be bound in an infinitely enlarged sys

existence, I would answer the first tem of reciprocal love :---than which,

I part of P.J.'s question by asking him, what can more increase the joys of

Whether within his own knowledge he heaven? whilst, on the other hand,

can point out one well-authenticated the spirits of the Wicked will be

fact of actual witchcraft? But favourbound in the chains of an inconceiv

ing the opinion that this power is only able malignity, to be exercised indis

imaginary, I should be inclined to criminately on each other:-than

suppose that it found its rise amid which, what can render more intole

the priestly agents of idolatry. We rable the tortures of hell?-I shall

know they dealt forth their miracles by be happy in making any further com

wholesale; and superstition believed munication, should the above be

them to be the genuine work of a sudeemed unsatisfactory.

pernatural power; nor does it require And am, Sir,

any very great stretch of imagination With the greatest respect,

to believe, that when any of these

were in disgrace with their brotherYour's, &c. T.R.

hood, their fancied superiority might Preistgate-street, Peterborough.

operate through another channel.

Hence, it progressively took a wider Another Answer to the same Question, course; and, finally, numbers who by J. M. of Torquay, Devon.

were at all distinguished by singuIt is admitted by most of those who

larity of appearance, obtained a share have ever given their opinion on future

in the ghostly authority. Such apRewards and Punishments, that they

pears to me to be the most probable will bear some similarity to our capa

| account of the rise and progress of bilities of pain or pleasure in the pre

witchcraft. sent life. Taking this principle then for the basis of our inquiries, it seems,

Answer to a Query on the Observance although a paradox, to be incompa

of the Sabbath. tible with that felicity in store for the MR. EDITOR. spirits of the blest, that the same Sir, One of your correspondents species of affection which they have asks, (No. 16. col. 485.) “Is it sincherished and enjoyed, in time, should ful for public Bakers to bake dinners accompany them in their transit tol on the Lord's day ?On this subject eternity. To illustrate this, I would the scriptures are so clear, that it is simply produce the fact, of a man strange any person who admits their who has had several wives, or a wo- authority should attempt to justify a man who has had a plurality of hus- / line of conduct so contrary to their exbands. He who has been a paragon plicit prohibitions, as is the practice of affection to each wife, taken sepa- of dressing food for common uses on rately, cannot, when each shall claim the Sabbath-day. . him as her entire right, bestow on The fourth commandment not only them individually such a portion of forbids heads of families doing any

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Public Baking on the Sabbath.


voorrasonoworonowosossrore work on the seventh day, but it for- for housekeepers to take their meat bids also all their dependents. And to the bakers, as in the warmer seathough works of piety, works of sons of the year; and hence in those mercy, and works of necessity, are places where the number of articles not included in this prohibition, yet is not enough to pay for fire and with none of these exceptions can trouble, it is customary to suspend we rank cooking for epicurean pur- public baking, until the heat of the poses.

weather renders it inconvenient for That it is not giving to this com- people to cook at home. When this mandment a greater latitude than is the case, the baker is informed of God intended, by extending it to the it, and he generally resumes his pious unnecessary dressing of food, is evi- work of sending his customers to dent, I think, from Exodus xvi. 5. church or chapel, according as their and xxxv. 3. From the former of judgments may incline them. And these passages we learn, that the should he, as is sometimes the case, Israelites were commanded to gather hint to them, that it is his intention a double portion of manna on the to decline Sunday baking altogether, sixth day, that they might keep these religious gentry tell him very holy the seventh. And in the latter, plainly, that they who bake for them that fires were forbidden to be kindled on the Sunday, shall do it during the in their habitations on the Sabbath week. This intimation generally reday; consequently, cooking in all its moves all his scruples, and away he modes was prohibited.

goes to his work, and they to their The general plea urged in defence worship. of dressing food on Sundays is,“ that As dressing food on the Sabbathit is very hard if we may not be day for common uses is unnecessary allowed a good hot dinner on that work, and as all unnecessary work is day;" and because it is deemed a a direct violation of the express comgreat hardship to be without one, it mand of God; every person who acts is concluded that there is no harm in in this manner has reason to expect preparing one. It was, no doubt, a a curse from God on his exertions, similar mode of reasoning that led rather than a blessing. See Nehethe Sabbath-breaker, mentioned in miah xiii. 15, 16, 17, 18. and Isaiah Numbers xv. 32, 33, 34, 35. to gather | lviii. 13, 14. sticks on the Lord's day; and his This practice has, however, its adawful fate should induce others to | vocates; and what indeed has not? submit to the authority of God, in- A learned commentator, who, no stead of regulating their actions by doubt, was a man of taste, reasons their own notions of fitness.

thus on the subject. “ The lawfulIf it be unlawful for families to ness of dressing meat may be collectdress their food on the Sabbath, it ed from the Scripture, inasmuch as lollows, that it is so for bakers to our Saviour was present at a feast do it for them. Bakers indeed never on the Sabbath-day, Luke xiv. l. pretend that heating and cleaning where, no doubt, meat was dressed for the oven, setting in, turning, and so many guests as were there bidden; drawing dinners, is noi work; but then and when we are allowed to provide they have a very religious excuse for food for our cattle on the Sabbaththeir conduct. They tell us, that in day, surely we may lawfully dress consequence of their baking, fifty or meat for ourselves.This gentlesixty persons are enabled to attend man's appetite, I suspect, had blinded a place of worship, who would other- his judgment. It is a well-known wise be obliged to stop at home to fact, that the Jews were very rigid in cook; and hence they infer that their their adherence to the letter of their conduct is not only right, but meri law, and especially to that part torious. Now, if this were the mo- which related to the Sabbath-day; it tive that influenced them, it would be is not, therefore, probable that any no justification, as we are not to do evil thing would be prepared for that that good may come. This, however, feast, which might have been preis not the case ; interest is their ob-pared the day preceding. And if it ject, and when this end is not an- had, it is nearly certain that our Lord swered, the practice is discontinued, wouid not have countenanced such

During winter, it is not so common conduct by his presence. And though

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we are allowed to feed our cattle on | Th’affrighted soldiers rais'd their eyes the Sabbath, we are not allowed to 1 To angry Heav'n in fear-form'd pray'r; provide food which might be as well

as well But, lo! new terror in the skies!

A mighty spirit in the air ! procured. the day before. The same observation may be applied to food | Like lightning's fire his count’nance beam'd,

His garments glitter'd white as snow: for ourselves.

Wrapp'd in a blaze of light, he seem'd There are some pious families, who | Descending tow'rds the earth below. conscientiously abstain from all unnecessary labour on the Sabbath ;

They sunk, in terror overwhelm'd

in;] Struck to the quaking ground with dread: and as they know cooking to be un- | The iron warrior, maild and helm'd, necessary, all food is prepared on Lay pale and senseless as the dead. the Saturday. By this arrangement

Soon to the earth the seraph came, their dependents are able to attend

Soon was the rocky door thrown wide,

S. the house of God, without distraction The quick-returning vital flame or confusion. This, however, is by no Re-animates the Crucified ! means common with the professors | With radiant glory compass'd round. of religion; the servants in some Forth walks the Conqueror girt with might; families are almost broiling, while The prostrate seraph licks the ground, their master and mistress are praying. Eclips'd in his Creator's light. And if after dinner they should all | How chang'd the scene!-of late, the mirth attend a place of worship, they gene And passive scorn of soldiers rude; rally sleep the greater part of the But now, while they lie stretch'd on earth, time; the servants from heat and fa

He walks, too glorious to be view'd. tigue, and their employers from an Behold yon tyrant! stript and bare, overloaded stomach.

In his own fetters bound, he lies; It would be easy to expatiate on

His sceptre broken, while the air this evil. It is presumed, however,

Is troubled with his wailing cries. that enough has been written to sa-, Well may'st thou wail! the time draws nigh, tisfy those who wish to be convinced

| (This Resurrection seals the doom)

| When thou, with all thy pow'r shalt die, of its impropriety, if it be wrong. I

And all thy captives leave the tomb. will, however, add, that I have been

J.M.G. eighteen years an attentive hearer of Liverpool Nov. 2, 1820. the Gospel, and during this time I have never heard a sermon on the proper observance of the Sabbath. And EDWIN'S GRAVE.-A MONODY. until Sabbath-breaking in all its modes is exposed from the pulpit, | Be hush'd, thou wint'ry wind! Thou canst not little reformation in Sunday manners


The dull cold ear of that forsaken clay; is to be expected.

Thou canst not chase the frozen calm away, I am, Sir,

So fix'd on ev'ry pulse. Thy breath may shake Your's, respectfully,

The with’ring grass that o'er my Edwin's grave CensoR. Bends mournfully; and round that dwelling

low, A similar answer has been received

Thy wailing blast may utter sounds of woefrom OMEGA, of London.

But, like the verdure that again shall wave
Beneath the dewy sunshine of the spring,

Upon that hallow'd sod, my Edwin smiles

On the past turbulence of stormy days.
And, as the halcyon from her quiv’ring sprays

Delighted soars, so he to viewless isles
THE RESURRECTION. Of peace, and ever-blooming joy, hath sprung;
Matt. xxviii. 2–4.

Immortal plamage glist’ning on his wing,

And Heav'n's own music pouring from his THE silent noon of night was past,

tongue. The moon was bright in silver sheen, Oh, he is blest indeed! He hath escap'

d When sudden gloom the sky o'ercast,

The way’ring gales of this unquiet world, And quench'd in darkness all the scene. And all th' appalling terrors sin hath shap'd, The centinels around the tomb,

And all the darts her legions foul have hurl'd, In which the murder'd Jesus lay,

To vex “ the pure in heart.” Long bad he Look'd forward from the dreary gloom

found With anxious eyes for coming day.

Munition in that Rock, which lifts on high

Its head of glory to the central sky, But, hark! beneath, the rumbling earth

Yet plants its shelt'ring base on mortal ground. Began with inward roars to rock,

And now he hath a triumph in the power As if her entrails from their girth

Of Him who built that rock, and led him to its Were bursting with impetuous shock.


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Hymn for a poor Widow.-Stanzas. como...
Edwin! I would not weep for thee: I know

Thy warfare is accomplish'd. Thou hast laid
Thine armour of probation at the feet

WHEN Autumn's last rays have been tran-
Of Judah's LION. Thou hast bow'd to meet quilly beaming,
His great “ Well done"--and humbly hast thou

I have seen the light web which the gossasaid,

mer spreads, “Not unto me the glory-THINE the blow

While the dew-drop of morning resplendently That vanquish'd—THINE the strength in which gleaming, I smote the foe.”

Has hung like a gem on the tremuloas threads. O Edwin! thou didst war with mighty foes

But how fragile that film!—that dew-drop how Pains of disease, and struggles of a mind

fleeting! Once wedded to the earth, then all resign'd

The breeze as it past swept the light gauze

awayTo GOD; and ever as the conflict rose

| And, ah! like the joys that scarce stay our Thy pray'r prevailid--and now thy soul is

greeting, free:

The dew-drop is fled in the bright-beaming Thou art Heav'n's denizen! How shall I weep

ray. for thee? Yet, there are moments-sights and sounds So flies some pare thought, in my bosom rethere are,

vealing, — At which my spirit starts, and claims a tear

So my firmest resolves take the wing of the For the sad thought, that he who us'd to share

gale; The word, the sight, the feeling, is not here,

And as fragile and fleet ev'ry loftier feeling, Nor ever more shall be! Oh Edwin, then I

As the insect's light web, or the dew-drop so

frail ! My heart is not so strong, I weep as other

W-G. men. Yet not like them, who when such musings

HYMN, seize

WRITTEN FOR A POOR WIDOW. The heart, resistless, dwell with thought dismay'd

Tho' faint and sick, and worn away In the drear sepulchre ; and in the shade

With poverty and woe, Of melancholy cypress, find no

My widow'd feet are doom'd to stray, For the poor wounded spirit, all unus'd

'Mid thorny paths below;
To higher hopes. But when my soul hath Be thou, O Lord! my Saviour still-

My confidence and guide!.
On the dead friend awhile, sudden it wakes I know that perfect is THY will,
To nobler views. He is not in the grave!

Whate'er that will decide.
*T'is but the kindred dust that cell can have; I know the soul that trusts in thee
The clogs and fetters that the spirit shakes

Thou never wilt forsake : Exulting off, and her free circuit takes

y And tho' a bruised reed I be, Amid new modes, new forms of excellence,

That reed thou wilt not break.
Clear to seraphic vision, tho'conceal'd
From the weak filmy orbs of mortal sense.

Then, keep me, Lord! where'er I go-
Edwin! what beauties are to thee reveala!

Support me on my way; What wonders, full of vastness, and of grace,

Tho' worn with poverty and woe, Which here conception vainly sought to paint!

My widow'd footsteps stay! Of the OMNISCIENT's ways, how darkly faint

To give my weakness strength, O God! Our feeble guesses! Tho' we long to trace

Thy staff shall yet avail : In all his works his wisdom, but a ray,

And tho' thou chasten with thy rod, A glimm'ring we behold: but thine the sight

That staff shall never fail. Of all-pervasive Deity:-Thy view

E. W-G. May pierce creation's infinite-pursue Science divine, still adding light to light,

STANZAS, And finding still an ever-bright’ning day!

On seeing the Rev. Charles Simeon of Cambridge, Edwin, farewell! but not without a thought, I

in the Commercial Rooms at Bristol, obtaining That I may sometimes hold communion sweet With thy freed spirit-'tis a feeling fraught

Subscriptions for circulating the New Testa

ment, in Hebrew, among the Jews. with strength and consolation. I have caught Some snatches of it, in my rare retreat

A SIMEON once to wond'ring Jews, From this life's clam'rous cares--and then I |

In Salem's sacred dome, cease

(While prophecies fulfill'd he views) From all desire but this-for virtue and for

Proclaims a Saviour come. peace.

Now in her temple Commerce views Farewell! henceforth the fragrant wind shall Another Simeon rise, wave

Again to spread that glorious news
Myrtle, and pleasant shrubs of evergreen,

Before that people's eyes.
O'er the lovd verdure of thy early grave; Here too we see, as one of old,
Emblems of hope unchang'a, whose blossoms The sacred word fulfill’d, *

For Commerce brings her gifts of gold,
Affliction's bleakest gale, and will be seen

The rich their off rings yield. Beanteous and brighi, amid the Siroc blast, t blights the desart world—the dreariest And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with and the last.

I a gift; even the rich among the people shall entreat E. W-G. thy favour.-Psalm xlv. 12.


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The first the infant Saviour holds,

transcribe, judging them to be releWho hope to Israel gave,

vant to the point in hand. He obThe last his written word unfolds,

serves, “ How much names taken for That rebel race to save. 1815.

T. W-G. things are apt to mislead the understand

ing, the attentive reading of philoso

phical writers would abundantly disOn the Substratum of Matter.

cover; and that, perhaps, in words

little suspected of any such misMR. EDITOR.

use. I shall instance in one only, and Sir,--I embrace the present opportu- that a very familiar one. How many nity to acknowledge my obligations to | intricate disputes have there been “ X Constant Reader," who, on looking about matter, as if there were some over the first vol. of your instructive such thing reallyin nature distinct from miscellany, (col. 980) fell upon some body; as 'tis evident the word matter

observations” of mine “ on the sub- stands for an idca distinct from the stratum of matter," and, conceiving I | idea of body? But if the ideas these was in an error, forthwith endeavoured two terms stood for were precisely the to put me right.

same, they might indifferently in all But having discharged my bounden places be put one for another. But duty' to him, I crave your leave, sir, we see, that though it be proper to say, to make some additional observations there is one matter of all bodies, one on this subject, and to submit a few cannot say, there is one body of alt remarks on some important points maliers. We familiarly say, one body which he has connected with it. is bigger than another; but it sounds

I have carefully examined what barsh (and I think is never used) to. your correspondent has advanced, col. say, one matter is bigger than another. 845, without its effecting a conviction Whence came this then? From hence, in my mind, that the substratum of that though matter and body be not matter has any other than a verbal or really distinct, but wherever there is mental existence. I admit the truth the one, there is the other; yet matter of many of his remarks; and will not and body stand for two different conundertake to vindicate every expres-ceptions, whereof the one is incomsion used in the article on which plete, and but a part of the other, he has animadverted. I cannot, For body stands for a solid extended however, help thinking, that, after figured substance, whereof matter is what the Bishop of Cloyne has ad- | but a partial and more confused convanced against tbe existence of an ception; it seeming to me to be used insentient substance, if we can but for the substance and solidity of body, prove to our satisfaction the being of without taking in its extension and matter itself, we need not trouble our figure. And therefore it is, that selves much about“ an unknown sub- speaking of matter, we speak of it stratum.” However just our views always as one, because in truth it of things may be, if we do not con- expressly contains nothing but the stantly annex a definite and a settled idea of a solid substance, which is meaning to the terms we employ, every where the same, every where misapprehension and confusion are uniform. This being our idea of matthe inevitable result. From the man- | ter, we no more conceive or speak ner in which my instructor uses the differení maliers in the world, than we words matter and substratum, I cannot do of different solidities; though we help suspecting that he does not always both conceive and speak of different keep the notions distinct, which he bodies, because extension and figure associates with these terms. He ap- / are capable of variation. But since pears to me, at least, to use the term solidity cannot exist without extension substratum to denote matter itself; and figure, the taking matter to be and if he does, though between our the name of something really exist opinions on this subject, apparently under that precision, has no do “ wide yawns the gulf,” the difference produced those obscure and unint in reality is more in language than in ligible discourses and disputes, whic thought.

have filled the heads and books of Mr. Locke has some remarks that philosophers concerning materia prim relate to disputes on the nature of which imperfection or abuse, how far matter, which I take the liberty to may concern a great many other genes

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