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very real one, and very different from all others. we suffer has no resemblance to absolute pain, It is most certain, that every species of satisfaction which is always odious, and which we endeavour or pleasure, how different soever in its manner of to shake off as soon as possible. The Odyssey of affecting, is of a positive nature in the mind of him Homer, which abounds with so many natural and who feels it. The affection is undoubtedly posi- affecting images, has none more striking than tive; but the cause may be, as in this case it cer- those which Menelaus raises of the calamitous fate tainly is, a sort of Privation. And it is very of his friends, and his own manner of feeling it. reasonable that we should distinguish by some term He owns, indeed, that he often gives himself some two things so distinct in nature, as a pleasure that intermission from such melancholy reflections ; but is such simply, and without any relation, from that he observes, too, that, melancholy as they are, pleasure which cannot exist without a relation, and they give him pleasure. that too a relation to pain. Very extraordinary it would be, if these affections, so distinguishable Αλλ' έμπης πάντας μεν οδυρόμενος και αχεύων, ,

Πολλάκις έν μεγάροισι καθήμενος ημετέροισιν,

, in their causes, so different in their effects, should

Αλλοτε μέν τε γός φρένα τέρπομαι, άλλοτε δ' αύτε be confounded with each other, because vulgar

Παύομαι" αίψηρός δε κόρος κρυερoίo γόοιο. use has ranged them under the same general title.

Hom. Od. A. 100. Whenever I have occasion to speak of this species of relative pleasure, I call it Delight; and I shall

Still in short intervals of pleasing woe, take the best care I can to use that word in no

Regardful of the friendly dues I owe,

I to the glorious dead, för ever dear, other sense. I am satisfied the word is not com

Indulge the tribute of a grateful tear. monly used in this appropriated signification ; but I thought it better to take up a word already On the other hand, when we recover our health, known, and to limit its signification, than to in- when we escape an imminent danger, is it with troduce a new one, which would not perhaps in-joy that we are affected? The sense on these corporate so well with the language. I should occasions is far from that smooth and voluptuous never have presumed the least alteration in our satisfaction which the assured prospect of pleawords, if the nature of the language, framed for sure bestows. The delight which arises from the the purposes of business rather than those of phi- modifications of pain confesses the stock from losophy, and the nature of my subject, that leads whence it sprung, in its solid, strong, and severe me out of the common track of discourse, did not nature. in a manner necessitate me to it. I shall make use of this liberty with all possible caution. As I make use of the word Delight to express

SELF-PRESERVATION. sation which accompanies the removal of pain or danger; so when I speak of positive pleasure, I Most of the ideas which are capable of makshall for the most part call it simply Pleasure. ing a powerful impression on the mind, whether

simply of Pain or Pleasure, or of the modifications of those, may be reduced very nearly to these two

heads, self-preservation and society'; to the ends It must be observed, that the cessation of plea- of one or the other of which all our passions are sure affects the mind three ways. If it simply calculated to answer. The passions which concem ceases, after having continued a proper time, the self-preservation, turn mostly on pain or danger. effect is indifference ; if it be abruptly broken off, | The ideas of pain, sickness, and death, fill the there ensues an uneasy sense called disappoint-mind with strong emotions of horrour; but life ment; if the object be so totally lost that there is and health, though they put us in a capacity (i no chance of enjoying it again, a passion arises in being affected with pleasure, make no such impress the mind, which is called grief. Now there is sion by the simple enjoyment.

The passions none of these, not even grief, which is the most therefore which are conversant about the preservaviolent, that I think has any resemblance to position of the individual turn chiefly on pain and tive pain. The person who grieves, suffers his danger, and they are the most powerful of all the passions to grow upon him; he indulges it, he passions. loves it : but this never happens in the case of actual pain, which no man ever willingly endured for any considerable time. That grief should be willingly endured, though far from a simply pleas- W11Atever is fitted in any sort to excite the ing sensation, is not so difficult to be understood. ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say,

whatever It is the nature of grief to keep its object per- is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about terpetually in its eye, to present it in its most plea- rible objects, or operates in a manner analogous surable views, to repeat all the circumstances that to terrour, is a source of the sublime ; that is, it attend it, even to the last minuteness ; to go back is productive of the strongest emotion which the to every particular enjoyment, to dwell npon each, mind is capable of feeling. I say the stronger! and to find a thousand new perfections in all, that emotion, because I am satisfied the ideas of pain were not sufficiently understood before; in grief, are much more powerful than those which enter the pleasure is still uppermost; and the amiction on the part of pleasure. Without all doubt, the


the sen













torments which we may be made to suffer are of causes, which give rise to madness : but this at much greater in their effect on the body and most can only prove, that the passion of love is mind, than any pleasures which the most learned capable of producing very extraordinary effects, voluptuary could suggest, or than the liveliest ima- not that its extraordinary emotions have any congination, and the most sound and exquisitely sen-nexion with positive pain. sible body, could enjoy. Nay, I am in great doubt whether any man could be found, who would

SECT. IX.--THE FINAL CAUSE OF THE DIFFERENCE earn a life of the most perfect satisfaction, at the BETWEEN THE PASSIONS BELONGING price of ending it in the torments, which justice

PRESERVATION, AND inflicted in a few hours on the late unfortunate regicide in France. But as pain is stronger in its operation than pleasure, so death is in general a The final cause of the difference in character much more affecting idea than pain; because between the passions which regard self-preservathere are very few pains, however exquisite, which tion, and those which are directed to the multipliare not preferred to death : nay, what generally cation of the species, will illustrate the foregoing makes pain itself, if I may say so, more painful, is, remarks yet further; and it is, I imagine, worthy that it is considered as an emissary of this king of of observation even upon its own account. As the terrours. When danger or pain press too nearly, performance of our duties of every kind depends they are incapable of giving any delight, and are upon life, and the performing them with vigour simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with and efficacy depends upon health, we are very certain modifications, they may be, and they are, strongly affected with whatever threatens the dedelightful, as we every day experience. The cause struction of either : but as we were not made to of this I shall endeavour to investigate hereafter. acquiesce in life and health, the simple enjoyment

of them is not attended with any real pleasure, BELONG lest, satisfied with that, we should give ourselves

over to indolence and inaction. On the other

hand, the generation of mankind is a great purThe other head under which I class our pas- pose, and it is requisite that men should be anisions, is that of society, which may be divided mated to the pursuit of it by some great incentive. into two sorts. 1. The society of the sexes, which It is therefore attended with a very high pleasure; answers the

purpose of propagation; and next, but as it is by no means designed to be our conthat more general society, which we have with stant business, it is not fit that the absence of this men and with other animals, and which we may pleasure should be attended with any considerable in some sort be said to have even with the inani- pain. The difference between men and brutes, in mate world. The passions belonging to the pre- this point, seems to be remarkable. Men are at all servation of the individual turn wholly on pain times pretty equally disposed to the pleasures of and danger: those which belong to generation love, because they are to be guided by reason in have their origin in gratifications and pleasures ; the time and manner of indulging them. the pleasure most directly belonging to this pur- any great pain arisen from the want of this satispose is of a lively character, rapturous and vio- faction, reason, I am afraid, would find great diflent, and confessedly the highest pleasure of ficulties in the performance of its office. But sense; yet the absence of this so great an enjoy- brutes, that obey laws, in the execution of which ment scarce amounts to an uneasiness; and, ex- their own reason has but little share, have their rept at particular times, I do not think it affects stated seasons; at such times it is not improbable at all. When men describe in what manner they that the sensation from the want is very

troubleare affected by pain and danger, they do not some, because the end must be then answered, or dwell on the pleasure of health and the comfort be missed in many, perhaps for ever ; as the inof security, and then lament the loss of these sa- clination returns only with its season. tüfactions : the whole turns upon the actual pains and horrours which they endure. listen to the complaints of a forsaken lover, you observe that he insists largely on the pleasures The passion which belongs to generation, merely which he enjoyed, or hoped to enjoy, and on the as such, is lust only. This is evident in brutes, perfection of the object of his desires; it is the whose passions are more unmixed, and which purloss which is always uppermost in his mind. The sue their purposes more directly than ours. The violent effects produced by love, which has some-only distinction they observe with regard to their times been even wrought up to madness, is no mates, is that of sex. It is true, that they stick objection to the rule which we seek to establish. severally to their own species in preference to all When men have suffered their imaginations to be others. But this preference, I imagine, does not long affected with any idea, it so wholly engrosses arise from any sense of beauty which they find in thern as to shut out by degrees almost every other, their species, as Mr. Addison supposes, but from a and to break down every partition of the mind law of some other kind, to which they are subject; which would confine it. Any idea is sufficient for and this we may fairly conclude, from their appathe purpose, as is evident from the infinite variety rent want of choice amongst those objects to which

But if you


VOL. 1.




the barriers of their species have confined them. But man, who is a creature adapted to a greater

SECT. XII.-SYMPATHY, IMITATION, AND variety and intricacy of relation, connects with the general passion the idea of some social qualities, which direct and heighten the appetite which he Under this denomination of society, the pashas in common with all other animals; and as he sions are of a complicated kind, and branch out is not designed like them to live at large, it is fit into a variety of forms, agreeably to that variety that he should have something to create a prefer- of ends they are to serve in the great chain of ence, and fix his choice; and this in general should society. The three principal links in this chain be some sensible quality; as no other can so quickly, are sympathy, imitation, and ambition. so powerfully, or so surely produce its effect. The object therefore of this mixed passion, which we call love, is the beauty of the sex. Men are carried to the sex in general, as it is the sex, and by the It is by the first of these passions that we enter common law of nature; but they are attached to into the concerns of others; that we are moved particulars by personal beauty. I call beauty a as they are moved, and are never suffered to be social quality; for where women and men, and not indifferent spectators of almost anything which men only they, but when other animals give us a sense can do or suffer. For sympathy must be considered of joy and pleasure in beholding them, (and there as a sort of substitution, by which we are put into are many that do so,) they inspire us with senti- the place of another man, and affected in many ments of tenderness and affection towards their respects as he is affected ; so that this passion may persons; we like to have them near us, and we either partake of the nature of those which regard enter willingly into a kind of relation with them, self-preservation, and turning upon pain may be a unless we should have strong reasons to the con- source of the sublime; or it may turn upon

ideas trary. But to what end, in many cases, this was of pleasure ; and then whatever has been said of designed, I am unable to discover; for I see no the social affections, whether they regard society greater reason for a connexion between man and in general, or only some particular modes of it

, several animals who are attired in so engaging a may be applicable here. It is by this principle manner, than between him and some others who chiefly that poetry, painting, and other affecting entirely want this attraction, or possess it in a far arts, transfuse their passions from one breast to weaker degree. But it is probable, that Providence another, and are often capable of grafting a delight did not make even this distinction, but with a view on wretchedness, misery, and death itself. It is a to some great end; though we cannot perceive common observation, that objects which in the distinctly what it is, as his wisdom is not our wis- reality would shock, are in tragical, and such like dom, nor our ways


representations, the source of a very high species

of pleasure. This, taken as a fact, has been the SECT. XI.-SOCIETY AND SOLITUDE.

cause of much reasoning. The satisfaction has

been commonly attributed, first, to the comfort The second branch of the social passions is that we receive in considering that so melancholy a which administers to society in general. With story is no more than a fiction ; and, next, to the regard to this, I observe, that society, merely as contemplation of our own freedom from the evils society, without any particular heightenings, gives which we see represented. I am afraid it is a us no positive pleasure in the enjoyment; but practice much too common in enquiries of this absolute and entire solitude, that is, the total and nature, to attribute the cause of feelings which perpetual exclusion from all society, is as great a merely arise from the mechanical structure of our positive pain as can almost be conceived. There- bodies, or from the natural frame and constitution fore in the balance between the pleasure of general of our minds, to certain conclusions of the reasoning society, and the pain of absolute solitude, pain is faculty on the objects presented to us; for I should the predominant idea. But the pleasure of any imagine, that the influence of reason in producing particular social enjoyment outweighs very consi- our passions is nothing near so extensive as it is derably the uneasiness caused by the want of that commonly believed. particular enjoyment; so that the strongest sensations relative to the habitudes of particular society

SECT. XIV. -THE EFFECTS OF SYMPATHY IN THE are sensations of pleasure. Good company, lively conversations, and the endearments of friendship, fill the mind with great pleasure; a temporary To examine this point concerning the effect of solitude, on the other hand, is itself agreeable. tragedy in a proper manner, we must previously This may perhaps prove that we are creatures consider how we are affected by the feelings of our designed for contemplation as well as action; since fellow-creatures in circumstances of real distress, solitude as well as society has its pleasures; as I am convinced we have a degree of delight, and from the former observation we may discern, that that no small one, in the real misfortunes and pains an entire life of solitude contradicts the purposes of others; for let the affection be what it will in of our being, since death itself is scarcely an idea appearance, if it does not make us shun such of more terrour.

objects, if on the contrary it induces us to approach


them, if it makes us dwell upon them, in this case the further it removes us from all idea of fiction, I conceive we must have a delight or pleasure of the more perfect is its power. But be its power some species or other in contemplating objects of of what kind it will, it never approaches to what this kind. Do we not read the authentick histories it represents. Choose a day on which to represent of scenes of this nature with as much pleasure the most sublime and affecting tragedy we have ; as romances or poems, where the incidents are appoint the most favourite actors ; spare no cost fictitious ? The prosperity of no empire, nor the upon the scenes and decorations, unite the greatest grandeur of no king, can so agreeably affect in the efforts of poetry, painting, and musick; and when reading, as the ruin of the state of Macedon, and you have collected your audience, just at the mothe distress of its unhappy prince. Such a catas- ment when their minds are erect with expectation, trophe touches us in history as much as the let it be reported that a state criminal of high rank destruction of Troy does in fable. Our delight, is on the point of being executed in the adjoining in cases of this kind, is very greatly heightened, square; in a moment the emptiness of the theatre if the sufferer be some excellent person who sinks would demonstrate the comparative weakness of under an unworthy fortune. Scipio and Cato are the imitative arts, and proclaim the triumph of the both virtuous characters; but we are more deeply real sympathy. I believe that this notion of our affected by the violent death of the one, and the having a simple pain in the reality, yet a delight ruin of the great cause he adhered to, than with in the representation, arises from hence, that we the deserved triumphs and uninterrupted prosperity do not sufficiently distinguish what we would by of the other ; for terrour is a passion which always no means choose to do, from what we should be produces delight when it does not press too closely; eager enough to see if it was once done. We and pity is a passion accompanied with pleasure, delight in seeing things, which so far from doing, because it arises from love and social affection. our heartiest wishes would be to see redressed. Whenever we are formed by nature to any active This noble capital, the pride of England and of purpose, the passion which animates us to it is Europe, I believe no man is so strangely wicked as attended with delight, or a pleasure of some kind, to desire to see destroyed by a conflagration or an let the subject matter be what it will; and as our earthquake, though he should be removed himself Creator has designed that we should be united by to the greatest distance from the danger. But supthe bond of sympathy, he has strengthened that pose such a fatal accident to have happened, what bond by a proportionable delight; and there most numbers from all parts would crowd to behold the where our sympathy is most wanted, -in the dis- ruins, and amongst them many who would have tresses of others. If this passion was simply pain- been content never to have seen London in its ful, we would shun with the greatest care all persons glory! Nor is it, either in real or fictitious disand places that could excite such a passion; as tresses, our immunity from them which produces some, who are so far gone in indolence as not to en- our delight ; in my own mind I can discover dure any strong impression, actually do. But the case nothing like it. I apprehend that this mistake is is widely different with the greater part of man- owing to a sort of sophism, by which we are kind; there is no spectacle we so eagerly pursue, frequently imposed upon; it arises from our not as that of some uncommon and grievous calamity; distinguishing between what is indeed a necessary 80 that whether the misfortune is before our eyes, condition to our doing or suffering any thing in or whether they are turned back to it in history, it general, and what is the cause of some particular always touches with delight. This is not an un- If a man kills me with a sword, it is a necesmixed delight, but blended with no small uneasi- sary condition to this that we should have been ness. The delight we have in such things hinders both of us alive before the fact; and yet it would 18 from shunning scenes of misery; and the pain be absurd to say, that our being both living creawe feel prompts us to relieve ourselves in relieving tures was the cause of his crime and of my

death. those who suffer; and all this antecedent to any So it is certain, that it is absolutely necessary my reasoning, by an instinct that works us to its own life should be out of any imminent hazard, before purposes without our concurrence.

I can take a delight in the sufferings of others,

real or imaginary, or indeed in any thing else from SECT. XV.-OF THE EFFECTS OF TRAGEDY.

any cause whatsoever. But then it is a sophism

to argue from thence, that this immunity is the It is thus in real calamities. In imitated dis- cause of my delight either on these or on any tresses the only difference is the pleasure resulting occasions. No one can distinguish such a cause of from the effects of imitation ; for it is never so satisfaction in his own mind, I believe; nay, when perfect, but we can perceive it is imitation, and on we do not suffer any very acute pain, nor are exthat principle are somewhat pleased with it. And posed to any imminent danger of our lives, we can indeed in some cases we derive as much or more feel for others, whilst we suffer ourselves; and pleasure from that source than from the thing often then inost when we are softened by affliction; itself. But then I imagine we shall be much mis- we see with pity even distresses which we would taken, if we attribute any considerable part of our accept in the place of our own. satisfaction in tragedy to the consideration that tragedy is a deceit, and its representations no realities. The nearer it approaches the reality, and


of their power.

the same at the end that they are at this day, and SECT. XVI.-IMITATION.

that they were in the beginning of the world. To

prevent this, God has planted in man a sense of The second passion belonging to society is ambition, and a satisfaction arising from the conimitation, or, if you will, a desire of imitating, and templation of his excelling his fellows in something consequently a pleasure in it. This passion arises deemed valuable amongst them. It is this passion from much the same cause with sympathy. For that drives men to all the ways we see in use of as sympathy makes us take a concern in whatever signalizing themselves, and that tends to make men feel, so this affection prompts us to copy whatever excites in a man the idea of this diswhatever they do ; and consequently we have a tinction so very pleasant. It has been so strong pleasure in imitating, and in whatever belongs to as to make very miserable men take comfort, that imitation merely as it is such, without any inter- they were supreme in misery; and certain it is, vention of the reasoning faculty, but solely from that, where we cannot distinguish ourselves by our natural constitution, which Providence has something excellent, we begin to take a comframed in such a manner as to find either pleasure placency in some singular infirmities, follies, or or delight, according to the nature of the object, defects of one kind or other. It is on this prinin whatever regards the purposes of our being. ciple that flattery is so prevalent; for flattery is It is by imitation far more than by precept, that no more than what raises in a man's mind an idea we learn every thing; and what we learn thus, we of a preference which he has not.

Now, whatacquire not only more effectually, but more plea-ever, either on good or 'upon bad grounds, tends santly. This forms our manners, our opinions, to raise a man in his own opinion, produces a sort our lives. It is one of the strongest links of so- of swelling and triumph, that is extremely grateciety; it is a species of mutual compliance, which ful to the human mind; and this swelling is all men yield to each other, without constraint to never more perceived, nor operates with more themselves, and which is extremely flattering to all. force, than when without danger we are conHerein it is that painting and many other agree- versant with terrible objects; the mind always able arts have laid one of the principal foundations claiming to itself some part of the dignity and

And since, by its influence on importance of the things which it contemplates. our manners and our passions, it is of such great Hence proceeds what Longinus has observed of consequence, I shall here venture to lay down a that glorying and sense of inward greatness, that rule, which may inform us with a good degree of always fills the reader of such passages in poets certainty when we are to attribute the power of and orators as are sublime; it is what every man the arts to imitation, or to our pleasure in the skill must have felt in himself upon such occasions. of the imitator merely, and when to sympathy, or some other cause in conjunction with it. When

SECT. XVIII.-THE RECAPITULATION. the object represented in poetry or painting is such as we could have no desire of seeing in the reality, To draw the whole of what has been said into then I may be sure that its power in poetry or a few distinct points :— The passions which belong painting is owing to the power of imitation, and to self-preservation turn on pain and danger; they to no cause operating in the thing itself. So it is are simply painful when their causes immediately with most of the pieces which the painters call still affect us ; they are delightful when we have an life. In these a cottage, a dunghill, the meanest idea of pain and danger, without being actually and most ordinary utensils of the kitchen, are ca- in such circumstances; this delight I have not pable of giving us pleasure. But when the object called pleasure, because it turns on pain, and of the painting or poem is such as we should run because it is different enough from any idea of to see if real, let it affect us with what odd sort of positive pleasure. Whatever excites this delight, I sense it will, we may rely upon it, that the power call sublime. The passions belonging to selfof the poem or picture is more owing to the na-preservation are the strongest of all the passions. ture of the thing itself than to the mere effect of The second head to which the passions are reimitation, or to a consideration of the skill of the ferred with relation to their final cause, is society. imitator, however excellent. Aristotle has spoken There are two sorts of societies. The first is, the so much and so solidly upon the force of imitation society of sex. The passion belonging to this is in his Poeticks, that it makes any further discourse called love, and it contains a mixture of lust; its upon this subject the less necessary.

object is the beauty of women. The other is the

great society with man and all other animals. The SECT. XVII.-AMBITION.

passion subservient to this is called likewise love,

but it has no mixture of lust, and its object is ALTHOUGH imitation is one of the great instru- beauty; which is name I shall apply to all such ments used by Providence in bringing our nature qualities in things as induce in us a sense of affectowards its perfection, yet if men gave them- tion and tenderness, or some other passion the most selves up to imitation entirely, and each followed nearly resembling these. The passion of love has the other, and so on in an eternal circle, it is easy its rise in positive pleasure; it is, like all things to see that there never could be any improvement which grow out of pleasure, capable of being mixed amongst them. Men must remain as brutes do, with a mode of uneasiness, that is, when an idea

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