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rish is a rich loamy soil, and is well The castle, situated on the west side of cultivated. The country here is beau- the harbour, is a venerable ruin, but the tifully variegated with wood and water*, date of its building is uncertain ; it stands In the eastern extremity of the county within sea-mark, and before the use of lies

artillery, must have been impregnable. It OLDHAMSTOCKS, 6 miles east from was to it that the Earl of Bothwell filed, Dunbar, extending about 6 miles in leaving the unfortunate Mary in the length, and from 2 to 3 in breadth, hands of the associated Lords at Carand containing about soo inhabitants. berry-hill. The famous defeat of the The country here is broken and hilly; Scottish army, under General Lefly, on the coast the soil is pretty fertile, but by Cromwell, was at Daverhill, near barren in the higher parts. On the Dunbar. In this parish there is plenty coast there is a considerable fishing, as of Lime. Near the Harbour there is the ocean here furnishes, in general, a rock of martial jafper, which takes considerable quantities of haddocks, cod, an exceeding fine polish. Some beauherrings, and lobsters. The Castle of tiful pebbles have been occasionally Dunglass, where now stands a good found on the shore. The gentlemen's modern house erected for the residence seats in this parish are Broxmouth, beof Sir James Hall, famous in Scot. longing to the Duke of Roxburgh; tish history, is in the parish.

Lochend, to Sir Peter Warrender; DUNBAR parish extends about nine Ninewar, to Mr Hamilton ; Belton, miles in length, along the coast, in to Mr Hay; and Winterfield to Mr breadth it is only two, and contains Anderson. 3700 inhabitants. The soil is a rich PRESTON-KIRK lies about 5

miles light dry mould, perhaps the most from Haddington, on the London road fertile in Scotland, and, in general, it by Berwick. It extends about 7 miles is also the earliest. In this situation, from north to fouth, and

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from east to and having the advantage of abundance west, and contains nearly 1200 inhaof sea-ware and lime for manure, the bitants t. The river Tyne runs thro' yearly rent is very high, the burgh acres the parish, and empties itself into the give about five guineas, and the farms sea, about 3 miles below the church. are rented at from 30s. to a guineas ; The country is finely variegated, and the rent of the whole parish is about the fields very fertile ; the prevalent foil L. 8oco Sterling. The country here being a rich clayey mould. Smeaton, is finely adorned with gentlemen's seats, an elegant commodious modern house, and the town of Dunbar is one of the the property of G. Buchan Hepburn, pleasantest and neatest in Scotland. Esq; is the only one of note in this Situated on the German ocean, it has parish. long been a place of trade, particularly WHITEKIRK and TYNNINGHAM.

The herring and whale fifh- These united parishes extend from S. ings have also been long a part of the to N. 6 miles, and from E. to W. occupation of the inhabitants. Dun. about 4; and contain about sooo inhabar, at a very early period, was a place bitants. The country is on the whole of firength ; but there was no harbour for ships till Oliver Cromwell began the

+ This parish contains about 4990 acres, construction of the present one, which. L. 4700 Sterling.

the rent of which may be computed to be is mostly formed out of the solid rock.

# Mr John Walker of Beanston, in this * There is the following entry in the re. parish, had the honour of setting the first cords of this parish : “ October 1705– example of fallowing ground, in this part

Many witches burnt on the top of Spütt of the island. “ law."

flat

for corp.

i

flat here, and the soil a rich loam, on in Scotland which are frequented by a gravelly bottom. Whitekirk hill rises the Solan Goose. The Bass is also to a very moderate height, only afford- frequented by numberless other birds of ing an elevation for a beautiful and ex- various denominations. It is accessible tenlive view. The most remarkable only on one side by a narrow passage, thing in this parish is the very extensive and there is a well of fresh water near and thriving woods of Tynningham, its top. It had been formerly inhabited, planted the beginning of this century by and during the reigns of Charles 11. Thomas, the 6th Earl of Haddington. and James II it was made a state priAlthough planted apon barren Links, son ; some ruins of houses are still to the very brink of the ocean mark, standing. Now the only inhabitants they have grown with uncommon vi- are a few sheep. gour. Tynningham house is beautifully

DIRLETON lies upon the Frith of situated at the estuary of the river Tyne, Forth, and extends almost 6 miles and the gardens were amongst the ear- square. The lower ground upon the liest in the country in the modern coast

, consisting of about 3000 acres, is style. Newbeith, the residence of Mr links ; but inland to the south, there are Baird, is also in this parish.

about 5000 acres extremely fertile. The North Berwick. Situated near gross rent is about 6oool. Sterling; the the mouth of the Frith of Forth, it ex- number of inhabitants is about 1200. tends along the coast about 3 miles, The only feat in the parish is that of being in breadth from N. to S. nearly Mr Nibet, the proprietor of about two2 miles, containing about 1300 inha- thirds of the whole. There is still the bitants. The whole parish, containing romantic ruin of an old castle standing nearly 4000 acres, is arable, being a on the east end of the village. rich loamy soil, with the exception of ABERLADY parish lies also on the the hill, and some linky ground; and shore, westward. The flat part is, in is well cultivated. The rent varies general, light and sandy, but farther infrom 16s. or 17s. per acre, to near 31. land, where the land rises, it is rich and The ruins of the castle of Tantallan fertile. The parish contains 800 foals; stand about 2 miles from North the village of Aberlady 386. The Berwick, it was

once

a place of Earl of Wemyss is building a very ele. great strength. The beautiful conic gant house at Gosford in this parish. hill called North-Berwick Law, and The only other seat of any note is Balinwhich is seen at so great a distance, crieff the property of Lord Elibank. rises from a level plain to about 400 feet, ATHOLSTONFORD. This parish is and overlooks a very fertile country. nearly an oblong square, 4 miles long The famous sea.rock Bass lies about a and from 2 to 3 broad, containing amile from the shore*. This rock, and bout 4000 acres.

The soil is, in geAilsa and St Kilda, are the only places neral, a rich loam, and very productive,

though, as in other places of a similar of the country is thus describe extent, there are partial exceptions, yet ed by Mr Hume, in the tragedy of Douglas : it has all been occasionally ploughed *

" A nimble courier Inform’d me, as he past, that the fierce Dane From the small range of Garleton hills, Had on the eastern coast of Lothian landed,

which bound this parish on the south, Near to that place where the sea rock immense there is an extensive plain 4 miles broad, Amazing Bass, looks o'er a fertile land.”.

having a small and gradual inclination -“ If impairing time

to the sea, and containing a track of Has not effac'd the image of a place, Once perfect in my breast, there is a wild country pot inferior in beauty and ferWhich lies to westward of that mighty rock, tility to any in Scotland. “The Grave,"? And seems by nature formed for the camp Of water wafted arinies, whose chief strength

* In this parish there are abount 950 in. Lies in firm foot, unflank'd with warlike habitants.

horfc."

This part

that

extent.

that much admired poem, was written eastward of the burgh, that Parliament by Mr Blair, minister of this parish, and was conveened July 7th 1548, during father to R. Blair, Esq; his Majesty's the fiege of the town, which gave conSolicitor General for Scotland. It is sent to Queen Mary's marriage with the well known that the author of the Tra- Dauphin, and to her being educated at gedy of Douglas was several years paf- the court of France. Every Friday tor here. Gilmerton, the property of there is at Haddington one of the best Şir G. Kinloch, is the only seat of note corn-markets in Scotland. There bias in this parish.

been no coal discovered in this parith, HADDINGTON, the county town of though there is abundance of sandEast Lothian, lies 17 miles east of E- stone, and both lime and coal within 4 dinburgh, and is the first stage on the niles of Haddington. great poit road from thence to London. GLADSMUIR, about twelve miles from It is a neat well built town, situated Edinburgh on the ealt road to London, on the river Tyne. The greatest extent The ground here forms a sort of ridge, of the parish is nearly 6 miles both ways. gradually hoping towards the Frith of It contains 12,000 acres of land, and a. Forth on the north, and the river Tyne bout 4000 inhabitants. The ground is on the south; the summit of which is very, muirish toward the western part, a stiff barren, clay, but becomes fertile though the whole parith is arable, ex. as you descend on either side, particua cepting a few particular spots of little larly on the north. This parish como

The greater part of this parish prehends about 6000 acres, 9ne, hal is well inclosed, and in a high state of of which only is in tillage. The rende cultivation. The real rent is about is about 4500l. sterling, and it contains, 8oool. Sterling; the ground near the 1380 inhabitants. There is great ag town sets from 59$, to zl. per acre. bundance of coal in this quarter. This The towo is very aocient; the parish parish gave birth to the noted: George church is a venerable structure, and Heriot, founder of the hospitals and appears to have been built in the 12th Dr William Robertson, the historian of or 13th century. It is only in the west Scotland, and Principal of the Univers end that worship is performed ; all the sity of Edinburgh, was pastor of it, and relt is a ruin. In a corner of this struc- composed his History of Scotland while ture there is the burying place of the fa- here. mily of Maitland, who for many ages

TRANENT is about 8 miles from Epofíefied Lethington, now the seat of dinburgh, also on the Ealt London road; Lord Blantyre. In this aifle there are the length is about 6, and the breadth feveral marble ftatues of the Dukes of about 3 miles, containing nearly 2,496 Lauderdale, as large as life, lying is inbabitants. The whole of this parith beds of state. There are foveral agree- may be reckoned arable, though part is able seats in this parish ; the most re- still lying in a waste stateThe low markable is Amisfield, belonging to ground towards the fea lets at from the Earl of Wemyss ; In the gallery 403. to 509. per acrex and the higher there are many fine paintings, by the ground, which is a clayey soil, at fron first masters, particularly Vertuminus 155. to 209. the whole producing about and Pomona, by: Rubens, valued at 5-570l. per annum. There are three 800 guincas, The beautifal estates of considerable coalieries in this sparith, Adderstone, Lethan, and Clerkington, the largest feamris 9 feet, and lius about are all in the immediate vicioity at the 30 fathoms r below the surface. Not town. The famous John Knox the Rer far from Tranent staod the ruins of Seformer was a native of this parish, ton-house, the once.

e princely residence the house where he was born in Gife of the Earls of Wintown fordgate, is fill thown.

It was at

(To be continueda)ons 2007 the Abbey of Haddingtou, about a mile

FROM

MINUTES OF AGRICULTURE.
SURVEY OF THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS," BY MR MARSHALL,

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 329. MANAGEMENT OF ESTATES. to make room for a greater number of * Under the feudal system. The ma- soldiers, and were thus frittered down nagement of eltates, as landed property, to the atoms in which they are now could be but little attended to the pol. found, and the country burdened with feffion itfelf depended too often on force a load of tenantry, which has hitherto of arms, rather than on legal right, and been considered as a bar, even under a it was more necessary to train the tenan- change of circumstances, to the profecutry to war than to rural improvements. tion of any rational plan of management.

On the large estates of the Chieftains, The larger estates are divided into an officer under the name of Chamber. Oficiaries, each consisting of an ancient lain, was at once minister, general, and barony, cr of an arbitrary modern dimanager of the estate.

vision, better suited to the present cir. Under these circumstances, and par. cumstances of the estate. ticularly in the times of disturbance, On the banks of Loch Tay, these

the tenants might be said to be in full officiaries contain from one to three poffeffion of their respective holdings; square miles of valley lands each, with neither their chieftain nor his chamber- their proportion of hill, comprising lain dared to remove them, nor even from teo to twenty "towns" or farms; to check their evil practices ;- such as each farm, or petty town-ship, being cutting down timber and other wood; subdivided into farmlets; generally from tot only for buildiog and implements, two to fix or eight in nunber; or in but for its bark, (it being recently the some few instances the farms remain enpractice for every man to tan leather for tire, or have been brought back to their his own consumption,) leaving the dif- original entirely. barked wood perhaps to rot in the place

In each of these officiaries resides a of its growth ; circumstances in them., Ground Officer, generally a principal felves sufficient to account for the de-' tenant, whose office is somewhat similar cay of forests, and the present naked to that of the bailiff of an English maneis of the country, in places remote nor, but more extensive and more use. from the residences of chieftains ; where ful: he not only distributes orders or respect, if not fear, might check fuch notices, from the lord or factor to the baneful depredations.

tenants, but sees the services performed Nor, under these circumstances, could (from which he is himself exempt,) ang plan of improvement be prosecuted, the roads kept in repair, the removal even during times of greater tranquillity, of tenants, the settling of disputes, the for the length of the day of peace was forwarding of dispatches, &c. uncertain ; and a good foldier, or a Also, in each officiary are Birley fool-hardy desperado, was of more va- men, sworn appraisers or valuers ; who lue than a good husbandman. Indeed are called in by the ground officer (at the works of agriculture in those war- the request of the manager) to settle': like times, were neceffarily carried on disputes between the landlord and the in a great measure by the women: a tenants, or between tenant and tenant. circumfiance wbich accounts for their These petty inquests are extremely present habits of labour and industry. convenient upon an extensive estate, and

And aaorher neccffery consequence might be well introduced (in their preef those extraordinary circumstances fent, or in an improved form) upon the was Atill more subversive of improve- larger estates of the island in general. menis, and more lasting in its effects. The feveral cfficers being resident withThe farms were divided and subdiyided in their respective officiaries, know the

Vol. LVIIL

parties

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parties and the matters in dispute more State of Husbandry. After the curintimately than any large proprietor, or fory view which I took of the Highlands any agent of a large estate poffibly can : in the summer of 1792, I left it with iand if a manager distinguish properly be- deas rather favourable to its state of cultween the useful information they are tivation. The corn, before I reached capable of giving him, and the partia. this part of the Highlands, had grown lities which they must neceffarily form tall enough to bide weeds; the braes among the tenantry, he may, on many were green, and through the moistness occasions, render them highly beneficial of the season full of grass; the sheep were to the due performance of his charge, upon the hills ; and the cattle which I which, where the happiness of thoufands faw were full of condition. depends more or less on his conduct, But in the more deliberate survey is a thing of no light importance. of last year, fresh facts arose, efpecially

Tenancy.-- The nature of the hold, in the spring season. In the latter end or occupancy of the Highland tenants, of April, and the early part of May, is principally that of tenant at will, the country exhibited the most desolate holding from year to year. If leafes and distresfing picture. Not the faintes or tacks, as they are called, be granted appearance of greenness, por even blade for a term of years, the term is generally of pasturable herbage to be detected, exone or more nineteen years, a number cept in the parks and paddocks of men which one would think nothing but ca- of fortune, or the farms of the few fuprice would have rendered customary. perior managers ; and here the clover Life leases, too, are granted, or have and rye-grafs were already in full bite (a been granted, in Scotland ; perhaps for most interesting fact!) while the counthree lives and a nineteen years, or three try at farge, under the old fyftem of nineteen years and a life.

management, lay a mere waste; nothing Rent. The rate of rent varies much to be feen but stones and dry blades of on. different estates. The smaller estates couch grass, or other pallid remains may have been raised to fomething near of unpasturable herbage ; the pasture and their real value : but the farger, I be- meadow lands gnawed to the quick, and lieve, remain at rents much below the strewed with the dead carcafes of sheep, real value of their respective soils ; even lying a disgrace and nuisance to the when the difadvantages of situation and country: their wool wasting away with climate are taken into the estimate. their carcases, as if their owners were Nevertheless, it appears equally evident; ashamed to claim it. The cattle, too, that while the present state of things were in a farving state : fome actually remains, while the holdings remain so starved; others barely able to crawl out Small, so inconvenient, fo exposed and of the way of the passenger : calves, and so uncertain as to poffeffion as they are perhaps a few young sheep, nibbling off at présent, estates in general may be said the feedling blades of oats ; and the to be at rack rént. No man could wish most active of the cattle running after to see the occupiers of lands in a lower the plough and harrow, striving for the state than are at present the fmaller te. roots of the weeds turned up, their alDants of the Highlands ; indeed, were most only means of sublitence. But

their holdings free they could not the season had been more than usually through their means enjoy the common fevere, and the deaths and distresses comförts of life equally with the day la somewhát" more than is usuallysesipebourers of other diftricts.

rienced.

its placoniy Formerly the rents were paid in In the beginning of July, the face of kind, as grain, poultry, &c.; and still the country was not less striking than it what are called " victual or rents in had been in the early part of May. The graio;" are paid, but.“ money rents” colour of it had changed from the fickly are becoming yearly more prevalent.

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