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of the two names of George Wilkins, living at, or near, the same time; and to which of them "The Painful Adventures of Pericles," as well as other productions, belong, it is impossible now to determine. If George Wilkins, “the Poet," died of the plague in August, 1603, it would be singular that he should be the author of a dateless tract called “The Three Miseries of BarbaryPlague, Famine, Civill Warre;” and impossible that he should have joined with John Day and William Rowley in the composition of the play, printed in 1607, under the title of “The Travels of three English Brothers, Sir Thomas, Sir Anthony, and Sir Robert Shirley.” It would also be highly improbable that he should have written “The Miseries of Enforced Marriage " before mentioned, unless it had been acted some years before it was printed. Various dramatic authors and actors lived in Holywell Street and its vicinity; and it would not surprise us if the two persons named George Wilkins were father and son, and that the father, who we may suppose died in 1603, had previously, in some way, earned the designation of “poet,” given to him in the parish register, which, perhaps, his son better deserved, as the author of later and more popular productions.

For particular verbal, and other, elucidations of Shakespeare's text, derived from “The Painful Adventures of Pericles,” 4to, 1608, we must refer the reader to our foot-notes.

It will have been remarked, that the novel states that“ Pericles” had been lately presented," and on the title-page of the edition of 1609 it is termed “ the late, and much-admired Play called Pericles:" it is, besides, spoken of as “a new play,” in a poetical tract called "Pimlico or Run Redeap," printed in 1609. Another piece, called "Shore," is mentioned in “ Pimlico," under exactly similar circumstances: there was an older drama upon the story of Jane Shore, and this, like "Pericles," had, perhaps, about the same date, been revived at one of the theatres.

Pericles was five times printed before it was inserted in the folio of 1664, viz. in 1609, 1611, 1619, 1630, and 1635. The folio seems to have been copied from the last of these, with a multiplication of errors, but with some corrections. The first edition of 1609 was obviously brought out in haste, and there are many corruptions in it; but more pains were taken with it than Malone, Steevens, and others imagined: they never compared different copies of the same edition, or they would have seen that the impressions vary importantly, and that several mistakes, discovered as the play went through the press, were carefully set rigbt: these will be found pointed out in our notes.






ANTIOCHUS, King of Antioch.
PERICLES, Prince of Tyre.

two Lords of Tyre.
SIMONIDES, King of Pentapolis.
CLEON, Governor of Tharsus.
LYSIMACHUS, Governor of Mitylene.
CERIMON, a Lord of Ephesus.
THALIARD, a Lord of Antioch.
PHILEMON, Servant to Cerimon.
LEONINE, Servant to Dionyza.
A Pandar, and his Wife.
BOULT, their Servant.
GOWER, as Chorus.

The Daughter of Antiochus.
DIONYZA, Wife to Cleon.
THAISA, Daughter to Simonides.
MARINA, Daughter to Pericles and Thaisa.
LYCHORIDA, Nurse to Marina.

Lords, Ladies, Knights, Gentlemen, Sailors, Pirates, Fishermen

and Messengers, &c.
SCENE, dispersedly in various Countries.

1 The play in the folio, 1664, is followed by a defective list of persons, under the title of “The Actors' Names.” A regular Dramatis Personæ is also, most unusually, prefixed to Wilkins' novel, under the heading “ The names of the Personages mentioned in this Historie.” They accord, very nearly, with the characters in the play; but Gower is there called “ The Presenter.” See “Mid

; summer Night's Dream,” A. v. sc. I, Vol. ii. p. 245.




Before the Palace of Antioch.

Enter GOWER, as Chorus.


To sing a song that old was sung,
From ashes ancient Gower is come;
Assuming man's infirmities,
To glad your ear, and please your eyes.
It hath been sung at festivals,
On ember-eves, and holy ales',
And lords and ladies in their lives
Have read it for restoratives :
The purpose is ’ to make men glorious;
Et bonum quo antiquius, eo melius.
If you, born in these latter times,
When wit's more ripe, accept my rhymes,
And that to hear an old man sing,
May to your wishes pleasure bring,
I life would wish, and that I might
Waste it for you, like taper-light.-
This Antioch, then : Antiochus the great

up this city for his chiefest seat,

1 - and holy ALES,] Every old copy, 4to. and folio, has “ holy-days ;” but as the speech was no doubt meant to rhyme, we have adopted Dr. Farmer's amendment: by “holy ales," what were called church ales were probably intended.

* The PURPOSE is] In all the old copies it stands, “ The purchase is ;' and it may possibly be right, taking purchase in the sense of prize or reward.

The fairest in all Syria ;
I tell you what my authors say:
This king unto him took a feereo,
Who died and left a female heir,
So buxom, blithe, and full of face,
As heaven had lent her all his grace;
With whom the father liking took,
And her to incest did provoke.
Bad child, worse father, to entice his own
To evil, should be done by none.
By custom what they did begin
Was with long use account no sin.
The beauty of this sinful dame
Made many princes thither frame,
To seek her as a bed-fellow,
In marriage pleasures play-fellow :
Which to prevent he made a law,
To keep her still, and men in awe,
That whoso ask'd her for his wife,
His riddle told not, lost his life:
So, for her many a wight did die,
As yond' grim looks do testify".
What now ensues, to the judgment of your eye
I give, my cause who best can justify. [Exit.


Antioch. A Room in the Palace.

Enter ANTIOCHUS, PERICLES, and Attendants.
Ant. Young prince of Tyre, you have at large receiv'd
The danger of the task you undertake.


took a FEERE,] i. e. A companion or wife: the word also occurs for a husband in “ Titus Andronicus,” A. iv. sc. 1, Vol. v. p. 56.

4 By custom] But custom in the old copies; and in the next line, account'd for “ account."

5 As yond' grim looks do testify.] Referring to the heads of the unsuccessful suitors, exhibited to the audience over the gates of the palace at Antioch. That such was the case we have the evidence of the novel, founded upon the play, published under the title of “ The Painfull Adventures of Pericles Prince of Tyre," 1608, where the heading of the first chapter ends thus:--"placing their heads on the top of his castle gate, whereby to astonish all others that came to attempt the like." Possibly we ought to read admonish for “ astonish.”.


Per. I have, Antiochus, and with a soul
Embolden'd with the glory of her praise,
Think death no hazard, in this enterprise.

Ant. Bring in our daughter, clothed like a bride,
For the embracements' even of Jove himself;
At whose conception, till Lucina reign'd,
Nature this dowry gave, to glad her presence,
The senate-house of planets all did sit,
To knit in her their best perfections.

Enter the Daughter of ANTIOCHUS.
Per. See, where she comes, apparell'd like the spring,
Graces her subjects, and her thoughts the king
Of every virtue gives renown to men !
Her face, the book of praises, where is read
Nothing but curious pleasures, as from thence
Sorrow were ever ras'd®, and testy wrath
Could never be her mild companion.
Ye gods, that made me man, and sway in love,
That have inflam’d deşire in my breast,
To taste the fruit of


celestial tree,
Or die in the adventure, be my helps,
As I am son and servant to your will,
To compass such a boundless happiness!

Ant. Prince Pericles,—
Per. That would be son to great Antiochus.

Ant. Before thee stands this fair Hesperides',
With golden fruit, but dangerous to be touch'd;
For death-like dragons here affright thee hard :
Her face, like heaven, enticeth thee to view
Her countless glory, which desert must gain ;

6 Music.] In every old copy, this word, which is evidently a stage-direction, is made part of the text, at the commencement of the speech of Antiochus. All that was meant seems to have been, that the daughter entered while the music was played : she was introduced by music.

7 For The embracements] All the old copies omit “ the.”

8 Sorrow were ever ras’d,] In the 4to, 1609, it is “ Sorrow were ever racte;" which later editions altered to rackt, mistaking the word.

such a BOUNDLESS happiness !] The old editions, anterior to that of Rowe, by a misprint, have bondless happiness.”

1 — this fair HESPERIDES,] Meaning the garden of Hesperus, not the daughters appointed to watch over the golden apples. • Shakespeare has before spoken of them in the same manner (“Love's Labour's Lost," A. iv. sc. 3, Vol. ii. p. 145), which was usual with poets of his day.


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