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This is my fault: as for the rest appeald,

K.Rich. We were not born to sue, but to comIt issues from the rancour of a villain,

mand: A recreant and most degenerate traitor: Which since we cannot do to make you friends, Which in myself I boldly will defend;

Be ready, as your lives shall answer it, And interchangeably burl down my gage 5 At Coventry, upon St. Lambert's day; Upon this over-weeping traitor's foot,

There shall your swords and lances arbitrate To'prove myself a loyal gentleman

The swelling difference of your settled bate; Even in the best blood chamber'd in his bosom: Since we cannot atone you, you shall see In haste whereof, most heartily I pray

Justice decide the victor's chivalry.Your highness to assign our trial-day. [me; 10 Lord marshal, command our officers at arms

K. Rich. Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be ruld by Be ready to direct these home-alarıns. [Exeunt. Let's purge this choler without letting blood :

SCENE 11. This we prescribe, though no physician ;

The Duke of Lancaster's Palace. Deep malice makes too deep incision:

Enter Gaunt, und Dutchess of Gloster. Forget, forgive; conclude, and be agreed; 15 Gaunt. Alas! the part* I had in Gloster's blood Our doctors say, this is no time to bleed.

Doth more solicit me, than your exclaims, Good uncle, let this end where it begun;

To stir against the butchers of his lite.. We'll calm the duke of Norfolk, you your son. But, since correction lieth in those hands, Gaunt. To be a make-peace shall become my age:

Which made the fault that we cannot correct, Throw down, my son, the duke of Norfolk's gage. 20 Put we our quarrel to the will of heaven;

K. Rich. And, Norfolk, thrown down his. Who, when they see the hours ripe on earth, Gaunt. When, Harry? when ?

Will rain hot vengeance on oifenders' heads. Obedience bids, I should not bid again.

Dutch. Finds brotherhood in thee no sharper spurt K. Rich. Norfolk, throw down; we bid; there Hath love in thy old blood no living tire? is no boot'.

[foot : 25 Edward's seven sons, whereof thyself art one, Mowb. Myself, I throw, dread sovereign, at thy Were as seven phials of his sacred blood, My life thou shalt command, but not my shame: Or seven fair branches, springing from one root: The one, my duty owes; but my fair name, Some of those seven are dry'd by nature's course, (Despight of death, that lives upon my grave) Some of those branches by ihe destinies cut. To dark dishonour's use thou shalt not have. 30 But Thomas, my dear lord, my life, iny Gloster,— I am disgrac'd, impeach'd, and batlled? here; One phial full of Edward's sacred blood, Pierc'd to the soul with slander's venom'd spear; One tourishing branch of his inost royal root, The which no balm can cure, but his heart's blood Is crack'd, and all the precious liquor spilt; Which breath'd this poison.

Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all faded, K. Rich. Rage must be withstood :

35 By envy's hand, and inurder's bloody axe. Give me his gage:-lions make leopards tame. Ah, Gaunt! his blood was thine; that led, that Mowb. Yea, but not change their spots: take

womb, but my shame,

That metal, that self-mould, that fashion'd thee, And I resign my gage.

My dear dear lord, Made him a man; and though thou liv'st, and The purest treasure mortal times afford,


breath'st, Is-spotless reputation; that away,

Yet art thou slain in him: thou dost consent Men are but gilded loam, or painted clay. In some large measure to thy father's death, A jewel in a ten-times-barr'd-up chest

In that thou seest thy wretched brother die, Is-a bold spirit in a loyal breast.

Who was the model of thy father's life. Mine honour is my life; both grow in one; 45 Call it not patience, Gaunt, it is despair: Take honour from me, and my life is done : In suffering thus thy brother to be slaughter'd, Then, dear my liege, mine honour let me try; Thou shew'st the naked path-way to thy life, In that I live, and for that will I die.

Teaching stern murder how to butcher thee: K. Rich. Cousin, throw down your gage; do That which in mean men we entitle-patience, you begin.

501s pale cold cowardice in noble breasts. Boling. Oh, heaven defend my soul from such What shall I say? to safeguard thine own life, foul sin!

The best way is to venge my Gloster's death. Shall I seem crest-fallen in my father's sight? Gaunt. Heaven's is the quarrel; for heaven's Or with pale beggar face' impeach my height

substitute, Before this out-dar'd dastardi Ere my tongue 55 His deputy anointed in his sight, Shall wound mine honour with such feeble wrong, Hath caus'd his death: the which if wrongfully, Or sound so base a parle, my teeth shall tear Let heaven revenge; for I may never litt The slavish motive of recanting fear;

An angry arm against his minister. And spit it bleeding, in bis high disgrace,

Dutch. Where then, alas! may I complain myself? Where shanse doth harbour, even in Mowbray's 60 Gaunt. To heaven, the widow's champion and face. [Exit Gaunt.

defence. i.e. no advantage in delay or refusal. Baffled, in this, as has been noted in a former place, means, treated with the greatest ignominy imaginable. šie. with a tace of supplication. * i. e. my relation of consanguinity to Gloster.



Dutch. Why then, I will. Farewel, old Gaunt! And by the grace of God, and this mine arm, Thou go'st to Coventry, there to behold

To prove him, in defending of myself. Our cousin Hereford and feli Mowbray fight: A traitor to my God, my king, and me: 0, sit my husband's wrongs on Hereford's spear, And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven! That it may enter butcher Mowbray's breast! 5 Trumpets sound. Enter Boling broke, appellant, Or if misfortune miss the first career,

in armour. Be Mowbray's sins so heavy in his bosom,

K. Rich. Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms, That they niay break his foaming courser's back, Both who he is, and why he cometh hither And throw the rider headlong in the lists,

Thus plated in habiliments of war; A caitill recreant to my cousin Hereford ! 10 And formally according to our law Farewel, old Gaunt; thy sometiine brother's wife Depose him in the justice of his cause. With her companion grief must end her life. Mar. What is thy name? and wherefore com'st Gaunt. Sister, farewel: I must to Coventry :

thou hither, As much good stay with thee, as go with me! Beforeking Richard, in his royal lists ? [To Boline. Dutch. Yet one word more;-Grief boundeth 15 Against whom comest thouand what's thy quarrel? where it falls,

Speak like a true knight, so defend thee heaven! Not with the empty hollowness, but weight: Boling. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and I take my leave before I have begun;

Derby, For sorrow ends not, when it seemeth done. Aml; who ready here do stand in arms, Commend me to my brother, Edmund York. 20 To prove, by heaven's grace, and my body's valour, Lo, this is all:-Nay, yet depart not so;

In lists, on Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, Though this be all, do not so quickly go;

That he's a traitor, foul and dangerous, I'shall remember more. Bid him-Oh, what?- To God of heaven, king Richard, and to me; With all good speed at Plashy visit me.

And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven! Alack, and what shall good old York there see, 25 Mar. On pain of death, no person be so bold, But empty lodgings, and unfurnish'd walls, Or daring-bardy, as to touch the lists; Unpeopled oftices, untrodden stones?

Except the marshal, and such officers And what hear there for welcomie, but my groans: Appointed to direct these fair designs. Therefore commend me; let himn not come there, Boling. Lord marshal, let me kiss my soreTo seek out sorrow, that dwells every where: 30

reign's hand, Desolate, desolate, will I hence, and die, And bow my knee before his majesty: The last leave of thee takes my weeping eye. For Mowbray, and myself, are like two men

[Ereunt. That vow a long and weary pilgrimage;

Then let us take a ceremonious leave,
The Lists at Coventry.

35 And loving farewel, of our several friends. Enter the Lord Murshal and Aumerle.

Mar. The appellant in all duty greets your Mar. My lord Aumerle, isHarry Herefordarm’d:


(To K. Rich. Aum. Yea, at all points; and longs to enter in. And ctaves to kiss your hand, and take his leave. Mar. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold, K.Rich. We will descend and fold him in our Stays but the summons of the appellant’s trumpet. 40 Aum. Why then, the champions are prepar’d, Cousin o Hereford, as thy cause is right,

So be thy fortune in this royal fight! For nothing but his majesty's approach. [Flourish. Farewel, my blood; which it to-day thou shed, The trumpets sound, and the King enters with Lament we may, but not revenge thee deari.

Gaunt, Bushy, Bagot, and others: when they are 45 Boling. Oh, let no noble eye profane a tear set, enter the Duke of Norfolk in armour.

if I be gor'd with Mowbray's spear:
K.Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder champion As confident, as is the faulcon's flight
The cause of his arrival here in arms:

Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.-
Ask him his name; and orderly proceed My loving lord, I take my leave of you;-
To swear him in the justice of his cause. 500f you, my noble cousin, lord Aumerle ;-
Mar. In God's name, and the king's, say who Not sick, although I have to do with death ;
thou art,

[To Moribray. But lusty, young, and chearly drawing breath. -
And why thou com’st, thus knightly clad in arms; Lo, as at English feasts, so I regreet
Against what man thou com’st, and what thy quar- The daintiest last, to make the end most sweet:
Speak truly,on thy knighthood, and thy oath, (rel: 55 Oh thou, the earthly author of my blood,
And so defend thee heaven, and thy valour!

[To Gaunt. Mowb. My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke of Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate, Who hither come engaged by my oath, (Norfolk; Doth with a two-told vigour lift me up (Which heaven defend a knight should violate!) To reach at victory above my head, Both to defend my loyalty and truth,

60 Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers; To God, my king, and bis succeeding issue, And with thy blessings steel my lance's point, Against the duke of Hereford that appeals me; That it may enter Mowbray's waxen 'coat,

· Mr. Steevens observes on this passage, that “waren may mean either soft, and consequently penetrable, or fierible. The brigandines or coats of mail, then in use, were composed of small pieces of steel quilted over one another, and yet so flexible as to accommodate the dress they form to every motion of the body.”



and stay

For me,

And furbish new the name of John of Gaunt, And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect [swords; Even in the lusty 'haviour of his son.

Of civil wounds plouglı’d up with neighbours, Gaunt. Heaven in thy good cause make thee L’And for we think, the eagle-winged pride prosperous !

Of sky.aspiring and ambitious thoughts, Be swift like lightning in the execution; 5 Witni rival-hating envy, set you on And let thy blows, doubly redoubled,

To wake our peace, which in our country's cradle Fall like amazing thunder on the casque

Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep ;] Of thy adverse pernicious enemy:

Which so rouz'd up with boisterous untun'd drums, Rouze up thy youthful blood, be valiant and live. And harsh-resounding trumpets' dreadful bray, Boling. Mine innocency, and saint George to 10 And grating shock of wrathful iron arms, thrive!

Might from our quiet confines fright fair peace, Mowb. However heaven, or fortune, cast my

And make us wade even in our kindred's blood, lot,

[throne, Therefore, we banish you our territories. There lives, or dies, true to king Richard's You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death, A loyal, just, and upright gentleman:

15'Till twice five summers have enrich'd our fields, Never did captive with a freer heart

Shall not regreet our fair dominious,
Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace But tread the stranger paths of banishment.
His golden uncontrould enfranchisement,

Boling. Your will be done: This must my More than my dancing soul doth celebrate

comfort be,

[me; This feast of battle with nine adversary:- 20 That sun, that warms you here, shall shine on Most mighty liege,--and my companion peers, And those his golden beams, to you here lent, Take from my mouth the wish of happy years: Shall point on me, and gild my banishment. As gentle, and as jocund, as tojest',

K.Rich. Norfolk,forthee remainsa heavierdoom, Gol to fight; truth hath a quiet breast.

Which I with some unwillingness pronounce: K. Rich. Farewel, my lord: securely I espy 25 The tly-slow hours shall not determinate Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.- The dateless limit of thy dear exile;Order the trial, Marshal, and begin.

The hopeless word of -never to return,
Mar. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Breathe I against thee, upon pain of life.
Receive thy lance ; and heaven defend the right! Mozeb. A heavysentence,my most sovereignliege,

Boling. Strong as a towerin hope, I cry—Amen. 30 And all unlook'd for from your highness' mouth:
Mur. Go bear this lance to Thomas duke of A dearer merit“, not so deep a maim

[by, As to be cast forth in the common air, i Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Der- Have I deserved at your highness' hand. Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself, The language I have learn’d these forty years, On pain to be found false and recreant, (35 Mly native English, now I must forego: To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, And now my tongue's use is to me no more A traitor to his God, his king, and him,

Than an unstringed viol, or a harp;
And dares hiin to set forward to the tight.

Orlike a cunning instrument cas'd up,
2 Her. Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, dukeoil Or, being open, put into his hands
On pain to be found false and recreant, (Norfolk, 40 That knows no touch to tune the harmony.
Both to defend himself, and to approve

Within my mouth you have engaol'd my tongue,
Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Doubly portcullisd with my teeth and lips;
To God, his sovereign, and to hiin, disloyal ; And dull, unfeeling, barren ignorance
Courageously, and with a free desire,

Is made my gaoler to attend on me. Attendingbutthesignaltobegin.[Achargesounded 15 I am too old to fawn upon a nurse, Mar. Sound, trumpets; and set forward, com- Too far in years to be a pupil now; batants.

What is thy sentence then, but speechless death, Stay, the king has thrown his warder down. Whichrobsmytonguefrom breathing nativebreath? K. Rich. Let them lay by their helmets, and Ki Rich. It boots thee not to be compassionate ;)

150 After our sentence, plaining comes too late. And both return back to their chairs again:

Mozub. Then thus I turume from my country's Withdraw with us;- and let the trumpets sound,

light, While we return these dukes what we decree.- To dwell in solemn shades of endless night.

[-4 long hourish; afier which, the king K. Rich. Returnagain, and takean oathwith thee. speuks to the combatants.

55 Lay on our royal sword your banish'd hands; Draw near,

wear by the duty that you owe to heaven, And list, what with our council we have done. (Our part therein we banish with yourselves) For that our kingdom's earth should not be soildl To keep the oath that we administer:With the dear blood which it bath fostered, You never shall (so help you truth and heaven!)

'Mr. Farmer remarks, that to jest sometimes signifies in old language to play a part in a mask. "A zarder appears to have been a kind of truncheon carried by the person who presided at these single combats. Mr. Pope restored these five verses from the first edition of 1598. Instead of inerit Dr. Johnson proposes to read, a dearer meed,” or reward-ave I deserved, &c. Compassionate for pluintire.



their spears,

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Embrace each other's love in banishment;

But you gave leave to my unwilling tongue, Norever look upon each other's face ;

Against iny will, to do myself this wrong: Norever write, regreet, nor reconcile

A partial siander- sought I to avoid, This lowering tempest of your home-bred hate; And in the sentence my own life destroy'd. [so; Nor nerer by advised purpose meet,

5 k. Rich. Cousili, farewel:-and, uncle, bid him To plot, contrive, or complot any ill,

six years we banish him, and he shall go. [Flourish. 'Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land.

[Erit. Boling. I swear.

Aum. Cousin, farewel: what presence must not Níord. And I, to keep all this.

From where you do remain, let papershow. I know, Boling. Vorsolk,- ---so far as to mine enemy?;-10 Alar. My lord, no leave take 1; for I will ride, By this time, had the king permitted us,

As far as land will let me, by your side. [words, One of our souls had wander'd in the air,

Guunt.Oh, to what purpose dost thou hoard thy Banish d this srail sepulchre of our tlesh,

That thou returu'st no greeting to thy friends ? As now our tiesh is banish'd from this land: Boling. I have too few to take my leave of you, Confess thy treasons, ere thou fly this realm ; 15 When the tongue's office should be prodigal Since thou hast far to go, bear not along

To breathe the abundant dolour of the heart. The clogging burthen of a guilty soul.

Giunt. Thy grief is but thy absence for a time. Alorb. No, Bolingbroke; ifever I were traitor, Boling: Joy absent, grief is present for that time. My name be blotted from the book of life,

Gaunt. What is six winters they are quicklygone. And I from heaven banish'd, as froin hience! 20 Boling: To men in joy; bui grief makes one But what thou art, heaven, thou, and I do know;

hour ten.

(sure. And all too soon, I fear, the king shall rue.- Gaunt. Call it a travel that thou tak'st for pleaFarewel, my liege:--Now no way can I stray; Boling. My heart will sigh, when I miscall it so, Save back to England, all the world's my way Which inds it an enforced pilgrimage.

[Erit.25 Gaunt. The sullen passage of thy weary steps K'. Rich. Uncle, even in the glasses of thine eyes Estiem a foil, wherein thou art to set I see thy grieved heart: thy sad aspect

The precious jewel of thy home-return. Hath from the number of his banish'd years Boling. Nay, rather everytedious stride Imake Pluck'd four away ;—Six frozen winters spent, Will but remember me, what a deal of world

[To Boling. 30 / wander from the jewels that I love. Return with welcome home from banishment. Must I not serve a long apprenticehood

Boling. How long a time lies in one little word! To foreign passages; and in the end,
Four lagging winters, and four wanton springs, Having my freedom, boast of nothing else,
End in a word: Such is the breath of kings. But that I was a journeyman to grief?

Grunt. I thank my liege, that in regard of me, 35 Gaunt. All places that the eye of heaven visit,
He shortens four
my son's exile :

Are to a wise man ports and happy havens : But little vantage shall I reap thereby ;

Teach thy necessity to reason thus; For, ere the six years that lie hath to spend, There is no virtue like necessity. Canchange theirmoons,and bringtheir times about, Think not, the king did banish thee; My oil-dry'd lamp, and time-bewasted light, 40 But thou the king: Woe doth the heavier sit, Shall be extinct with age, and endless night; Where it perceives it is but faintly borne. My inch of taper will be burnt and done, Go say-i sent thee forth to purchase honour, And blindfold death not let me see my soni.

And not-the king exild thee : or suppose, Ki Rich. Why, uncle, thou hast many years to live. Devouring pestilence hangs in our air, Gaunt. But nota minute,king, that thou can'stgive. 45 And thou art flying to a fresher clime. Shorten my days thou can'st with sollen sorrow, Look, what thy soul bulds dear, imagine it Andpluck nights from me, but not lenda morrow: Toliethat way thou go'st, not whence thou com'st: Thou can't help time to fiutow me with age, Suppose the singing birds, musicians; [strow'd; But stop no wrinkle in his pilgrimage;

The grass whereon thou tread'st, the presence Thy word is current with bim for my death; 150 The flowers, fair ladies; and thy steps, no more But, dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath. Than a delightful measure or a dance:

K. Rich. Thy son is banish’d upon good advice, For gnarling sorrow bath less power to bite Whereto thy tongue a party-verdict gave;

The man that mocks at it, and sets it light. Why at our justice seem'sttħouthentolour? (sour. Boling. Oh, who can hold a fire in his hand,

Gaunt. Thing, sweet to taste, prove in digestion 55 By thinking on the frosty Caucasus?
You urg'd me as a judge; but I bad rather, Orcloy the hungry edge of appetite,
You would have bid me argue like a father:--- By bare imagination of a feast?
O, had it been a stranger, not my child,

Or wallow naked in December snow,
To smooth his fault I would have been more mild; By thinking on fantastic summer's heat?
Alas, I look’d, when some of you should say, 00 Oh, no! the apprehension of the good
I was too strict, to make inine own away; Gives but the greater feeling to the worse:

* Dr. Jolinson understands this passage thus : Norfolk, so far I have addressed myself to thee as to mine enemy, I now utter my last words with kindness and tenderness, confess thy treasons." *i. e. tie reproach of partiality.



years of

him so,

Fell sorrow's tooth doth never rankle more, How he did seem to dive into their hearts,
Than when it bites, but lanceth not the sore. With humble and familiar courtesy ;
Gaunt. Come, come, my son, I'll bring thee on What reverence he did throw away on slaves;
thy way:

Wooing poor craftsmen with the craft of siniles,
Had I thy youth and cause, I would not stay. 5 And patient underbearing of his fortune,
Boling. Then, England's ground, farewel; sweet As 'twere, to banish their effects with him.
soil, adieu ;

Off goes his bonnet to an oyster-wench; My mother and my nurse, that bears me yet! A brace of dray-men bid-God speed him well, Where-e'er I wander, boast of this I can,

And had thetribute of his supple knee, [friends;"Though banish'd, yet a true-born Englishman. 10 With "Thanks, my countrymen, my loving

[Exeunt. As were our England in reversion his,

And he our subjects' next degree in hope.
The Court.

Green. Well, he is gone; and with him go

these thoughts. Enter King Richard, and Bugot, &c. at one door, 15 Now for the rebels, which stand out in Ireland;-and the Lord Aumerle at the other.

Expedient manage must be made, my liege; K. Rich. We did ob erve.-Cousin Aumerle, Ere further leisure yield them further means, How far brought you high Hereford on his way? For their advantage, and your highness' loss. Aum. I brought high Hereford, if you call K. Rich. We will ourseli in person to this war.

20 And, for our coffers—with too great a court, But to the next high-way, and there I left him. And liberal largess—are grown somewhat light, K. Rich. And say, what store of parting tears We are enforc'd to farm our royal realm ; were shed

(wind, The revenue whereof shall furnish us Aum. ’Faith, none by me: except the north-east For our affairs in hand: If that come short, Which then blew bitterly against our faces, 25 Our substitutes at home shall have blank charters; Awah'd the sleepy rheum ; and so, by chance, Whereto, when they shall know what men are Did grace our hollow parting with a tear.

rich, K. Rich. What said our cousin, when you They shall subscribe them for large sums of gold, parted with himn?

And send them after to supply our wants; Aum. Farewel :

30 For we will make for Ireland presently. And for my heart disdained that my tongue

Enter Bushy.
Should so prophare the word, that taught me craft
To counterfeit oppression of such grief,

K. Rich. Bushy, what news?

[lord; That word seem'd buried in my sorrow's grave. Bushy. Old John of Gaunt is grievous sick, my Marry, would the word farewel have lengthen’d 35 Suddenly taken; and hath sent post-haste, hours,

To intreat your majesty to visit him. And added years to his short banishment,

K. Rich. Where lies he? He should have had a volume of farewels;

Bush". At Ely-house.

[iind, But since it would not, he had none of me.

K. Rich. Now put it, heaven, in his physician's K. Rich. He is our cousin, cousin; but 'tis 40 To help him to his grave immediately! doubt,

The lining of his cotters shall make coats When time shall call him home from banishment, To deck our soldiers for these Irish wars. Whether our kinsman come to see his friends. Come, gentlemen, let's all go visit him: Ourselt, and Bushy, Bagot here, and Green, Pray heaven, we may make haste, and come too Observ'd his courtship to the common people: 1451





Gaunt. WILL


Gaunt. Oh, but they say the tongues of dying

Inforce attention, like deep harmony:
A room Elij-house.

55 Where words are scarce they are seldom spent in Gaunt brought in sick: with the Duke of York.

vain ; ILL the king come? that I may For they breathe truth, that breathe their words in breathe my last

He, that no more must say, is listen’d more [pain. In wholesome counsel to his unstay'd youth. Than they whom youth and ease have taught to York. Vex not yourself, nor strive not with 60 glose;

[fore: your breath;

More are men's ends mark'd, than their lives bem For all in vain comes counsel to his ear.

The setting sun, and music at the close,
I. e. erpeditious.
Ee 2


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