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ter, but as it gives cattle, feeding at tity of dung greatly increased, when their ease, greatly the advantage over well fed and littered with straw, comthose driven about by a herd. The old pared to their situation formerly, when practice of leaving out the land that they had nothing to eat but straw, and was intended to rest, without sowing not a stalk to lie on. grafs seeds, is almost given up. Some It is remarked, that the pasture grass lay down what is intended to be pastur- in this county, in general, is kept shorted, very properly, before it is too much er than in most others; a lots so obviexhausted, and low such grafs seeds as ous, that it is surprising it should be peris calculated for procuring a close sward; fevered in. Three sheep or cattle well bui for the greatest part, they are re- fed, will yield more profit than five half luctant to lay land down for pasture to fed, and the uneaten grass never lost. reit, until it has been rather severely Where lands depend on pasture, for cropt, and, in the western part of this producing crops of corn, over-cropping county, little else is fown but rye grass ought never to take place, and more atwith a view to thrash for feed. A fe- tention ought to be paid for procuring a vere mode of cropping, as all is carried good sward, than for raising a crop of off the ground in the end. Pasture hay. Plenty of white clover and rib ground, left in this state, must continue grass is found to be the most effectual long to be much the better of lying lcy. for that purpose. Too much red clover How Dowly is it enriched by all the is apt to destroy other seeds ; and yelcattle it feeds, and if it be a heavy thin low clover is not much to be 'depended foil, it derives as little benefit from the on, thriving only in fome grounds, and atmosphere. With a close sward of even in these appearing one year, but grass, the ground not only grows faster not another, and, in this county, rerich, from the greater quantity of paf- maining permanent only in particular ture it yields, and the manure it conse- foils. Free gravelly foils are those where quently receives, but by being rich, and it continues longelt, por is cattle fond close in the sward, the soil is prepared of it. to receive and absorb a great part of There is ancther situation of arable those rains that otherwise would run land in the higher parts of this county, off, and carry away useful substances that differs a good deal from the formore than they bring.

mer, confifting of a small part called A great many turnips are now raised, Croft, that, for time immemorial, has and good crops to be feer, fed off in had laid on it all the dung made on the various ways , sometimes with theep, but farm; and the remainder, Outfield, chief mostly with black cattle, for obtaining ly plain grounds, the most of which have the command of a greater increase of been ploughed. Great part of these, 30 manure, and not a few, are consumed by or 40 years ago, were all covered with milk cows, and they are a great acqui- heath, or a coarse grass, that afforded Tirion for that purpose: dairies, upon a little pasture. When first limed and pretty large scale, have of late been a- broke up, this foil often produced good dopted by several, with what success I crops of oats for a few years, but in gecannot say ; but as an appendage to a neral was kept in tillage, while it yieldfarnı, as far as my observation and ex-ed what was worth the fowing fór ; perience has

gone, a few milk cows, and though no grass feeds were fown, well attended to have always proved as indeed it could have been of no feradvantageous. The acquisition now, of vice, the fward was somewhat mended, having green meat through the winter but still coarse, thin, and of little real and Spring, for milk cows and young value. In many instances they have Itocks, muA be great, as ihus they may undergone a second, fome a third and be made of double value, and the quan- fourth breaking up, but the oftener, the

produce produce becomes the less, except where will answer, and with these to keep on, folded. A second liming has feldom for two or three months, the few halfany effect. By all this additional cul. fed cattle they are accustomed to fell off tivation, without manure, the ground in autumn, the farm cows and young is only more exhausted, and when left stock, would all be of double value. again in grass, the sward is nothing If fed plentifully through the winter mended.

and spring, compared with what they A good deal of these fields are now are, when getting nothing but a little inclosed, and some of them derive great straw through the night, and chill'd advantage from being so ; but in many through the day, in cold and rainy instances, little benefit is reapt but the weather, picking a scanty fublítence, an trilling ihelter that is obtained from illo increase of manure: would be got of thriven hedges ; it being impoflible, on course ; and where these green crops fome of these grounds, to rear them to grew, to sow in with the first


of bé proper fences, besides not having corn, 6 lb. of white clover, and the water for the stock to drink. There same quantity of rib grass with rye grass, are hundreds of acres in the high parts a little red clover, and taking never of the county, without a drop of water more than one crop of hay, double the for months.

pasture will thus be produced, than if Shelter, in these extensive open no other seeds were lowo but rye grass grounds, would be of the utmost im- and clover, and the ground, of course, portance ; and though hedges cannot will be fooner fit for breaking up, and be raised to answer that end, Itripes of will produce every crop more abundantplanting, in cross directions, might; ly: and when part of the outfield is as trees are to be found growing much broken up, after folding or liming, in higher than many of these grounds, and place of doing so with detached fields, there are many instances of various kinds or parts of a field, and cropping the of trees thriving where thoins do not. ground till quite exhausted, would it

There is little prospect, that any con- not be much better to fold or lime a fiderable

part of those lands, can soon part nearest the infield, and after the be made to produce a better fward of first crop to prepare the ground and low grass ; yet great part of them, in time, turnips ? If a little dung could be spare furely might. The heaviness and wet- ed, it would be of great importance, ness of the soil, the want of manure, not only for encreasing the quantity of (haring little more than is sufficient for grass, but for improving the quality; the old croft-land, and lime being found as every effort ought to be made that to operate very poorly, in most places, tends to procure an encrease of that vawhich repeated,) the lateness of the luable article. Compost dunghills should barse, and early winters, which make be made, where stuff can bę got for the access 10 winter crops very difficult, the purpose, and as little of the urine are all against winter feeding being car- of the cattle loft as poffible ; and tho’ ried to the same extent, as where land dung will not bear the expence of being lies iņ a better climate, and is of a dry- carried to the distance of eight, nine, er and freer nature. Yet there cannot or ten miles, horn shavings and woolen be the smallest doub!, but that some. rags will. By attention to procure what thing more might be done than is. In is to be got of these, with a proper applace of laying all the dung on the bar- plication of the urine, either in compost ley crops, and liti': {pots of wheat, dunghills, or otherwise, a part of these were it to be made use of for raising unproductive lands might be prepared green crops, that admit of the ground' for growing turnips, and after wards bring thoroughly wrought, as turnips, laid down with white clover, rib aod green kail, and yams, where the soil rye grass feeds, not to be cut nor sufthere are many


fered to be potched the first year, that kind are to be found equally good thrivwould ever after have a {ward of grass ers with the others. To ascertain this very different from what it was, and point, is an object worthy of the attencontinue to be good pasture-ground, tion of the British Wool Society. A

The sheep walks, in this county, {mall heathy hill farm, for the purpose, vary as much as the arable lands. Some could not incur great expence. are connected with arable land ; upon How inclosing is to affect population, some of which turnips arę raised for depends upon the use that is made of feeding the Meep, but not yet to great the lands afterwards. If, in a proper extent ; few hitherto have been fattened manner, inclosing and pasturing is made off turnip fields in this county, though subservient to tillage, more coro will be

farms well-suited to the raised than would have been otherwise ; raising of turnips, where large flocks of and of course inclosures are favourable Aheep are kept ; those at a distance have to population. But if, after inclosing, not yet extended much iqto the practice, the ground is all laid into grass, and and those who have sheep walks near kept for grazing, such a system must una Edinburgh, find from thence a better avoidably depopulate. One farmer, with market, reserving, in general, only a a herd or two, can make all that is to few for the spring, which, with the be made of a possession, that occupied fown grass, feed off the early lambs; the attention of two or three farmers, and if the grass is not kept too bare, many labouring servants, and their fathe crop of hay is not much hurt. milies, and perhaps a carpenter or wright,

There are many sheep walks that con- a smith, besides haymakers, reapers, and Gift chiefly of hills and muirs, where all the various sorts of tradesmen and there is little arable, in proportion to others to whom they gave employment. the large flocks that are kept, and where The effects of the little additional all the turnip that could be raised, would employment given during the time of avail but little, Great part of these inclosing, dressing the ground, and laygrounds produce heath, and a long ben- ing it down with grass feeds, are foon ty grass, that support the locks through- over, and in a few years, extensive out the winter season; which, on these fields, that gave occupation and food to grounds, are all of the black fac’d, numbers, appear almost uninhabited. coarse wool'd kind; and whether the Light will this country be in the scale Cheviot breed would thrive there as of nations, if our lands come to be chiefwell, has never been fairly tried : but ly occupied by shepherds, and if our mathat the breed of these grounds might nufacturers have to depend upon a fobe improved by a little more attention, reign land for the bread they are to eat, is obvious, from the herd's flock always and on their own population alone, for being superior to the master's ; amongst a supply of hands to carry on their busome of whom, and on pretty high fuels. grounds, cruffes with the white faced


FROM THE GERMAN OF M. J. J. HEMMER. SOME of the experiments on this When a wax candle, about nine lines subject are so easy, and at the same time in diameter, has been burning for fome fo curious, that we are persuaded a time, it any particles of the charred great number of our readers will amuse wick fall into the melted wax, they themselves by repeating them. M. Hem- may be observed to haltea rapidly tomer had observed the appearances here ward the fame, into which they almost described as early as 1776, and he pub- rise, and then move in a contr ry die tihed a short notice of them is 17786 rection with equal speed, as far as the Vol. LVIII.


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margin of the candle; from which they little, bit of chalk near the flame from a return to the flame, and continue these wire attached by a silk ftring to the motions till they are either burned or arm of a stand, the same attraction and run off along with the melted wax. -repulfion was observed by M. Hemmer. These oscillations are very beautifully These bodies sometimes only approachseen, if a little powdered charcoal be ed the flame, and at others they rushed -strewed upon the melted waxa tallow fairly into it; they even paffed through candle does not shew them fo well. If it, and were repelled on the opposite there be an oblong particle among 'the side to the distance of several lines : in rest, it will approach the flame by its this case, they did not traverse the boend, never by its fide ; and such par- dy of the flame to regain their former ticles present their ends, in some cir. station, but coasted it at a small distance cumstances, alternately, and of course in a circle Our author found, by the turn perpetually round on their journey application of M. Volta's condenser, to and fro. Even when the melted and M. Saussure's electrometer, that wax has a convex form, the particles the electricity of Name is always negamove up the hill both to and from the tive; and this he imputes to the evapofiame ; and, when the wax runs off, ration and production of elastic fluids. they will often move from the margin In all processes of this kind, negative toward the wick against the stream, be- electricity is produced, according to M. fore they run down the candle. It is Heminer. He remarks that, in two not uncommon to see particles fix them- experiments, M. Lavoisier and M. De selves to the wick after a number of La Place found the vapour of water oscillations; and the same thing takes positively electrified: but he afferts, that place in electrical experiments with they were deceived by the condenser. light bodies, when they have projec. Dr Priestley, too, when he could difting points, which throw off the elec- cover no electricity produced by, effertricity on one side, as fast as they re- vefing mixtures, was unprovided with cei on the other.

an electrometer fufficiently sensible. By fufpending a bit of tinsel, and a

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An Apology for the Bible; in a series of to pass immediately to a serious and

Letters addressed to Thomas Paine, critical examination of the sacred wriAuthor of a book entitled the Age of tings; for his objections being fairly Reafon, Part the Second, being an proved to originate in ignorance and Investigation of True and of Fabulous mifapprehension, the pertness and selfTheology. By R. Watson, D. D. F. fufficiency with which he has offered R. S. Lord Bishop of Landaff, and Re- them, recoil on himself and augment his gius Professor of Divinity in the Uni- disgrace. It is in this way that the Biversity of Cambridge. 12mo. 48. sew. shop of Landaff combats this modern ed. Evans. There is a coarse copy champion of Infidelity. His Apology sold in Edinburgh at 9d.

forms a valuable work on the authenti. MR Paine having perused the Scriptures city of the Bible, and ought to be read of the Old and New Tettament, has con- by all. It proves what the right reveceived various objections to them, and rend Author advances, that the really has expressed these with boldness, and of- learned are in no danger of being infecten with indecency. The conduct to be ted by the poison of infidelity; and it will pursued by the opponent of this popular no doubt confirm the wavering faith of writer was not to honour him by ex many. changing railing for railing, but by treat- Many instructive extracts might be ing with dignified contempt and christian made from this very valuable work, but self-command, his vanity and his levity,


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hope the following short extracts will in- tion of the laws of nature.--Differenc! duce such of our readers as have not seen in what ?-Not in the magnitude of the the book to read the whole. Mr Paine evil-not in the subjects of sufferance; confiders it an insurmountable moral not in the author of it-for my philosoobjection to the authenticity of the Scrip- phy, at least, "instructs me to believe, tures, that they describe the Ifraelites as that God not only primarily formed, but exterminating the Canaanites by the that he hath through all ages executed, express command of GodThis he af- the laws of nature; and that he will ferts is fufficient of itself to destroy the through all eternity adminifter them, for sacred authority of the Bible. Bishop the general happiness of his creatures, Watson thus replies to it: “ I am afto- whether we can, on every occasion, disnished that so acute a reasoner should cern that endi or not.' attempt to disparage the Bible, by bring- The Bishop finithes his examination of ing forward this exploded and frequent- that part of the Age of Reason which rely refuted objection of Morgan, Tindal, lates to the Old Teitament, in the foland Bolingbroke. You profess yourself lowing beautiful and mafterly manner : to be a deilt, and to believe that there is 6. You conclude your objections to a God, who created the universe, and the Old Testament in a triumphant style; established the laws of nature, by which an angry'opponent would say, in a style it is fustained in existence : You profess, of extreine arrogance, and lottish féifthat from the contemplation of the fufficiency.—" I have gone," you say, works of God you derive a knowledge “ through the Bible (miltaking here, as of his attributes; and you reject the Bibie in other places, the Old T.stament for because it ascribes to God things incon- the Bible) às a man would go through a hstent (as you suppose) with the attri- wood, with an axe on his shoulders, and butes which you have discovered to be fell trees; here they lie; and the priests, long to him ; in particular, you think it if they can, may replant them. They repugnant to his moral justice, that he may, perhaps, stick them in the ground, should doom to destruction the crying or but they will never grow."-And is it smiling infants of the Canaanites.--Why possible that you should think so highdo you not maintain it to be repugnant ly of your performance, as to believe, to his m'oral justice, that he should suf- that you have thereby demolished the fer crying or smiling infants to be fwal authority of a book, which Newton himlowed up by an earthquake, drowned self esteemed the most authentic of all by an inundation, consumed by a fire, histories; which, by its celestial light, starved by a famine, or destroyed by a illumines the darkeit ages of antiquity ; peftilence ? The Word of God is in per- which is the touchstone whereby we are fect harmony with his work; crying or enabled to distinguish between true and smiling infants are subjected to death in fabulous theology, between the God of both. We believe that the earth, at the Israel, holy, juft, and good, and the imexpress command of God, opened her pure rabble of heathen Baalim; which has mouth, and swallowed up Korah, Da- been thought, by competent judges, to than, and Abiram, with their

wives, their have afforded matter for the laws of Sosons, and their little ones. This you ef- lon, and a foundation for the philosophy teem so repugnant to God's moral jul- of Plato; which has been illustrated by tice, that you spurn, as (purious, the the labour of learning in all ages and book in which the circumstance is re- countries, and been admired and venea lated. When Catania, Lima, and Lif- rated for its piety, its fublimity, its vebon, were severally destroyed by earth- racity, by all who were able to read and quakes, men with their wives, their fons, understand it? No, fir; you have gone and their little ones; were swallowed up indeed through the wood, with the best alive :-why do you not spurn, as (pu- intention in the world to cut it down ; rious, the book of nature, in which this but you have merely bufied yourself in fact is certainly written, and from the exposing to yulgar contempt a few. unperufal of which you infer the moral fightly shrubs, which good men had justice of God! You will probably, re- wisely concealed from public view ; you ply, that the evils which the Canaanites have entangled yourself in twickets of fuffered from the express command of thorns and briars ; you have loft your God, were different from those which way on the mountains of Lebanon ; the are brought on mankind by the opera- goodly cedar trees whereof, lamenting

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