« ZurückWeiter »
grammatical education, nor time to stu. too apt to be regarded as a failing, by the rules of just composition, I ac- tended only to heighten the respect knowledge that I was afraid to put it to
in which he was constantly held. the press; and, for the same cause, I
In this history of Mr Ferguson's ought to have the same fears still. But having the pleasure to find that this my progress, we · may in some degree first work was not ill received, I was irace that capacity of communicaemboldened to go on, in publishing my tion, which forms so peculiar and Astronomy, Mechanical lectures, Tables valuable a feature in his intellectual and Tracts relative to several arts and cha acter. Having spent a long time sciences, the Young gentleman and la- in acquiring the elementary parts of dy's astronomy, a small Treatise on
these sciences, and having discovered electricity, and my Select Mechanical exercises.
many of them without any foreign In the year 1748, 1 ventured to read aid, he had these parts strongly imlectures on the eclipse of the sun that pressed on his mind.
From the full fell on the 14th of July in that year. experience which he had of the diffiAfterwards I began to read astronomi. culties that obstruct the first avenues cal lectures on an orrery which I made, of knowledge, he was both qualified and of which the bgures of all the and disposed to facilitate their enwheel-work are contained in the sixth and seventh plates of my Mechanical trance to others. More conversant exercises. I next began to make an ap- with things than with words, he had paratus for lectures on mechanics, and not learned to employ pompous gradually increased the apparatus for words without any determinate meanother parts of experimental philosophy, ing. All his works therefore have buying from others what I could not
had a wide circulation, and the premake for myself, till I brought it to its
sent we believe beyond any other ; present state, I then entirely left off drawing pictures, and employed myself which may be easily accounted for, in the much pleasanter business of read by the wide compass of information ing lectures on mechanics, hydrostatics, which the lectures contain. But tho' hydraulics, pneumatics, electricity, and they have passed through ten succesastronomy, in all which my encourage. sive editions, they have hitherto been ment has been greater than I could have always presented to the public in expected. P.li.
their original state, without any atHe concludes, (P. liii.)
fempt either to supply deficiencies, It is now thirty years since I came to or to enable them to keep pace with London ; and during all that time I the rapidly advancing progress of have met with the highest instances of scientific discovery. This task was friendship from all ranks of people both reserved for Mr Brewster, who has in town and country, which I do here
executed it with very great diligence acknowledge with the utmost respect and gratitude; and particularly the and success. The addition which his goodness of our present gracious Sove- notes have made to the original work reign, who, out of his privy purse, al. is not merely confined to the bringlows me fifty pounds a year, which is ing it down to the present time. regularly paid, without any deduction.
Ferguson's information seems derived By a short supplement which Mr chiefly from experiment and observaBrewster has added to this memoir, it tion, without any great knowledge appears that the author lived only of books. By an extensive acquainfour years after writing this account tance with the writings of others on of hiöself. His character is describ- the same subject, Mr Brewster has ed as religious, mild, worthy, almost been enabled to supply what was without a fault ; and even the won. wanting, as well as to correct some derful simplicity of his manners, errors into which he had fallen. А which in a state of artificial society is few perhaps might be pointed out as
unnecessary ; but these are rare in. epicyclods, geometrically, and the me. stances, and by far the greater num.
thod of drawing lines parallel to them-ber are curious and valuable.
On bevelled wheeis, and the method The appendix is of considerable
of giving an epicyciodal form to their
teeth on the formation of the teeth length, and is in some respects more of rack work, the wipers of stampers, important, even than the work to
&:0,-On the nature and construction which it is annexed. An absurd pre- cf windmills--Description of a wird. judice has long confined philosophy mill--On the form and position of io subjects of mere curiosity, and
windmill suils-To find the momen. which can be of no use for the pure
tum of fricion-To find the velocity
of the wind-On the etiect of windmil poses of common life. Even in these
sails-On horizontal windmills---On lectures a comparatively small por
the nature of friction, and the method zion is devoted to subjects of this of ciminishing its effects in machinery kind. Indeed it must be owned that -On the nature and operation of fly the French have here been more in. wheels---On wheel carriages-On the dustrious than us ; thur greatest phi
formation of carriage wheels--On the losophers have sedulously ernployed
position of the wheels--On the line of
traction, and the method by which horthemselves in rendering their know.
ses exert their strength-On the posiI uge subservient to useful purposes.
tion of the centre of gravity, and the From these and other sources, Mr
* manner of disposing the load--On the Brewster has given a full description thrashing machine --On thrashing maof the best mode of constructing the chines driven by water-On thrashing inachinery used by the husbandman, machines driven by horses on the she manufacturer, and the merchant. power of thrashing machines-On' the
construction and effect of machines The best mode of giving an idea of
Description of a simple and powerful the variety of information contained
Capstane--A mechanical method of in this part of the work, will be by
finding the centre of gravity. che following abstract of its contents.
On the steam engine--On the power of On the construction of undershot water
steam engines, and the method of com
putingit--Description of a water blowwheels för turning machinery--On the construction of the mill course--O
ing machine. the water wheel and its float boards
Optics. On the spur wheel and trundle-On On achromatic telescopes--On achrothe formation, size, and volocity, of the
matic object glasses--On achromatic millstont--on the performance of un
eye-pieces-On tlie construction of dershot mills--On a new mill-wright's
optical instruments, with tables of table On horizontal mills-On dou- their apertures, &c. and the method of ble corn mills-On breast mills--Prac.
grirding the lenses and mirrors of tical remarks on the performance and
which they are composed--On the meconstruction of overshot water wheels thod of grinding and polishing lenses---On the method of computing the ef
On the method of grinding and polish, fective power of overshot wheels in
ing the mirrors of reflecting telescopes turning machinery--On the perfor.
--On the single microscope-On the mance of overshot and undershot
double microscope-On the refracting joills--On the formation of the buck. telescope-On the Gregorian telescope ets, and the proper velocity of overshot
On the Cassegrainian telescope-On wheels-- Account of an improvement
the Newtonian telescope-Description in four mills-On the forination of the of a new fluid microscope, invented by teeth of wheels and the leaves of pini.
the editor. ons--On the formation of epicycloids,
Dialing Inechanically, and on the disposition of Description of an analemmatic dial, the teeth on the wheel's circumference which sets itself-Description of a new ---- Ou the formation of cycloids, and dial, invented by Lambert.
Such being the case, we shall endeaOn the cause of the tides.
vour to contribute to its improveThe essay on the construction and ment, by pointing out such deficieneffect of machines was furnished to
cies as have occurred to us in the the author by his friend Mr Leslie, present edition, Beginning with now professor of Mathematics in the names which have been entirely on University of Edinburgh, a gentle. mitted, we find those of Darnley, man whose name must render any
husband to Q. Mary; the Earls of farther recommendation superfluous.
Mar (one of whom was for some time regent of the kingdom, and the other acted a conspicuous part in the
union of the kingdoms ;) De Poe, Biographia Scotica ; or a Scottish
an author universally known; Dr Biographical dictionary:. By J. Moore of Glasgow; Dr Macknight, Stark. 18mo. 55. Constable & Co.
author of Harmony, &c.; Dr Wil
son St Andrews, author of Hebrew THE title of this work will sufi Grammar, and Commentary on the its contents, which cannot fail to be they may be pardoned in considerahighly interesting to the Scottish
tion of the merit of the work, and public. The idea of a Biographia of its difficulties, are yet sufficiently Scytica seems first to have been con- important, to call forth the author's ceived by Lord Hailes, and he actually published a few biographical vigilance in avoiding similar ones on
a future occasion. sketches as specimens. The pre
We would suggest the following sent, however, is the first time that any complete attempt has been made treated of : Barbour, Melvil, Black
names as deserving to be more fully to supply this important desideratum lock, Maciaurin, and Gerard. Smolin Scottish literature. Considering let, on the other hand, seems extendthe vast extent of this subject, and ed to a disproportionate length. the great variety of sources from
In the lives of noblemen, the marwhich its materials must be drawn, rative is given under the name rather it vould be uncandid to expect that
than the title. This we do not obit should be produced at once in a state of perfection. We can say, which they are chiefly known, there
ject to; but as it is the latter by however, that it discovers marks of
ought certainly to be a reference great industry, and is very creditable from the one to the other. We do to its author, especially as we under. stand it was composed under such Murray, Morton, and Bothwell
not readily look for the lives of unfavourable circumstances, as der the heads of Stewart, Douglas, quired great assiduity and activity of
As a specimen of the author's merely thrown out with a view of style, we shall insert a life of an infeeling the pulse of the public, and genious friend of his own, which that should he meet with encourage
will of itself form an interesting bioment, he intends to undertake a fu. graphical article. ture edition, on a more extended
RICHARD Gall, a Scottish poet of scale. We are glad to understand
considerable talents, was born at Linkthat its reception has been sufficient
house, near Dunbar, in December 1776. ly favourable to encourage the au- At an early age he was sent to the school ihor to proceed in this inteution. at Haddington, where he acquired a pro
ficiency in English grammar, writing, ful effort in this department of poetry, and arithmetic. When he had attained those published of Mr. Gali's songs, the age of cleven or twelve years, he have obtained a share of popularity, was put under the care of a reiation, io scarcely inferior to the best songs of learn the trade of a house carpenter. that admirable writer. One of Mr. Gall's This occupation not suiting the genius songs, in particular, the original manuof young Gall, he soon left it, and went script of which I have by me, has acto a respectable builder and architect, quired a high degree of praise, from us to acquire the practical part of his pro- having been printed amongst the works fession. Here, however, hie did not of Burns, and generally thought the long continue. Disliking this as much production of that poet. The reverse, as the former occupation, he resolved to indeed, was only known to a few of Mr. leave it; and in consequence of this Gall's friends, to whom he communi. determination left Haddington, where cated the verses before they were pube he then was, and waiked on foot to lislied. The fame of Burns' stands in Edinburgh (a distance of sixteen miles), no need of the aid of others to support to which his father's family had some it; and to render back the song in questime before removed. In 1789 he was tion to its true author, is but an act of put apprentice to Mr. David Ramsay, distributive justice, due alike to both a respectable printer in Edinburgh. these departed poets, whose ears are This line of life being more congenial now equally insensible to the incense to the inclinations of Mr. Gall than any of flattery, or the slanders of maleof the others he had formerly made trial volence. At the time when the “ Scots of, he remained in that gentleman's ser- Poetical Museum" was published at Evice during the future period of his life. dinburgh by Mr. Johnston, several of While in this situation, he made consider- Burns's songs made their appearance able progress in several branches of learn- in that publication. Mr. Gall wrote ing, under a private teacher, retained in the following sung, intituled a " Farehis father's family, with whom he spent, weel to Ayrshire;" prefixed Burns's in receiving instruction, those hours name to it, and sent it anonymously to that were not necessarily employed in the publisher of that work. From the duties of his avocation. For literary thence it has been copied into the latter studies he early felt a propensity, which editions of the works of Burns. In pubthe occupation he had chosen could not lishing the song in this manner, Mr Gall fail to encourage.
Scottish poetry, in brobably thought that it might, under particular, attracted his distinguished the sanction of a name, known to the notice ; and the “ Gentle Shepherd” of world, acquire that notice, which, in Allan Ramsay, awakened the latent other circumstances, might have made seeds of poetry in his own breast, and its fate to be to waste its sweetness prompted him to sing his “ wood notes in the desert air." wild ” with emulating ardour. Of the poetry of Burns he was an ardent ad. FAREWEEL TO AYRSHIRE. mirer; and during the latter part of the life of that unfortunate poet, Mr.
Scenes of woe and scenes of pleasure !
Scenes that former thoughts renew; Gall enjoyed his friendship and corre
Scenes of woe and scenes of pleasure, spondence. With Mr. Hector Macniel,
Now a sad and last adieu. the ingenious author of “Willand Jean," and other pieces of high literary char. Bonny Doun, sae sweet at gloaming,
Fare thee well before I acter, the merit of Mt. Gall soon led
gang: to a kindred friendship, and admiration Bonny Doun, whar early roaming,
First I weav'd the rustic sang. of each others talents, which ended not but with the life of the latter. Of Mr. Bowers, adieu! where love decoying, Gall's pieces a jew detached songs on
First enthrall’d this heart o' mine; ly have been published; excepting an
There the saftest sweets enjoying, epistle to Mr. Hector Macneil, printed
Sweets that memory ne'er shall tine. in the works of that author. These songs, Friends so near my bosom ever, however, bear evidence of his abilities
Ye ha'e render'd moments dear ! as a poet; and at a time when those of But, alas! when forc'd to sever, Burns seemed to preclude any success- Then the stroke, O how severe !
Briends, that parting tear reserve it, be hoped the friends of the author will
Though 'tis doubly dear to me; soon see the propriety of giving them
to the public,
Scenes that for mer thoughts renew ; New Works published in Edinburghe
MEMORABILIA of Perth. 8vo.
ment of facts relative to tbe elec. to the Highland regiment of volun.
tion of Professor Leslie; with an teers, and stimulated the ardour of their patriotism by many elegant pro
Appendix, consisting chiefly.of Exductions. One of these was printed
tracts from the Records of the Uniat the public expence, and copies dis- versity, and from those of the city tributed to every individual in the re- of Edinburgh. 8vo. 19. giment. But while thus emerging in. A third letter to Principal Hill an to that notice which his merit entitled
the case of Mr Leslie, Professor of him to, and which his friends fondly looked upon as the prognostication of fu.
Mathematics in the University of ture eminence, his life was fast hastening A short criticism of the terms of the
Edinburgh, 8vo 28 6d. to a close. His poetical powers were just beginning to expand themselves, charge against Mr Leslie, in the and he had formed the plan of, and protest of the ministers of Edinpartly executed, several larger poems, burgh, as explained by them in when all his youthful hopes were blast
their last pamphlet. By Thomas ed, and the hopes of his country in him ruined for ever. About the beginning A letter to the Society for propa.
Brown M. D. 8vo. 1S. of the year 1801, an abscess broke out in his breast, which, in the space of a gating Christian Knowledge, res. few months, notwithstanding all that the pecting the late election of their most skilful in medicine could devise, Secretary. By the Rev. David Sa. brought him to his grave. During his vile. 8vo. Is. illness, bis favourite pursuit still occu- The Farmer's Magazine for 1805. pied his mind. “ He felt his ruling pas.
8vo, los. 6d. sion strong in death ;” and when unable from weakness to use a pen, committed Sermons by J. Halliday, M.D. 8vo. 6s. his thoughts to writing with a black. Observations on Mr Hume's doctrine lead pencil. Several of his pieces thus on the relation of Cause and Effect. written are still preserved. Mr Gall By Thomas Brown, M. D. Second died on the roth of May 1801, in the edition enlarged. 8vo. 58. asth year of his age. His companions Examination of Mr Stewart's pamphin arms, anxious to pay the last testimony of respect to his memory, followed
let. By one of the Ministers of hiin to the grave; and his remains were
Edinburgh, second edition, with an interred in the Calton burying ground Appendix. 8vo. 28. 6d. with military honours. Of all the writ, ings of Mr Gall the tendency is uniformly virtuous. But this is not their only merit. A rich vein of poetry pervades
Scottish Literary Intelligence them; the sentiments are striking; and the language simple and unaffected. I MR Stark, author of " Biographia have read his unpublished poems with
Scotica,' will publish, in a few a high degree of pleasure ; and it is to days,“ The Picture of Edinburgh ;"