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An Obseiver—The insertion of your letter would lead to no eood. Immediately a publication resorts to such tricks as giving away such things for nothing, you may conclude that it is gradually dying. We never knew a respectable journal to stoop to such practices, and we never knew a weak one to sain any eood by so doing.
Faii Plat.—We would gUdly accommodate you, but to give what you require would occupy too mueh space.
G. Giostir.—A short description of the '* Macclesfield" velocipede, appeared in No. 258, page 608, Vol. X.
Alfred Iiopps.—See present number of the English Ms
Harry It Bothers.—We occasionally, to oblige a correspondent, insert a query which savours of an advertisement: that ii no reason we should do it in all instances. The lets it is done, we admit, the better.
Thanks. David Harcourt and Co. thank W. R.Rose, of Haddinghauj, Suffolk, for his unsolicited recommendation of their brake chain. Messrs. Harcourt's letter will be found on page 47.
Vibrator.—The roll came by book post, but not the letter with the stamps.
E. A. Witty.—A recipe for welding cast steel was given by "Black Diamond," No. 238, page 113.
James Reeve.—Consult the back vols, of the ENOLisn MeChanic, or Mr. Ede's little book on the" Management of Steel," published by Twccdie, Strand.
Meteorologist.—We reply toyour query by another. How is it that if you evaporate a strong solution of salt and water, the salt remains?
Ignoramus.- Cannot say. Write the editor of the journal in which you saw the review . One of Francis* or 1 airbairn's presses would suit you. See our advertisement pages.
Erratum.—In letter on " Opaque Lanterns," in No. 260, page 650, by an error in the punctuation, the meaning is rendered very obscure. Thus, at line 15 it reads: "AH is the front of the lantern C D E G, the part to be attached at a point E, about 2Jin. from D. The right-hand corner is cut off," fee. ; should be, "A II is the front of the lantern, C D E G the part to be attached. At a point E, about 2|in. fiom D, the right-hand corner is cut off," &c.
W. H. P.—Instructions for re-gilding picture frames were given by several subscribers some weeks back.
A New Svbscbjbkr (Corahill).—A good list of varnishes appeared at the commencement of last volume. Your query about the lathe is obscurely worded.
Forward.—Jewellers' rouge is frequently prepared by precipitating sulphate of iron with potash, well working the yellow oxide, and calcining it until it acquires a scarlet colour.
Erratum.—In No. 260, Query No. 2116, in second line, for "200 falls " lead " 200 galls."
Spoiled Beauty. —From your handwriting we think you should have written to one of the many journals who profess to preside over the toilet. We cannot advise you. Your complaint is either an imaginary one, or needs at once the advice of a medical man skilled in the treatment of ik;u diseases.
F. J. T.—Nothing new.
Poor Billy.—Numerous "Selections from the Poets" are published by different booksellers, at all prices. Any bookseller will guide you to a selection. Brass tubing for telescopes of various dimensions maybe found advertised in our columns, among others by Mr. E. Tydeman, of 9, Mighell-street, Brighton.
E, H. Avis.—Give the information through our columns.
J. H. Rumsey.—Not in your neighbourhood.
E. Lethbeioge.— The fault is in your indistinct writing. Your second letter does not clearly give the name of the town you reside in.
J. W. K Asel —First question recently; the second we cannot insert.
G. W. Palmer.—Forwarded.
Casual Observer.—Box Tunnel, we think.
A. B. C—Ask any engraver.
J. Crompton.—Send it to the watch doctor.
A You No Enginrer— Inquire of a friend.
Shore Ditch.—The challenge made by Mr. John Hampden, of Swindon, was accepted by Mr. Alfred Wallace, F.R.G.S.; hut when it will be decided we cannot tell.
Lees.—No charge for inserting •' Queries."
A Well-wisuer.—We are somewhat surprised that you should recommend such a thing to the English MeChakic. It is only tottering publications that think of holding out such baits, as offering magnificent prizes to all their subscribers " for nothing." Strength stands erect; weakness is either cunning or crawling.
J. W.—Thanks. Next week. Try again.
A. G. Hoult.—Your letter came to hand.
W. Rice—You enclosed no stamps.
An Old Subscriber.—You cannot be, or you would have know, that the wheel question was discussed adnaaaeum, a few mouth* since.
Verbum Est Verbum, takes us to task for alluding to "Earth Closets," and "Ketchup made from Horses' Liver," in our pages1*1 Our opinion is that such things affect the health of the community, and ought to be talked about; and since they have been talked about and inquired into, the health of the public has improved. It is known to many that " ketchup" is made from horses' liver, and the sooner all know it the better. Is not " Yerbum est Verbum " more nice than wise? E. G. says, "I am heartily glad to welcome beck the ' Harmonious Blacksmith.' Hay his anvil ring loud and lonr!"
W.B.—We are not bound to answer every query. The obligation between the proprietor and reader is, or should be. mutual.
W. Webber says, " What an exquisitely happy illustration, that about the beautiful little girl selling bricks and the Temple of Knowledge 1 1 will endeavour to send you a brick now and then." Thanks.
Early Riser.—Had you consulted the last index, you might have saved yourself the labour of writing.
THE ENGLISH MECHANIC LIFE-BOAT
Subscriptions to be forwarded to the Editor, at 31, Tavis
tock-street, Covent-garden, W.C
Amount prevlnsly acknowledged ... £161 18 7
Marine .y 1 6
Brightonian „ M ... 1 0
*V. H. h., Bath ,M .„ „ .... 2 6
W. H. ... „ .., 110
G- Read ... „ ,„ ... 110
Cautioa ... ..■ — —■«** 0 6
Iff obedience to the raggSitl<~>n* of a number of readers, we hav rierlded on appropriating * portion «f our space to n enndensed lUt of patent* as nearly as possible up to the date of our Issue,
APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT DURING THE
749. W. Husband, Flftyle, atmospheric stamp* And hummers.
750. J. Felber, Manchester, machinery for manufacture of paper from wood.
751. H. Winstanlor and Barker. Manchester, excavating coal, 753. W. R. Pipe. Newc**tlo-on-Tvne. fire-arm*.
IML H. M*ntou*nd J. H Mole. Bir ningham, swivel*.
761- <;. Brown, Glasgow, velocipedes.
745. W. H. Samuel. Liverpool, friction lights.
756. R S. Prowse, Liverpool, hand truck*,
757. F. PntMson, blackening; (for foundry purposes). 75*. J. C. McLag an, London, sewing machine*.
759. J. C. At tin. Doelev, and Newbery, of Sheffield, furnaces.
760. C. Stockbrldge, Bishop's Stortford, collars and saddle* for harass.
"ill. J. C Ramsden, Bradford, loo mi.
762. J II. Johnson. 47, Llnoln'a-Inn field*, apparatus for governing speed of motive power enrines.—A communication.
763. P. il, Nicholas de Ferrari, Paris, hygienic and mechanicil hat
764. E. iMizdale and J. Dugdale, Blackburn, elslog machine*.
765. G. Jalte, Berlin, a tele;raphlcal apparatus " Jaite."
766. G. H H. Brock bank, Camden Town, Improvement* In upright pianoforte actions.
767. P. W. Spencer. Kayglll, York, gentleman, limekiln*.
766. J. Beckett and B. Levers, Wandsworth, an Improved buckle.
769. W. R. Newton, 66, Chancery lane; improvement* In maltkiln*.—A communication
770. W. D. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane, Improvements In gun carriage*.
771. R Lakln, of Messrs. Curtis, Parr, and Madoley, Manchester, Improvements In mules.
772. R Tonga, A mchester. Improvement* in loemi:
773. W. C. Mitchell, Belfast, certain Improvement* in books,
774. W. Morgan, 4, Jobn's-placo, Mltchain, preaerratlou of life from fire,
775. G. Hold*worth, Halifax, producing drawings or designs upon square* or ruled design paper, for manufacturing purpose*.
776. W, Ruinforth. Bray ford Head, Lincoln, rotary corn screens.
777. P. Murray engineer. Quebec, differential pulley block*. 77*. H. W. Hammood, Manchester, "helical" rereiver.—A communication.
779. J. C. Mcwburn, 172, Fleet-street, apparatus for raising and forcing fluids, and for cleaning auction strainers by iteam.—A communication.
780. J T. Walker, Albany, U.S., making horseshoe*.
781. W. R. Lake. Southampton Building;*, London, forming trenches or ditches.—A communication,
7*2. J. Human. SO, Coal Exchange, London, railway aad other waargon*.
763. J. Watkin*. Birmingham, improvement* in dies for metallic tunc*.
794, J. H. Johnson. 47, Lincoln'* Inn-fields, construction of rovl*.—A communication.
785. F. Virtue, Liverpool Oil Mill*. Liverpool, hydraulic pres*e*.
766. J. Monlfn. Boston, U.S., elastic roll* for clothes wringers
767. D. Spill, Hackney, crnpound* containing xyloidina,
768. G. Ruck, 28. Law ranee-lane, fire-lighter*.
769. T. Williams, 1, Brunswick-street, Hackney-road, sewing machine*.
790. J. Pinchbeck, 17, Leaden hall-street. London, water tube boiler*.
791. G. De Lavlgne, Paris, applying cork for protection from caloric.
792. W. E. 3edge, 11, Wellington-street, Strand, damping woven fabrics.
793. F. A, Barrow. Glasgow, recovering reagent* from olL
794. J. Walker. Glasgow, improvements in bottle*.
795. K. R Southby, Shott*. Lanark, distilling crude mineral oil*.
sinoograpMc, and other printing urease*.—A communication,
809, T. J. Smith, Robertson, Brooman, and Company, 166. Fleetstreet, apparatus for holding stamps for office and general use*.— A communication.
6*1. S. Perkins, Gorton. Improvements In steam boiler*.
80S, C. J anient, Paris, producing photographic picture* on fabrics.
903. R. Gird wood, Edinburgh, drosning stone.
604. W. West, Leeds, boilnrs and apparatus for generating stoam
805. C. Young. Hampatead, machinery for sawing wood.
806. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's Inn-field*, orlmplng machines —A communication.
607. t*. White, 68, Queen-street, Cheapslde, an Improved propeller. —A communication.
806. H. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane, Middlesex, aril Engineer, for an invention of limekilns.—A communication.
809 J. M. Napier, York-road, Lambeth, apparatus for running Or pouring metals,
810. Sir W. Fairbalra, Manchester, steam boilers.
MM. W. Woofe, Bedford, apparatus for guiding ploughs.
812. W. Friar, Woolwich, domestic fire-escape.
813. W. Austin, Hatton Garden, boxes and cases.
814. W. Guest, Groat Saffron-hill, Farrlngdon-road, ropes, CO rd* and wire ropes,
815. A M Strathorn, Coatbridge, apparatus for getting minerals, and for compressing air.
816. T. Keely. Nottingham,looped fabric*.
817. S. Norm, Paris, wood paring.
816. J. Hockey, 187, Carlton-road, Kllbum, ventilating lights.
831. W. R. Lake, Southampton Buildings, London, machinery for sewing boot* and shoes,—A communication.
822. B. Wade, Copley, signal* and brakes for railway*.
823. J. S. Stocks, B. Stock*, and S.Hutchinson, of Leod*, scouring and shaving hide*.
824. G. Weedon, Gracechnrch-street, knife-cleaning ma-'-'ne*.
825. G. Kent, 199, High Hoi bom, carving fork and knife sharpener.
8S6. C. J. II. Warden, Aldridge-road-villa*. Bayswater, *ecarlni doors of railway carriage*.
627. R. K. Fairlle, Victoria Chambers, Westminster, wheels for rail or tramway engines.
8*8. J.Stirling. Kilmarnock, railway brake*.
829. J. Ferris. Levton.lmp roved lubricating apparatus.
630. G. Barker and J. McFarlane, Glasgow, copying letters.
831, P. M. Walker, Ardrouan, shoeing horses.
832. J. Millar, Dairy, motor* for obtaining and transmitting motive power.
633. S. Brooke, Brlghonae, carding engines,
634. A. V. Newton, 06, Chancery-lane, manufacturing barrels. A communication.
835. J. Aacough, Hands worth, candle*. 636. G. Skey. Tamworth. gas purifier* and scrubbers. 837. W. B. Lake, Southampton buildings, London, wheels for railway engine*—A communication.
638. A. Barlow, Strand, jacqnard mechanism for weaving.
639. W. R. Lake, Southampton Buildings, London, mlcrometic steelyard.
PATENTS BEINO PROCEEDED WITH. 3216. P. and A. WaUEer, an improved gas meter. 8223. R. Jones, A paper holder. 3231. A. Kohlken, terriers or ground augers. 3233. E. Thomas, safety lamp?. S u>. W. bonbavand, balances.
3253. G. Simpson, withdrawing beverages from casks, 3261. B. Shaw, cutting soap.
3263. A.C. Braketl, obtaining and applying motive power.
4293. i>. Cherplt, heald* for looms.
3314. T. Marshall, composition f or prevention of foulimsr of »kJr* bf it torn*. *^
3317. E. Basin, spinning looms. 3331. G. Barea d'Adelsward. blast furnace*. 33U. C. D. Abel, utilising nroatna, Bpringa, lakes, pond* surface water* as motive pesrer.
33^9. M. Henry, moving railway carriages and other heavy bodtic from place te place.
3411. T. Brown, boring rocks.—A communication.
3(27, J. Bruuton, railway nic/naU.
3491. J. II. Johason. spring mattresses.—A communicatlosa.
3514. W. R. Lake, harness for draught animals.
3521. J. L. Booth, rails for railroad*.
3553. A. M. Clark, ornamenting figured muslin and gauze t —A communication.
3556, H. Byk, refining and bleaching aarafflne.
3583. W. E. Newton, folding printed sheet*.
3ii97. W. R Lake, manufacture of steel bar*.—A Cob
3716. C. H. Roeckner. disintegrating wood.
372*. A, M. Clark, curtains and blluds,
58. R. Morris, treating shoddy to obtain ammonia.
116, T. RetUll, breech-load lug arms and cartridge*.
151. T. Whitehead, wool combing and drawing machinery.
329. G. A. Buchholx, manufacturing semolina and fionr.
337. C. Lungley. constrnctlon of ships or vessel*.
354. R, Haworth loom* for wearing.
261. C. Mahler. Improved windmill.
371. A. B. Child*, cleaning, soaring, and decorticating wheat.
42.. J. Rotten tl, consuming smoke and economising fuel.
467. C. Bartholomew, getting coaL
492. E. Hill, engia* turning or engraving.
521. G. H. Ellis, washing, wringing, and mangling.
543. A. Dickson and T. Law, pressed leather
556. W. B, Leachman. hydraulic apparatus for raising wareT
568. P. J. Live*ley, manufacture of hair cloth,
576. R. J. West ley, billiard and other tables.
592. A, V. Newton, sewing machine*.
600. B. G. George, ornamental and other desirn* aad dericeaw
iV)2. W. and R. Ma«h#t. im;iror«inunt* in casting metal*.
611. G. H. Kills ladder*.
623. R. B. Boyman, propelling vessels.
665. E. Wood, and H. BoghiU. potter*' glases.
663. J. Poison, treating grain.
690. C. Wyndham, blcyele*.
744. W. It. Lake, apparatus for indicating a doficieocy of water la itteam boilers.
All p-rs .ns having an interest in opposing any one of such »u?lW oatlou eat liberty to leave particulars in writing of their objection, > such application at the office of the Commiaalenar* hexoxtt the HH of April, 1870.
2743 P. J. Kurtz, chaff cutter*
2744 J. Jacob), removing phosphates from ores
2757 W, R. Lake, sewing machine and other needle*
3761 W. J. Turner, manufacturer of bisulphite*
2780 G. A C. Bremme, untwisting and unlaying ahreads, varus* strands, rope*
2779 R. Oollls, velocipede*
2788 J. T. Kate and J. Hyma*. fire bars
S790 J. P. Turner, in buckles or fastening*
2*)l F. W. Fox and B. Walker, engine* and their boilers.
2618 CD. Abel, a new green colouring matter for dyeing ami printing
2821 A. V. Newton, horse-shoe nail*
2660 W. Rdmoa-on. machinery for etching
3874 G. Rose, construction of annealing pot*
2*16 W. E Newton, wheel for propelling ships
3142 J. Logan and W. Oardner, ornamenting textile fabric*
313.1 Q. Bertram, straining paper pulp
3538 C, Vavln, separating metal* and magnetic substances from other bodies
72 O. D. Abel, treatment of caat-frou for production of casting*
167 F. Whitfield, improvements fn locks
2'1 J. H. Johnson, applying anU-frictJon roller* to wheel*
261 W, IL Lake, mechsnUm for spinning wool
279 W. R. Lake, apparatoi for producing rotary motion
363 F. Claudot, treatment of cupreous ore* containing * ilver
1771 J. H. 8pence, disinfectant*
2773 J. Mackenzie, weighing machines
2776 J. E. Hewett, desirn* on metal surface*
2778 W. Strang, preparing warp* for the loom
2795 J. Stuart, treatment ef ore*
2606 Iv O'Brien, improved self-feeding, discharging, and register* ing beam balance
2620 J. Bullough. looms for weaving
2830 W. Walker, furnaces for steam boilers
2906 E. A. Poutlfex, refrigerators for cooling worts
2933 J. Chandler, drawing and presenting waste of water frota pipe*
2942 A. H. Brandon. Improved mean* of locomotion
3303 M. Sautter, Improved reloading cartridge iholl
3335 G. F. Cornelius, manufacture of paint and varalsh
8351 T. Altken, improveuiont in " washer cloth"*
3394 J. Dunkerley, mvchinery for 'planking" b>lie* of hat*, bonnets, or other covering* for the head
3476 A. R. Henderson, apparatus for shearing or clipping animal
3524 H. H. Murdoch, forming and joining ends of plpca
3540 J Child*, manufacture of bread and biscuits
3754 W. R. Lake, improvement* In aectioaai eteamboat*
121 W, SInton, improvements in churns
123 A. Courvolsler. Improvement* In double-facod watehes
141 T. Peard. for adjusting and securing knob* of locks
147 H. Haines, of lead-encased tin pipe*
256 A. W. G. Weeks, G. Deal, G. Lillywhlte, and A. O. Unaseri, of hot water boilers, joints, and valves
259 E. 8. Cathels, apparatus for manufacture of ^•P*T**^°JP"
pllcable for ventilating mines, promoting combustion, and ptuap-
PATENT ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £&• HAS
755 W. R. Lake, Improvement* in rotary engines and pump*
779 W. II. Parsons, Improvement* in sotting boiler* sad »*f*ty valves for tho same
663 E. K Bigelow, loom* for weaving
768 T. Shedden, fire-arm*
776 F, H. Wenham, heated air engine*
789 C Allhuwen, obtaining sulphur from pyrites
797 W. McAdam and S. Sohuman, protecting bottles
1027 W. Adair, pumps
774 J. Smith, cleaning waste and preventing adhesion of «dlment in steam boilers
803 J. V7. Yates, improvements in handles of spades
857 T. Pebardy, rtays or artificial supports
858 IL Faaamann, metal tics for eeourtng bale* of cotton
787 F. Gregory, Improvement* in machinery for refrigvratisir purpoiM 818 H. CHftoa, Improvement* In refrigerator* 822 J. A Llmbert, lowering, and moving heavy bodies 837 J. Lawson, spinning Max, tow. hemp, and other fibres 915 M. P. W. Bout ton, apparatus for receiving motion or essvfT from fluids and for imparting it to them 755 W R- Lake, improvement* in rotary engine* and pomps 842 'si. Wilde, electro-magnetic and magneto-electric indnctsoa machine*
1049 W. T.Henley, machinery for the manufact ire and treat-
PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £Tt*> HAS
719 W. Symington, apparatus for roasting and treating esSM and other organic aubstanc«s
717 G. De Loire, Improvements In the manufacture of brown colouring matters
712 A, Morel, apparatus for generating carbenk acid
jflKBOR OF SCIENCE AND ART. FETO AT, APRIL 8. 1870.
Fe; 11 trae that used for lead ¡ 12, salammoniac,
OS CHEMICAL SYMBOLS. Вт Geobok E. Datib. CHAPTER I. | У looking back to the days of the alchemists, when the great search for the philosopher's stone ni being made, among a confused heap of retorta, alembic», crucibles, and other pieces of laboratory apparatus used in early scientific research, may often be seen figured a chart, covered with mystic signa. These signs, which are seldom alluded to in modern chemistry, are, in fact, the forefathers of our present symbolic notation.. Our predecessors, with a view no doubt to keep their science to themselves, invented these mystic formula?, although we must allow them one point—viz, that it might have been for the purpose of abbreviation. The time for these mystic symbols has for ever gone, and the fa ct of their existence seems nearly to have gone too, no one expressing a wish that they should етег re: urn. Some of the forms are very peculiar, and are cha racterist ¡с of the age from which they sprang; others are extremely simple, consisting oofr of straight line or circles, though members of this latter class are but very few. Each compound had its respective symbol, as well as each metal, for in those days the metals were supposed to be composed of a calx with a subtle body which was termed phlogiston.
It is curious and exceedingly interesting to read of the experiments made by the alchemists in former days, to prove theories, incorrect, and the existence of substances which indeed had no existence; for instance, sulphur was supposed to be a compound, resulting from the combination of vitriolic acid and phlogiston. The great Stahl made an experiment to ascertain the quantities of each which entered into the composition of sulphur, and he found that there existed seven parts of acid to one of phlogiston. Stahl and ВоегЬаате considered phlogiston as s compound of elementary fire with a substance then unknown ; it was contained in the metals, in charcoal, spirits of wine, and in many other bodies it was considered the principle of inflammability, and was identical with the alcohol of Boerhaave. Phlogiston was considered to exist in nearly the pure state in sulphur, charcoal, and all inflammable bodies which barn w ithout depositing smoke. In order to determine the quantity of phlogiston which entered into the composition of sulphur, Stahl exposed liver of sulphur to a gentle heat, when he says the phlogiston was dissipated in vapours, and the alkali united with the vitriolic acid (sulphuric acid). The momenelature of the age was very bad, its modification was effected by Leroúrier who introduced the system ,which is still used; but as the reader's attention is drawn to symbols, we will net enter that subject. The woodcut in the next column will show some of the peculiarly shaped figures, which were used by the alchemists for the purpose of representing chemical compounds.
These are only a few from a large number of «rmbols, as the alchemists were not content, with symbols for compounds only, but they repMrmred all their apparatus by their means. Tters sie others which are decidedly more peculiar than tne SOOTe> but these will serve to give the reader a notion of the ancient symbols.
"No. 1 in the cut is the symbol which was used
to express vitriolic acid, now written H,S04 ; 2
is that for marine acid, now called hydrochloric
acid or hydrogen chloride, HCl; 3 woe the
symbol used for fixed alkali, as potassium
carbonate was then termed K,CO,; 4 is the
symbol used to signify alum, XU (80»)з; 5 was
Che symbol for antimony, Sb ; 6, Silver, now
written Ag; 7 was the symbol used for quick
Wtbe, now called calcium oxide, and written
UaO ; 8, arsenic, As is the present symbol; 9,
P*aab, now called potassium hydrate; 10, iron,
Before the time of Bergman, Kirwan, and Wenzel, the symbols used had no quantitative signification, and in fact, during their time the theory was not developed. About the year 1804, Dalton, of Manchester, gave forth to the world his celebrated atomic theory. Dalton's theory is too well known to require explanation, but it may be necessary to state that he proposed a series of formulée which differed greatly from that already in use. He proposed to use circles to represent the'atoms of the elements; the atom of hydrogen was represented by a dot in the centre, nitrogen a bar, sulphur a cross, while the atoms of the metals were represented by circles containing their initial letter, and compounds were represented by combining the various atoms.
The following are some specimens of Dalton's symbols, together with his mode of representing the structure of compounds :—
1 signifies hydrogen ; 2, oxygen ; 3, nitrogen; 4, carbon ; and 6, sulphur ; and the atoms, by combining together, formed salts, which were represented as below. Dalton considered water as composed of 1 atom of hydrogen and 1 of oxygen; sulphuric acid (as sulphur trioxide was then termed) of 3 of oxygen to 1 of sulphur, whilst carbonic acid (carbon dioxide) was composed of an atom of carbon enclosed between 2 atoms of oxygen.
This was a great improvement on the existing system ¡ but still it had its disadvantages; for instance, compounds containing a large number of atoms in the molecule occupied a great deal of space when formulated, but the symbol exhibited a definite weight, which fact alone was a decided improvement.
Dalton's symbols were employed to indicate what he termed an atom of an element, i.e., the weight which would unite with 1 atom of hydrogen weighing 1. He found that 7 parts ofoxygenunited with the 1 of hydrogen, therefore he took 7 as the atomic weight of oxygen j according to his
table of atomic weights, 100 parts of silver would unite with 7 of oxygen; therefore 100 would be the atomic weight of silver. These numbers, it will be seen, are inexact, but the study was then only in its infancy; 1 port of hydrogen unites with 8 of oxygen; and the quantity of silver required for those 8 parts of oxygen should be
Berzelius greatly improved the formulas of Dalton ; he introduced the system of using the initial letter of the element, giving up entirely the use of the circle ; Dalton's formules for carbonic acid, sulphuric acid, and water, would then become COj,SO , and -H-O. The system was accepted as an improvement, but Berzelius considered that hydrogen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, phosphorus, arsenic, and certain of the metals could not exist as a single atom, but existed in the form of double atoms, the symbols for which he wrote with a bar, being equivalent to two single atoms of hydrogen ¡ but he also made use of a further abbreviation; instead of writing so to signify oxygen, he added a dot to the symbol of the element which was united with it; therefore represented water, 8 was sulphuric acid, and С signified carbonic acid. The quantitative signification of the symbols of Berzelius, with one or two exceptions, are the same as those now in use, but his formula) did not exist for long; the double atoms were iasurmountable obstacles, and to the chemists of the time, the simple atomio formulai of Dalton was much preferable to the more complicated notions of Berzelius. Had he rejected the idea of double atoms, the system which was so much in accordance with the experiments of Gay Lussac, and the law of Ampère, might have been more generally adopted. After being in use for a period of about twenty years, it fell into disuse, atoms and double atoms being entirely superseded by equivalents. Water was written HO because 8 was the smallest proportion of oxygen that would enter into the composition of water by combining with 1 of hydrogen.
The reader will say, perhaps, when he knows that most of the atomic weights were fixed by Berzelius, How was it that the weights found by him, the products of a long life of study, were perverted, and the fruit of his labours used to perfect the views of others? This arose from the adoption of the double atoms, and caused other chemists to divide them or rather their numbers, and of course the numbers of the other atoms ,which entered into combination with them.
The different systems which have engaged attention, are, Dalton's system in which oxygen was taken as 7, and hydrogen 1 ; the number of the oxygen atom was corrected later by Wollaston and others; Berzelius's system, iu which oxygen was taken as the standard, and designated 100 the corresponding number for hydrogen being 6-24, but as he considered it as a double atom the number would be 12'48 ; a third system was Wollaston's, in which oxygen was taken as 10 and hydrogen as Г25, existing as a double atom; carbon and sulphur on this system would be 7-51 and 20 43 respectively. Some even proposed that oxygen should be re ga-ded as unity making the numbers one-tenth of Wollaston's equivalents, but chemists settled down to Dalton's views regarding hydrogen as unity on account of its simplicity and the low numbers with whichitdeals; Berzelius's numbers are objectionable on these grounds, that they iu voire so many figures, in calculation as well a in memory
The atomic weights, as we have seen before are, with one or two exceptions, identical with those of Berzelius, and the reader will no doubt ask why we have gone back to the views of that great chemist. Gerhardt in studying organic structure noticed that organic compounds when oxidised and entirely split up into carbon dioxide and water, yielded always two equivalents, the fact of one equivalent proceeding from an equivalent proceeding from an equivalent of an organic compound being positively unknown ; Ilia opinion was that as one equivalent of the organic body, gave, always, two equivalents of carbonic acid, it were better to regard the 12 parts of carbon which existed in the 44 parts of carbonic acid as 1 atom and not 2 equivalents, the atomic weights of carbon and oxygen would then become 12 and 16 respectively. These were the weigh's originally assigned to the aboveelements by Berzelius, but tho formula of this latter chemist was in many cases double that of Gcrhardt, thus the formulas for alcohol was Ci H„ Oi and was regarded as ■ compound of ether and water, and Berzelius's views on the constitution of nitric acid, were, that it contained the elements of anhydrous nitric acid and water in distinct parts of the molecule,
thus:—N,0( + HjO otSjt.im electro-positive and an electro-negative group. The opinions of Gorhardt received much attention, and the Modified system, which it is as well to add, is neither strictly, Berzelius's nor Gerhardt's, generally spoken of as the new notation, is now universally adopted, as it agrees with Gay Lueaae's law of volumes, Amperes law, and with Dulong and Petit's law of specific heatAmpere's law states that in equal volumes of gases under the same temperature and pressure exist an equal number of atoms, and likewise in equal volumes of the compound gases under similar circumstances exist an equal number of molecules; therefore, if 2 volumes of hydrogen unite with 1 volume of oxygen, it must be in proportion of 2 atoms to 1.
Dulong and Petit found that by multiplying tho specific heat of an element by its atomic weight, that a nearly constant number was obtained—namely, 6 5, and the atomic weights of the new system are in accordance with their experiments; thus the specific heat of mercury is 003247, and this multiplied by 200 (the atomic weight) gives G494, a number which nearly -nroaches the average 65. The specific heat of 3....r is 005701, and this multiplied by the atomic weight gives a result which is rather lower than the last, 0 00701 X 108 = G 157. All the solid elements conform to this law, with the exception of Beveral of the motalloids, carbon, silicium, &c. The graphite form of carbon, to conform to tho law, ought to possess an atomic weight of over 30.
The following table will show at a glanco the atomic weights corresponding to the different systems. The compounds introduced by Dalton lire intentionally omitted, as the reader well knows that in Dalton's time, the alkalies and the alkaline earths were supposed to be elements, but Lavoisier's theory of salts was that they were composed of an acid and a metallic oxide, therefore potash and soda were long suspected, and after the isolation of potassium by Davy, the metals of the alkaline earths 'were soou obtained.
Only a few instances are given, the whole number of the elements occupying too much space, and those elements which are marked with an asterisk indicate Berzelius's double atoms:—
terror for him. All imaginary terrors have been torn from them, thry are known to be "trifles light as air," the cause of their eccentric motion is no longer a secret, and the course they must pursue can be predicted. The genius of the physical astronomer is as strongly marked, and as much to be applauded for the triumphant and conclusive investigation of cometary phenomena, as in any other department of of astronomical science.
The true theory of cometary motion had its rise in Sir Isaac Newton, and the industry and intellect of successive astronomers have but confirmed his anticipations, and proved the truth of his predictions. Hardly second to Newton for his labours in this special field of astronomy, stands the illustrious Edmund Halley, the second Astro nomer Royal. To Newton must be granted the merit of a suggestive theory, to Halley the merit of working out the detail of the system, and bringing it to the test of observation: assuredly not the least of tho labours of Halley that has merited the gratitude and admiration of posterity, is Out in which he undertook to compute on :he hypothesis of Newton, the orbits of 24 emmets, which at that date was the entire numbsrthat had been reliably observed—a labour of which the present Astronomer Royal has remarked that, perhaps, no other astronomer at that time was capable of undertaking and leading to a succcasfol issue. The results of this enormous labour were formed into a table which was inserted in tho "AstronomiiE Coineticx Synopsis," and appeared in the volume of "Philosophical Transactions " for 1705. Halley there declares that his principal object was to give the means of determining whether any future comet moved in the path of any contained in his list, and with the same paper appeared his tabic of parabolic motion, "dedicated," as he says, "to posterity, and which will last as long as the science of astronomy shall exist."
The first to reap any benefit from his protracted labour was Halley himself, and he was the first to determine the major axia of the ellipse, in which a eomet moved. Iu his list of orbits, he detected three, whose elements appeared to agree suspiciously closely; those of the years 1531, 1G07, and 1682. The annexed table shows the elements of the oi its as computed by Halley.
In our next chapter we will consider the application of formula! to molecular grouping. (To Sr continued.)
HALLEY S COMET.
IN every age of tho world, and in every region of it, there has been noticed among the fixed and regular constellations, a class of phenomena that has arrested the waudering attention of th e uninterested spectator, as mnch by the brilliancy as by the irregularity of its appearance. To thi> phenomenon his been applied the term "comet" from tho Greek Kopmr, as the ancients imaginod a resemblance between the train of light that occasionally accompanies this phenomenon and dishevelled hnir. Iu days of superstition and astrology, the -ig.ht of a c:mict was sufficient to awaken u feeling of terror and a sense of coming evil, but to the astronomer of the present day,its. appearance excites a sen-aiion of triumph and of pudo. Howover terrific their uppenrance, however startling their brilliancy, they possess no
The general elements are prc'.ty closely analogous, hut there exists a considerable difference iu tho periodic time of revolution. The dates of perihelion passage are as follows :—August 24, 1531; October 16, 1U07; and September 4, 1682.
The interval between the two first is therefore 7G years 53 days, and between the second pair only 74 years 283 days, leaving a difference of fifteen months between the two consecutive times of revolution. But Halley was sufficiently acquainted with the general theory of perturbation, to know, or at least to surmise, that the influence of the planets might be such as to cause such a difference. He shrewdly remarked that the influence of Jupiter on Saturn was capable of varying its period 13 days, and that nnder certain circumstances this variation might amount to u month. Halley'a memorable prediction is contained in the following words: "Nothing seems to contradict this my opinion, except the inequality of the periodic revolutions, which inequality is not so great neither, as that it may not be owing to physical causes; for tho motion of Saturn is so disturbed by the rest of the planets, especially Jupiter, that the periodic time of that planet is uncertain for some whole days together. How much more, therefore, will a comet be subject to such like errors, which rises almost four times higher than Saturn, and whose velocity, th:>ugh increased hut a very little, would be sufficient to change its orbit from an elliptical to a parabolical one? This, moreover, confirms my opinion of its being the same comet that ir the year 145(1, in ihe summer time, was seen passing retrograde, betwten the earth and ihe -un, much alter the same manner; which,though nobody rondo observations upon it, yet, from itperiod and (he manner of its transit, 1 (tinuoi thiuk dilfeicut from those I have just now mentioned. Hence / dare venture to foretell that it
will return again in the year 1758." Continued researches and calculations confirmed H.dley in his supposition, and his tone grew proportionatelymore decided. No means then existed for computing the effect of the planetary perturbai ions, but he. sagaciously concluded from an exatninevtion of the general derangement from planetary perturbation, that the comet would be retarded in its next approach to perihelion, and that is consequence it would not be visible till the end of 1758 or the beginning of 1759. "Wherefore," says this illustrious astronomer, "if it should return agreeably to our prediction, impartial posterity will cot refuse to acknowledge that Hi is was first discovered by an Englishman." Nor has any ever ventured to attack the merit of the discovery, or attempt to detract from the glorythat is due to Dr. Halley for the perseverance displayed in grasping a subject which involved such an immense amount of calculation. He assures us that his labours were " prodigiously" long and troublesome, but they have shed immortal honour on the enterprising calculator, and his discovery forms an e)ioch, and not an unimportant one, in the history of astronomy.
As the time, when the next return of the comet was expected, approached, intense interest was awakened in the minds of astronomers, although the task of computing the exact date of return does not seem to have been willingly assumed by anyone, owing to the immense amount of labour it must necessarily entail. V, •:• have seen, that at the time of Halley's prediction, mathematical analysis was not sufficiently far advanced to enable anyone to compute the effect of planetary perturbation upon the comet, and in the middle of the eighteenth century imperfect methods rendered this a task of great difficulty.
The attempt, however, was made by Clairant, and it has fully deserved the applause it has received. To anyone not versed in calculations, (here may oot appear any difference in computing the perturbations of a planet and those of a comet, since both derive their derangement from the true ellipse described round the sun, from the same cause, and that the solution of the problem can be effected by expressing the effect of tho disturbing forces, by the variation of the arbitrary constants that enter into the formula: of elliptic motion. The differential variations of each of the elements of the orbit can bo determined bf this means, but in order to obtain the elements of the motion of tho comet in Us disturlied orbi', the integration of these formula: is necessary, and this integration involves an immense amount of difficulty and labour, of which we will say more hereafter. Kulcr, had not yet published hi4 general theory at the variation of elements, although it was written, and Lagrange's memoir on the same subject was not produced till Bonie years afterwards, Bo that Clairant was in posession only of the methods he had employed In his lunar theory. For the calculation therefore of the comet's pcrturhation, Clairant sets out with the same differential equation for the reciprocal of the radius vector, which till within a short time has been universally adopted in lunar theories. Taking the soluti n (which can be expressed by elliptic terms, and terms depending upon the disturbing force under one sign of integration), he rejects everything depending on the square of the disturbing force, nnd transforms the expressions into others in terms of the eccentric anomaly. He a so employs, for a time, the 6ame expression as that in his lnnar theory, transformed in a similar manner. * Notwithstanding, for a part of the orbit extending through 180v of eccentric anomaly, Clairaut was obliged to employ the method of quadratures. We do not propose to follow Clairaut throughout bis elaborate investigation ; the subject of cometary perturbation is a lcrtile one, and at no very distant epoch, with the permission of the Editor, may be treated separately.
The whole labour of this important investigation was borne by Clairaut, LaUnde, and a lady l>y the name of Madame Lepaute, who appears to have rendered very material assistance. Lalonde in hi3 "Theorie du Mouvement dea Oometes,"has given us a graphic account of tbe labour involved. "During six months," he remarks, "wo calculated Irom morning till night, sonn limes even at moals, the consequence of which was that I contracted an ilbeas, which changed mv constitution for the rema.mlc <if my life. The assistance rendered by Wndi mo
•"Monthly Notices of the Ko»al Astronomical Society," vol. 4.
I^pante was such, that without it we never would have dared to have undertaken this enormous !«bour, where it was necessary to calculate for every degree, and for 150 years, the distance and force of each of the two planets (Jupiter and Saturn) with respect to the Comet."
On the 14th of November, 1758, Clairaut announced to the French Academy of Sciences, the memorable conclusion that was the result of. such enormous labour. He declared that the effect of Jupiter, would be to delay the perihelion passage by the enormous amount of 518 days, and that S itnm would further cause it to be retarded by 100 days, the whole effect would be therefore about 20 months, and Clairaut fixed the perihelion passage, to take place on the 13th of April, 1759. Great curiosity prevailed as the time approached, and intense interest was excited in the hope of the verificatiou of the prediction. All doubt as to the identity of the comet with previous apparitions was removed, so far as the scientific world was concerned, but some approhensi m was felt lest circumstances should be unfavourable to a perception of the phenomenon. "We cannot doubt," observed Lalande, in 1757, "that it will return : and even if astronomers should not see it, they will not be the less persuaded of its return. They know that the faintness of its light, and its great distance, perhaps even bad weather, may keep it from our view, but the public will find it difficult to believe us ; they will put this discovery which has done s o much honour to modern philosophy, among the number of predictions made at hazard. We shall see dissertations spring up again in the colleges, contempt among the ignorant, terror among the people, and seventy-six years will elapse; before there will be another opportunity of removing all doubt."
Lalande's fears were not realised. On" Christ mas Day in the year 1758, a farmer and amateur astronomer, named Palitzch, living near Dresden, first perceived the comet in a telescope of eight feet focal length, aided by his powerful sight; It has been said that'Paliuxh perceived the comet with his naked eye; at n. time when it, was invisible to every Europreji astronomer; assisted by their telescopes, but the Barc»>de-2tieh hu corrected this error, and appears to have been personally acquainted with this diligent observer of the heavens. Palitzch saw the comet again on the 26th of December; and on the 28th of December it was detected by Dr. Hoffmann. Messier, "the comet ferret" as he has- been sfylee. had been looking out for the comet for ticn and a half years previously, instigated by Delisle, who was then the director of the Paris Observatory, but notwithstanding his long and diligent search he was one of the last to detect it, owing to the weather being unfavourable for observation. Messier detected the comet on the 21st of January in the following year, and observed it regular y for the next three weeks ensuing. Delisle would not allow Messier to give notice to the astronomer* of that city, that the long expected body was in sight, and he remained: the only observer before the comet was lost in the sun's rays. Such a discreditable and selfish can* eealment of an interesting discovery, is not'liliely to sully again the annals of astronomy. Some members of the French Academy looked upon Messier's observations, when published as forgeries but his name stood too high for such imputations to last Ions, and the positions were soon received as authentic, and have been of great service in correcting the orbit of the comet at the last return.'
A discussion of these observations would show that the perihelion passage took place on the 12th of March, just one month previous to the date fixed by CUirant, but we should have said that at the time Clairaut made his prediction to the French Academy, he pointed out, that, having been pressed for time he had neglected various small quantities, depending upon the perturbations of the Earth, Mars, &c, which might exercise an influence one way or the other, to the amount of a month, so that his prediction really was within the limit of time he had allowed him self, and if we consider that the received values of Jupiter and Saturn were very much in error, and that the existence of Uranus and Neptune was not even suspected, we must allow very great praise to the accuracy to which Clairaut was able to bring his investigation. Laplace has shown that if the mass of Saturn had been as well known to Clairaut, as it was in his time, the error
of time in the perihelion passage would not have amounted to more than thirteen, instead of thirty days.
THE EAB—ITS USES AND ABUSES
WB are all familiar with the fact- that'sound.
In molluscs, or the the mussel tribe, in annelids (leech tribe), and also in cephalopods (or the cuttle fish tribe) the granular vibratory bodies above spoken of are found. Insects, moreover, say" Carpenter, are capable of attracting each other by the noises they make, although the organs of hearing cannot be discovered, and the strong analogy of the case leads almost to certainty, although demonstration may be impossible. A special organ in spiders has not been discovered, but the story of the imprisoned c er quoted gives no doubt on that score. In man the organ of*hearing is amplified into a perfect car, and as
assiduous, at length entered the University, obtained his degree, ard became no longer the "idler about town," but one of God's ministers, and the deepest pang that good man ever felt was a retrospect of the misspent past. The pernicious example of such an idler is baneful to hundreds, his influence, like that of the good, is far and wide. Cao.you orl tell the good that a single number of the-BNOMSH Mechanic can accomplish.?—No! but. Itell you what we can do—our best to help, A. kind word or look may keep some one within the path of duty, and men will be forced to say, " Here is an influence at work that is not of earth, and there is a prospect at the end of the path giving us such light and comfort that our hearts are warmed, and open to the wayworn and toil crossed at our side." We think only of the help from hand to hand, and if the recipent is surprised that good comes without either motive or reward, he believes, that the way of the world is not so, and the gift is God-sent.
Now let us have a word or two about the abuses of the ear. Truly it has been a long-suffering organ. The armamentarium niedicum that old ladies had in reserve was fearful I Each possessed her peculiar "leperous distilmenr," which, producible at a moment's notice, led to the supposition that she carried hep medications in a girdle near of access. First is the armoury came a pewter syringe, large enough to shoot a fly, and which boys used to look upon as a special perquisite, a weapon of surprise for their sisters in every nook and corner. These spray producers did neither good nor harm, unless you pricked the unlucky wight in his ear-pastage with the point of the pewter and startled him into an attitude of combativeness. Worse, far worse, was in store for you if your ear ached. Laudanum, one of the least offensive of the compounds, hot oil and laudanum, oil of cloves, vinegar and cayenne pepper, cloves of garlic, and roasted onion, may be taken as
is apparently as far as ever from the solution • the ! oanA PossiD'ly for 9°la\ an<1 cnt by a "cunning
day may arrive when the Creator will permit I woman " in the "J^TM 1]«ht °f the young .. . . , , , . i moon, from the head of a two-year-old ram,
light to penetrate the mystery of brain action, I mid„ay "between the horn and the leg." Fairies and the convolutions of grey and white may un-| were perhaps invoked for its safe keeping, the fold.'their meaning, but the territory of mind and fortunate possessor withdrew it with an air of
• "Hind on Comets.'
matter as it exists in our bruin-case, seems to be beyond: man's reach; the one may he shattered, the other~spoiled, and we become mere examples of animal life, wrecked and helpless, on the nhoresofTime. AssJight blow, a terrible shock, may send the throweof man, his ever-busy brain, teoling inthe dust, and small may he the interval between the kingly state of a Nebuchadnezzar and the grovellingsof lowest life. Such is often, aye, I might' say an everyday result, of grasping and unsated ambition, or the reckless victim of gaiety, or the worse slave of lust, » whether of' tho world, the eye, the flesh, or the pride of life; powers sacrificed, alienation of useful faculties, talents thrown away, souls perilled, if not lost. These are the means and ways by which our lunatic asylums are filled —vessels, I might compare them to, freighted for the green hills far away, unsatisfied with the daily manna of a blessed contentment, fretting their lives against a cage of their own making, dying of unrest, deprived even of the stimulus of a purpose, they have their use, but it is as beacons to warn the thoughtful among the crowd not to speed, for the very life of them, after illusions and shadows that may be touched but never grasped. Why is it that so many fail in life? Because they are not in earnest. You rarely see a man with any measure of success who h is not made it for himself. I remember once meeting with a very excellent man, who, in early life, up to two or five-and-twenty, had been living a useless existence, "lying on his oars." He had the ability, as the result proved, but preferred to bury his talent in tho earth. A true friend one day accosted him and said, " How long are you going to continue this kind of existence, do you ever intend to be in earnest?" The young man felt the rebuke just ; and went home. He that day to k to his Latin grammar, became
solemnity, which seemed to say: You do not know its virtues—" leastways they were 'id," like the money of Teniieyson's Northern Farmer, whose scion committed the awful wrong of being "sweet upo' parson's lass." If you had the temerity to ask the sliecpish owner what the product was, there was such a hemming and hawing, proceeding the "Don'tknow" (which in plain unvarnished English was a lie) that the fool blushed to the eyes, and anywhere that blushes oould go. On another occasion y»« found some of your respected relations with their heads encased in a pillow-shaped concern, looking uncommonly wet and uncomfortable, not tak ng their ease for certain in this pillow of home-grown camomiles and bruised poppy head, heightened into activity by a little medication poured near the seat of pain, " but it didn't do no good," and the light of our grandmother (God bless her I) died ont in a proper way, and we are forced byway of epitaph, to say,"Theydid their best, angels could do no more.', Now people are wiser, they respeotthe araumentum ad homincm, but they keep it at a respectful distance. Hardly anyone in those days had seen tho drum of the car in the living, although some must have been ac uated by curi isity. The silver 8poenlum was not divined, or the lamp of Avery, or the contrivance of Brno ton, means for casting the glowing beam into the dark reccssj Illumination then was confined to the monks, but in these days of endoscopes, laryngoscopes, and ophthalmoscopes, we can see in the living what our fathers little dreamt of, and in a generation or so to come the readers of the existing serials will think us as great fools as we sometimes consider our respected ancestors —who, however, minag d to live longer, aid kept better order, when life was less sacred than now, and crime had a show of modesty.