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channel fleet of France was born in MRANDA,
ride in fecurity, within e
port of fome confideration. He alfo flattering. What artift could delineate patronifed the fyftem of cones, by means the moft lovely and charming woman of of which it was intended that the fea the age? d be that out from the inner harThould bour, and the for his colleague Dumourier commits an error when he terms him a Peruvian! Notwithstanding the jealoufy with which the Spaniards were accuftomed to treat the native Americans, this gentleman found means to obtain a Colonel's commiffion, and was employed by the Governor of Guatimala, in feveral confidential fituations. He is thought very early in life to have entertained the generous refo
a gigantic mafs of tone, encircled, and fupported by means of immenfe wooden ribs, and maffy iron cramps. The scheme in part failed, but it was grand and fublime; France, at the peace, will undoubtedly complete the original out-line.
The Duke was a great favourite at the court of Louis XVI. and poffeffed the confidence of that monarch. Being a man of great knowledge, and attach- lution of emancipating his countrymen ed to literature, his Majefty, with the from thraldom, and to this is attributQueen's thout confent, for he never did any ed his precipitate retreat from New thing without confulting her) appoint Spain. Since that time, he has been, ed him governor to the Dauphin. He until of late, literally a WANDErer. was lucky enough to efcape with his In the courfe of his travels, he has viwhole family at the beginning of the fited every part of Europe, and been troubles, and has remained in England more than once in England. Being ever fince. poffeffed of tafte, learning, and a claffical ftyle, he was enabled to collect, and to narrate a variety of anecdotes and obfervations relative to the manners, policy, laws, learning, and above all, the military establishments of every nation.
DUCHESS DE POLIGNAC.
Gabrielle Yellande-Martine de Palaftron, afterwards fo celebrated as Duchefs de Polignac, and confidante to the Queen, was one of the most beauti ful women in France. Marie Antoinette loaded her own and husband's family with penfions, places, &c. and when in her company, her Majefty was accustomed to exclaim, "Je ne fuis plus la reine, je fuis moi!"
No fooner had the French Revolu tion taken place, and a foreign war become inevitable, than he repaired to Paris from St Petersburgh, where he was in great favour with the Emprefs, who endeavoured, but in vain, to attach him This beautiful woman, whose large to her perton and fervices. By means blue eyes, expreffive features, elegant of Petion, he obtained the rank of Maperfon, and refined wit, formed a cene jor General, and very ably and effectutral point, around which all thofe who ally feconded the efforts of Dumourier wifhed to rife at court (and this include in Belgium. Being an excellent engi-" ed the whole body of the nobility, and neer, he difplayed great military fcience all the dignified clergy) rallied, as to a in the art of attack; in fhort, he foon common centre, died at Vienna of a became refpected in the army, and pobroken heart! What terrible difafter pular in the capital. When the hero of could occafion this catastrophe? It was Femappe penetrated into Holland, he the retreat of the Pruffians from Cham was appointed to the important compagne, a retreat which faved her native mand of the army deftined to attack country from fubjugation and dismem. berment. Su 23102 brew i * A mezzotinto print of this unfortunate lady was published in 1791. The likeness is not badly hit off, but it is not
Maestricht; the attempt indeed proved abortive, but as this evidently proceeded from the negligence of the general at the head of the covering army, his fau rels were not blighted by the event. The
The conduct of Dumourier, as foon as he began to experience a reverfe of fortune, became fufpicious, and his frequent conferences with the Auftrian General, which ended at length in his entire defection, rendered all the patriots in the army jealous of him. Miranda inftantly communicated his fears to his friend Petion, at that time a member of the committee of public fafety, and orders were foon after iffued to arreft the commander in chief. This circumftance faved the live of Miranda, for Dumurier attributed the lofs of the battle of Nerwinden to him, and still blames him in his history. To this the
other has made a reply, equally able and animated.
No fooner had the party of the Gi ronde been overwhelmed by the energy of the Mountain, an energy which, although often unjustly directed, must be acknowledged to have faved France, than Miranda was imprifoned. He was liberated at the general goal-delivery on the execution of Robefpierre he took an active part againft the fections of Paris, during the laft, infurec tion, and he has once more been put under arreft by order of the Directory (To be continued.)
TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND. CONTINUED FROM PAGE 446.
LAUDER, fituated near the top, or weft corner, of Berwick fhire, extends about 8 miles from North to South, upon the ftrath of Leader or Lauder water, a long which the London road paffes, and about 4 in breadth. The diftrict has the name of Lauderdale. The number of inhabitants are 2000, and the average rent of land is from 5s. to 10s. per acre, and few-farms pay more than 100l. per annum. The whole yields about 6000l. per annum. Near the town, which has but a poor appearance, ftands Lauder Fort, belonging to the Earl of Lauderdale. It was built by Edward Longfhanks, about 500 years ago; in the end of last century it was repair ed, and converted into a dwelling houfe by the Duke of Lauderdale. The hills furnish abundance of peat and turff, which are the ordinary fuel here. Copper ore has been found in feveral places, but none ever was wrought. Moorftone, and flate of a coarfe quality, abound. What are called adder ftones, and fairy ftones are found occafionally in this neighbourhood, Spanish, Scotch, and English coins, are alfo found, and many fragments of fwords, bows, and arrows pointed with flint, have been dug -up in the parish.
bead CHANNELKIRK is fituated among the Lammermuir hills, where they divide
the counties of Edinburgh and Haddington from that of Berwick, and the London road paffes through it, it is bout 6 miles long, and 5 broad. Upon the banks of the Leader, and in different ftraths, t there here may be upwards of 1500 acres in tillage. The hills are moftly covered with heather, and are very bleak. The land rent is about 2000l. per annum, and the number of inhabitants amounts to about 600.
THIS fhire is of an irregular, fhape; its greatest extent both from east to weft, and from north to fouth, is about 30 miles. On the eaft and fouth it is bounded by Northumberland and Cum berland: on the weft by Dumfries and Selkirk fhires, and on the north by Berwickshire. The fouth divifion of this county is fometimes called Tiviotdale, from the river Tiviot running through it. The weft and north quarters of the county are mountainous; the fouth and eaft, divifions are, upon the whole, flat and fertile. The river Tweed enters this fhire, at the mouth of the water of Ettrick, from whence it flows through a very romantic coun try, wathing the foot of the Eildon hills, by the village of Dornick, where there 4.C 2
is a bridge over it; thence it paffes by extenfive. The environs of Kelso are
the next parish that occurs is EDENHAM OF EDNAM, extending along the banks of the Tweed, about 3 miles in breadth, and 3 in length, containing 600 inhabitants. This parish is highly cultivated, and rents from 40s. to 60s. per acre. It gave birth to Thomfon, the Author of the Seafons, whofe father, Mr Thomas Thomfon, was fecond minifter here after the Revolution. There is an annual meeting of noblemen and gentlemen, at Ednam hill, for celebrat ing the Poet's birth-day, and it is intended to erect a monument there to his memory.-Farther up the river is KELSO which is of an irregular tri angular figure, its greateft length and breadth may be reckoned 4 miles. OMACKERSTON, extending between The foil is, in general, a deep loam up-5 and 6 miles in length, and from. on a gravelly bottom, and is very fertile. north to fouth between 4 and 5. It Its fituation is highly favourable, on the contains about $260 inhabitants; the banks of the Tweed and Tiviot. The total rent is from 17col. to 18cal. rent, per acre, is, in general, from 40s. per annum: being at a great diflance to 51. amounting in whole to between from coal and lime, improvements are 7,000l. and 8.000l. per annum, and the not carried on with much spirit here. number of inhabitants is 4330. The The family refidence of Sir H. Hay town is confiderable, and pleafantly fr. M'Dougal is pleasantly fituated on the tuated at the confluence of the Tiviot banks of the river. Going up the river and Tweed, over both which rivers we find there are two handfome bridges +; from that over the Tweed, confifting of fix arches, there is one of the fineft views to be feen almoft any where; by afcending the banks to Pinnacle-hill, it varies a g good deal, and becomes more
MERTOUN parish extending 6 miles in length, and from 2 to 3 in breadth, containing 560 inhabitants. The foil, upon the banks of the Tweed, is light and gravelly; the higher grounds are, in general, clayo uponna tilly bottom. The realprent is about 24col. Sterling. The extensive parks and plan* This parifh, we believe, lies in Berwickshire.
Scott, add much to the beauty of this quarter. The fine ruins of the Abbey of Dryburgh, dear which the Earl of Buchan has built a neat modern house, are well worthy attention.od; no sả
tations of Harden, the feat of Mr where ftand the handfome houses of Drygrange and Kirkland. The Eildon hills, rifing from an extenfive plain to the caft, are feen at a great distance. They confift of 3 conic tops*, upon the fummit of the most northerly are the veftiges of a Roman camp well fortified, having a foffe of about 1 miles in circumference. There appear feve
MAXTON parish lies oppofite to Mertoun on the fouth banks of the Tweed, being about 4 miles in length, and 3 in breadth, containing about 325 inhabiral other veftiges of camps in this neightants. The foil inclines to clay, and is not productive. On the banks of the Tweed, about a mile from the village, stands the old tower of Littledean. Adjoining is the parish of
AST BOSWELLS, or LESSUDDEN, being about a mile and a half broad, and 2 long, containing 500 inhabitants. The foil is, in general, good; the rent is from 1700k to 1800l. per annum. On St Bofwell's Green is held an annual fair, formerly the best frequented of any in the fouth of Scotland: fheep, black cattle, horses, and linen cloth, are the chief commodities which are fold. A little weft from this is the parish of
bourhood, all connected with this by military roads. The Abbey of Melrofe, one of the largest and maft elegant in the island, need not be particu larized here. We fhall only give the dimenfions of what is ftanding: It is built in the form of St John's Crofs, the length is 258 feet, breadth 138, and the circumference 944. The fouth window is 24 by 16; the east window, which is very elegant, 54% by 151; steeple 74, but the fpire is gone. The niches, pedestals, canopies, &c. are curiously wrought, and of exquifite workmanshipt.-in going up the river, we meet with
GALASHIELS, lying partly in RoxMELROSE, in length and breadth, burgh and partly in Selkirkshire, is of an where greatest, about 7 miles, and con- irregular triangular figure, about 6 miles taining 2450 inhabitants. The foil is in breadth, at an average, and containing various in quality on the banks of the about 920 inhabitants. The face of the Tweed, which runs through this pa- country is hilly, but covered with good rifh, it is light and gravelly; in many fheep pasturet. On the banks of the river, places it is a ftiff clay; and a great part the foil is a deep loam in many places; is hill and muir. Agriculture, how-in others it is clayey and wet. In the ever, is advancing faft, and rendering village, which contains about 581 inhathe furface rich and beautiful. What.. is worth notice here, is the fite of Old Melrofe, about a mile down the river, faid to be the first abbey of the Culdees, founded anno 664; now reduced to a fingle houfe ftanding on a fort of promontory, peninfulated by the Tweed, the banks around are lofty and wooded, varied with perpendicular rocks jutting out like buttreffes: it commands a beau utiful profpect down the river. Near, this is the bridge of Drygrange, at the confluence of the Leader with the Tweedt,
* For an account of these, see Grofe's Antiq. This is 232 feet above the level of the fea.
The weft top is 1319 feet above the level of the sea.
† In viewing this ruin, a circumftance lately occurred to a gentleman worth being defired him to go to the footh eaft corner, to made known. The perfon who fhewed it, turn his back to the Abbey, and view it through betwixt his legs, The effect produced was aftonishing; the defects of the ruin d. and the whole were but indiftinctly perceived, got a beautiful and novel appearance, not cafily defcribed or accounted for. The light falling upon the eye fomehow inverted, may be the caufe.
Megs-hill, the highest, is 1480 feet above the level of the fea.
bitants, there has been for fome period through it. The ground is uneven, and a manufacture of coarfe woollen cloth often rugged. The foil on the banks established, and well known by the name of the rivers is, in general, a rich loam of Galashiels Grey, which fold at 2s. 6d. on clay or fand: in the higher grounds and 35. per yard; of late, fince the it is more or lefs a cold clay. Ancrum improvement of the wool, it is made of houfe, the refidence of Sir John Scott, a higher price. The rocks here are is pleasantly fituated, and commands a fchiftus and whinstone. In many charming profpect: the trees in his
places, the red ockery foil evidently indicates the prefence of iron.
BOWDEN; the greatest length of this parish is 6, and the greatest breadth about 4 miles, containing 6700 acres. The number of inhabitants is about 860. The furface ist broken and uneven, extending to the top of the Eildon hills. The greater part of the foil is a whitish clay, on a tilly bottom, but of various fertility, fome giving 15s. other parts only 5s. per acre; the whole amounting to about 23col. Sterling yearly. The remains of a Roman caufey and a Roman camp, are traced here.
of Holydean, a ftrong fortification, once a refidence of the family of Roxburgh, lies here. Near this is a dyke which inclosed a deer park of 500 acres, built without lime, and which has stood up wards of 300 years; it had been originally between 6 and 7 feet high, and caped with stone.
parks are the fineft and oldeft in this
BEDRULE. This parish extends in length upwards of 4 miles, in breadth between two and three, containing about 260 inhabitants. About one half may be confidered muir and pasture ground, the other is fit for cropping. The furface is unequal. On the banks of the ri The remains vers Rule and Tiviot, the foil is of a light loamy nature, and bears good crops. The branch of one of the roads from Edinburgh to London, as well as the road from Berwick to Carlisle, país through this parish. The hill Dunian, though only 1031 feet above the level of the fea, is feen at a very great diftance in almost every direction. The LILLIESLEAF lies partly in Sel- ancient castle of Bedrule is fituated on kirk, and partly in Roxburghshires: it a rifing ground, equally remarkable for is 5 miles in length, and about 2 in profpect, fafety, and for beauty. The breadth, containing between 700o and minerals here are worthy of the atten8000 acres. The number of inhabi- tion of the proprietors. No coal has tants is 630. The foil varies; in the been discovered of workable dimenfions low grounds it is loamy upon a gravelly in the fhires of Berwick, Roxburgh, bottom; on the high and outfield grounds nor Selkirk, over that vaft tract of is chiefly clay. The beft, rents at 40s. country from the Lammermuir hills to per acre. The distance from lime and the English border, and very little lime. fuel is a great bar to improvement over In this parish the fymptoms are flatterall this county. The family feat of Rid-ing: there is abundance of fandstone of dle of that 1lk, one of the most ancient various appearance, and in that at range families in Scotland, lies in this parish. oppofite to Bedridle, there are different ANCRUM. This parish, which alfo ftratas of clay marl, and even fpecimens comprehends Lang-newton, ftretches of limeftone found; and, during a flight from 5 to 6 miles, in length, along the fearch lately made, fome feams of an north banks of the river Tiviot, and is inferior coal were found. about in breadth, containing 1150 in+ habitants. The water of Ale alfo suns
ROSERTON is about 13 miles long and 6 broad, containing only about 630 in