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563 Review--Application of Christianity, 8c. 564

soccorsorsowowooowoocorrocorsoonavoonessawwaroor tions, we introduce this volume to I loyalty to God. It is to convict him of treaour readers.

son against the majesty of heaven. It is to These Discourses are eight in num

press home upon him the impiety of not caring ber, all bearing on the same common

about God. It is to tell him, that the hourly point, which is expressed in the title

and habitual language of his heart is, I will

not have the Being who made me to rule over page. The first of these, is on the mer

me. It is to go to the man of honour, and, cantile virtues which may exist with

while we frankly award it to him that his out the influence of Christianity ; the pulse beats high in the pride of integrity-it second, on the influence of Christianity is to tell him, that he who keeps it in living in aiding and augmenting the mercan play, and who sustains the loftiness of its tile virtues; the third, on the power movements, and who, in one moment of time, of selfishness in promoting the ho- could arrest it for ever, is not in all his nesties of mercantile intercourse; the thoughts. It is to go to the man of soft and fourth, on the guilt of dishonesty not gentle emotions, and, while we gaze in tenderto be estimated by the gain of it; the ness upon him, it is to read to him, out of his fifth, on the great Christian law of re

own character, how the exquisite mechanism

of feeling may be in full operation, while he ciprocity between man and man; the

who framed it is forgotten; while he who sixth, on the dissipation of large ci

poured into his constitution the milk of human ties; the seventh, on the vitiating in

kindness, may never be adverted to with one fluence of the higher upon the lower

single sentiment of veneration, or one single orders of society; and the eighth, on purpose of obedience; while he who gave the love of money.

him his gentler nature, who clothed him in The subjects of these excellent dis all its adornments, and in virtne of whose courses are so immediately connected appointment it is, that, instead of an odious with one another, that it is not easy to and a revolting monster, he is the much loved select a single paragraph, without do

child of sensibility, may be utterly disowned ing some degree of injustice to its

by him. In a word, it is to go round among author, by breaking it from others

all that Humanity has to offer in the shape of which give it an additional force.

| fair, and amiable, and engaging, and to prove Dr. Chalmers' views of Christianity, that Being who has done so much to beautify

how deeply Humanity has revolted against are exalted, sublime, and comprehen- and exalt her. It is to prove that the carnal sive. His mind seizes on the grand mind, under all its varied complexions of outlines of the system, and connects harshness or of delicacy, is enmity against the doctrines of the gospel, with per- God. It is to prove, that let nature be as manent principles from which no one rich as she may in moral accomplishments, and can rationally dissent. In combating | let the most favoured of her sons realize upon those objections with which the theory his own person the finest and the fullest asthat he advocates may be assailed, he

semblage of them-should he, at the moment makes all the concessions that can

of leaving this theatre of display, and barstreasonably be required, but still re

ing loose from the framework of mortality,

stand in the presence of his Judge, and have tains a sufficiency of ground to sup

the question put to him, What hast thou dope port his doctrine, and to render tri

unto me? this man of constitutional virtue, umphant the cause which he under with all the salutations he got upon earth, and takes to defend.

all the reverence that he has left behind him, After granting that “ the nature of may, naked and defenceless, before him who man does not offer one unvaried and sitteth on the throne, be left without a plea, unalleviated mass of deformity," and and without an argument. allowing that “ the classic page of an " God's controversy with our species is tiquity sparkles with repeated exem not, that the glow of honour or of humanity is plifications of what is bright and

never felt among them. It is, that none of beautiful in the character of man," he

them understandeth, and none of them seeketh

after God. It is, that he is deposed from his thus proceeds to state the depravity of

rightful ascendency. It is, that he, who in our common nature.

fact inserted in the human bosom every one “ The way, then, to assert the depravity of principle that can embellish the individual man, is to fasten on the radical element of de possessor, or maintain the order of society, is pravity, and to show how deeply it lies incor- banished altogether from the circle of his baporated with his moral constitution. It is not bitual contemplations. It is, that man taketh by an utterance of rash and sweeping totality his way in life as much at random, as if there to refuse him the possession of what is kind in was no presiding Divinity at all; and that, sympathy, or of what is dignified in principle- whether he at one time grovel in the depths of for this were in the face of all observation. | sensuality, or at another kindle with some geIt is to charge him direct with his utter dis- nerous movement of sympathy or of patriotism,

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he is at both times alike unmindful of him to heart-and, renouncing all his original tenderwhom he owes his continuance and his birth. ness about Sabbath, and Sabbath employments, It is, that he moves his every footstep at his he can now, with the thorough unconcern of own will; and has utterly discarded, from its a fixed and familiarized proselyte, keep equal supremacy over him, the will of that invisible pace by his fellows throughout every scene of Master who compasses all his goings, and profanation and he who wont to tremble and never ceases to pursue him by the claims of a recoil from the freedoms of irreligion with the resistless and legitimate authority. It is this sensibility of a little one, may soon become which is the essential or the constituting prin the most daringly rebellious of them all--and ciple of rebellion against God. This it is that Sabbath which he has now learned, at one which has exiled the planet we live in beyond time, to give to business, he, at another, gives the limits of his favoured creation-and whe- to unhallowed enjoyments--and it is turned ther it be shrouded in the turpitude of licen- into a day of visits and excursions, given up tiousness or cruelty, or occasionally brighten- to pleasure, and enlivened by all the mirth ed with the gleam of the kindly and the ho- and extravagance of holiday--and, when sanourable virtues, it is thus that it is seen as crament is proclaimed from the city pulpits, afar off, by him who sitteth on the throne, and he, the apt, the well trained disciple of his looketh on our strayed world, as athwart a corrupt and corrupting superior, is the reawide and a dreary gulf of separation.” diest to plan the amusements of the coming pp. 20-24.

opportunity, and among the very foremost in Of the violation of the Sabbath in the ranks of emigration--and though he may large commercial towns, the Author

look back at times, to the Sabbath of his fathus traces the awful consequences ;

ther's pious house, yet the retrospect is always and who ever has watched the pro

becoming dimmer, and at length it ceases to

disturb him--and thus the alienation widens gress of vice, principally originating

every year, till, wholly given over to impiety, in this shameful prostitution of the sa

he lives without God in the world."--pp. cred day, will acknowledge with a 219–222. sigh, that the delineation is too striking to require any comment.

These discourses, from which, if we " Another, and still more specific is begin

could have spared room, we should ning, we understand, to be exemplified in our

gladly have given more copious exown city, though it has not attained to the

tracts, are replete with strong sense, height or to the frequency at which it occurs

and great originality of thought; disin a neighbouring metropolis. We allude to playing much acuteness of investigathe doing of week-day business upon the Sab tion, and exhibiting a noble effort of bath. We allude to that violence which is vigorous intellect, and highly discrimirudely offered to the feelings and the associa- nating powers. The diction is nertions of sacredness, by those exactions that vous, clear, and dignified ; and the an ungodly master lays at times on his youth

th- , appeals which the author has made tal dependents when those hours which they both to the understanding and the Wont to spend in church, they are called upon I heart, in advocating the best of causes, to spend in the counting-house-when that

if not irresistible, are such as cannot day, which ought to be a day of piety, is turned into a day of posting and of penmanship

be urged in vain. when the rules of the decalogue are set aside, and utterly superseded by the rules of the great trading establishment; and every thing

REVIEW:-Providence and Grace, as is made to give way to the hurrying emer exemplified in some account of Mrs. gency of orders, and clearances, and the de Sarah Baker, now living at mands of instant correspondence. Such is 12mo. pp. 116. London, Whittemore, the magnitude of this stumbling-block, that Paternoster Row, and Hill, Watermany is the young man who has here fallen to

lane, Blackfriars. 1821. rise no more-that, at this point of departure, he has so widened his distance from God, as We had written a critique on this

fact, to return to him--that, in this book, but it is suppressed, from a full distressing contest between principle and ne- I conviction that when the reader has cessity, the final blow has been given to his

perused the extracts which we now religious principles—that the master whom he

lay before him, he will not think that serves, and under whom he earns his provision for time, has here wrested the whole

this volume requires any other recominterest of his eternity away from him

mendation. We have only to state,

that, from this moment, there gathers upon his soul

sou that as Mrs. Baker is still living, the

a the complexion of a hardier and more deter- | place of her residence is suppressed; mined impiety-and conscience once stifled and for the same reason, the author, now speaks to bim with a feebler voice and who appears to be the pastor whose the world obtains a firmer lodgment in his ministry she attends, has concealed

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his name. But notwithstanding these ther, who, being extremely ill and not expected omissions, the work contains genuine / to recover, desired to see his children before marks of authenticity. The narrative

he died.

“As soon as my poor dear father had deis evidently drawn from the pure parted, my mother fell into an agony of sorfountain of truth.

row; it seemed as if we should have been de

prived of both our parents on the same day. « The infant part of my life was spent at Her moans were distressing beyond measure,

; where, I believe, I was born. My and continued so till after the funeral had refather lived there on a pension he received moved from her sight the lamented cause of from the government, as the reward of merito her wretchedness. Time, at length, connected rious service, assisted by some little property with the kind condolences of friends, mitigated he had contrived to save, by habits of economy her distress; and the acuteness of her anguish in former life. He had been abroad in the gave way to the domestic engagements that civil service, and for some years resided at called for her attention. The loss of my faColombo, in the island of Ceylon, and was ther's society and protection was not the only useful to his country in some service, (the misfortune she had to experience; but with it particulars of which I have forgotten,) which the largest part of her income, as my father's

ormed with the k of Candy, a go-pension ceased of course at his death. One vernment in the interior of the island. From consequence of which was, that, when I reCeylon he removed to Madras, where he re- turned to school, I conveyed a note to my sided some time, and then resigning his office, governess to inform her, that at the ensuing he was permitted to return to England upon a vacation I must leave her. pension. After travelling about the country “My mother found herself under the necessifor the confirmation of his health, he at last took ty of leaving the house she occapied; she took a up his residence at- , where he engaged a smaller one near it, and selling a part of her pretty house, pleasantly situated. I believe he furniture, became possessed of a little addiwas induced to do this, from having formed a tional ready money. This, with the strictest connection with a Miss Millward, whom he economy, and a little sewing of the lighter sort, soon married, and whom I had the happiness of she thought would prove sufficient for the calling mother. Though my father was some support of herself and two children. what advanced in years, he had never been “My mother had not been long in her new married before, but having now finished, as he situation, before she was visited by some relasupposed, the fatigues of an unsettled life, he tions from London. It is very common for thought it best to marry, and became a perma- | persons when at home, to magnify the excelnent resident at

lency of every thing at a distance; and when * “ Though my mother was considerably abroad, to do the same of every thing at home. younger than my father, I believe they lived My mother's friends were not exempt from very happily together. There was, indeed, a this weakness; and from their constantly exwant of experience in my mother, and a too tolling the advantage of a residence in London, great readiness to catch at new plans and made her dissatisfied with her own residence

made her schemes, which soon gave way to something in the country. Such persons are pests to a newer still, so that, if my father had complied, family, and surely a righteous God cannot apwe should have had a fresh house every year. prove of their conduct. They destroy content, But my father's judgment and experience were The richest jewel of the mind, and leave in its a very proper check upon my mother, in such room a restless and unsettled disposition.

s: not that he was unaccommodating : by “ The suggestions of her relatives left my no means. He maintained authority, and ruled mother in a very uneasy situation, and some in his family, but it was in such a way, as sel pressing trials increased her fretfulness. She dom, or never, gave offence.

felt her circumstances greatly straitened too, “ I was the second of three children. The and the peevishness attendant on a discontentfirst died when I was only three years old, and ed mind had given such offence to some of her the third, a boy, was two years younger than friends, who had furnished her with employa myself. • Partialities in families,' my father ment, that they withdrew their support. Thus used to say, ' are wrong ; I love both my she found herself getting more and more embarchildren alike.' My mother however was not rassed. The property left by my father was so judicious, and certainly had a decided par fast consuming, and no immediate prospect tiality for my brother. When I was four years 1 presented itself of bettering er condition. In of age, I went to a boarding school at a neigh- this situation she resolved, at all events, to try bouring town, where every care was taken of London, and accordingly made arrangements my health, and some attention paid to my for disposing of her furniture, and removing af morals. Nothing worth relating took place once. while I was there. The holidays, as they came “ The prospect of seeing London was to me were regularly spent at home, where every very gratifying, and I pleased myself with the indulgence was afforded me; and when they anticipation of all the fine sights I should feast were expired, I as regularly was sent back to my eyes upon; when, all at once, my expectaresume my learning at school.

tions were destroyed, by my mother's propos. “When I was about pine years of age, and / ing to take only my brother, and leave me al pursuing my education with some advantage, school, till she found how things succeeded 10 an event occurred which completely changed London. I remember the distress I felt. 11 my prospects, and my course of life: an event | vain I urged her to take me with her ; she proto me truly mournful, my dear father's death! | mised to send for me, and, by these promises, I was one day called out of school, and inform-/ somewhat pacified me. She spoke to my go ed that a messenger had arrived from my fac / verness about providing me board and lodzius

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till she could send for me, and having settled a workhouse called for me, and spoke to me very few other articles, took places for herself and civilly, telling me that I should be with his my brother in the stage coach.

own children, and should want for nothing. I "I have not forgotten, and perhaps shall | took leave of my governess with an almost never forget, my anguish when I saw them de- broken heart, and then went to my residence. part! Alas! I' little thought I should see my “ You will suppose that I did not forget my poor mother no more! My eyes followed them mother. I often inquired of Mr. Conway if as long as the coach was in sight, and when I he had heard from her, and every time the could see it no longer, my distress was in- postman brought a letter my bopes were raised, describable. I cried and sobbed bitterly. I but raised only to be the more depressed. thought my heart would break : and, notwith- When I was told no letter had arrived. I used standing the tenderness of my governess, tears to go and sit upon one of the steps at the garcontinued to flow a considerable time; how- den wicket, and cry till I sobbed again. I often ever, the recollection of my mother's promise went to some cross roads not far off, where to send for me, after a time, quieted me. was a guide-post, upon one of the arms of

"Almost a month passed away before we | which was painted" To London. Here I would heard any thing of my mother. A letter at last sit down, and look first at the post and then at arrived, from which we learnt that her expec the road, wishing I could see my mother comtations bad not been realized, and that the very ing. I would then turn slowly away, and with relations who created her first feeling of dis- tears in my eyes, return to the workhouse. content, had blamed her for c

for coming to London, One day I was wonderfully delighted to hear and bad given her many cold and shy looks; that an old man had been brought to the workthat she had experienced many trials, but house from London. I immediately ran to find hoped to do better, and soon send for me. This bim, and eagerly inquired if he had seen my was the first and the last letter we received, | mother. My sorrow, however, was only augfor from that time we never heard a single mented by this incident, for he said, rather surword concerning her ; and though inquiry was lily, that

hat he had not se instituted by my friends at and by the | know her. officers of the parish, not the least tidings were " One day, however, as I was sitting near heard, nor any clae afforded, by which to dis- the guide-post I have mentioned, the London cover what became of either my mother or stage waggon passed along. I had several brother.

times noticed it before, and as I read upon its “ About a month after the receipt of my mo- | painted cloth in front, TO THE BULL AND ther's letter, my governess became uneasy about MOUTH, BULL AND MOUTH STREET, LONme. She did not know how to act, she knew | DON;' I wondered how the driver could find not where to look for the payment of my ex- bis way so far. But seeing it this time, I immepences, and though she was very affectionate diately thought that the waggoner must have and kind, she could not afford to support me gone right before, and as he must now know without some remuneration. The matter be the road well, he would go right this time too. came noised abroad, and a few persons who | It immediately entered into my childish mind, had known my father, contributed something that if I were to follow this waggon, it would and raised a trifling sum for my support, in the take me to London, and there I should see my hope that my mother would soon send for me. mother and brother. The thought no sooner When a few months bad elapsed, and no tidings entered my mind than it was acted upon, and of my mother arrived, these friends became | letting the waggon go some distance before, tired of supporting me, stating, that although yet not so far as to be out of sight, without they wished me to be taken care of, yet as they any thing except the clothes upon my back,

s of their own, they could no longer and even without a bonnet, I actually comassist me, and adding that there was support to menced a journey to London. be obtained from the parish for such as were “ I did not proceed without sorrow. I destitate.

thought of the place I was leaving! I thought “ The case was considered among them how angry Mr. Conway would be when I was selves, and at the vestry meeting was submitted missed! I thought too they would fear some to the persons present; the result, was an order accident had befallen me, and they would disthat I should be removed to the workhouse, tress themselves on my account, and I almost where, however, the master promised that I | resolved to go back ! but the dread of their should be tenderly treated.

anger on the one hand, and the hope of seeing "At length the day fixed on for my removal my mother on the other, induced me to procame. My governess, with tears in her eyes, ceed, and I continued to follow the waggon. called me aside, and said, .Sarah, my dear, I I continued on my way about nine miles, would not part with you if I could afford to when the horses stopped to bait. I was also keep you, but I cannot. I have spoken to obliged to stop, and, at some distance behind Mr. Conway, the master of the workhouse, the waggon, I sat down on a large stone by the and I believe he will use you well. Be a good road side, and found rest very desirable and girl. Remember your prayers, and God will pleasant. I had not been there long before an bless you. Here is a little testament which old woman came up, and accosting me very belonged to my poor Jane that died. I will give civilly, asked me several questions. I told it you as a keepsake: but remember to read her I came from m , and was going to Lonit, and pray to God to help you to understand don, to find my mother; and also that I init. Then kissing me most affectionately, she tended to follow the waggon there. She seemadded, I shall always be glad to see you whened a little surprised, but said I could never Mr. Conway will let you come.' I coald make hold out to follow the waggon, and reminded Do reply, but cried exceedingly.

me of what had never entered into my calcu" In the course of the day the master of the / lation; viz. that food would be necessary. No. 28.-VOL. III.

2 0

had families

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• But it's very lucky,' said she,' for I'm goiug | ridge of bills stretching several miles, and to London, and if you'll be content to travel the gales from the ocean are attempered with me, I'll take you safely. I was over- and interrupted by the picturesque bigh lands joyed to hear this, and directly passing by my l of the Isle of Wight.”-p. 12. . former guide, the waggon, travelled on with my new guide.

It will occur to the reader, that the [To be concluded in our next.]

above account of Southsea, is given by a “ Resident Practitioner." But it so happens, that we can vouch for

its accuracy; having ourselves visited Review.-An Essay on the Utility of the spot. . Sea-Bathing, sc. By J. W. Wii

1 Among the thousands who frequent liams, Member of the Royal College the bath, there are comparatively but of Surgeons in London, and President

| few, who inquire into the principles by Practitioner in Portseá. Mills, Ports

which it invigorates or restores the mouth; and Baldwin, Cradock & Joy, I constitution ; but few who enter into Paternoster-Row, London. pp. 224. the science of the subject. And hence, 1820.

there are not wanting instances, in The subject of this volume will cer which the injudicious use of the bath tainly recommend itself as one which has promoted, perhaps confirmed, the has claims on public attention. Bath-evil it was intended to remove. A ing has been the practice of all ages, book, therefore, which professes to from the remotest antiquity to the pre

trace bathing to those physiological sent time; of all nations, the most principles, by which it so variously barbarous, the most civilized; of all acts upon various constitutions, declimes, torrid, frigid, or temperate. For serves the notice of those, especially, amusement, for exercise, or for health, who seek the bath to recruit the enerwe still quit the land for the water, gies, and repair the wastes, of a disand live in an element not our own.

eased or debilitated frame. Such are In this country, and especially the professions of the volume before among the fashionable circles, bathing us; and as far as we are capable of has become the popular, the luxurious forming a judgment upon the subject, employ of the summer months. To they are professions very ably supthose, who during the winter are shut ported. up in the smoke, and bustle, and Mr. Williams is not the first who crowds of the town, the pure air and has treated the subject of bathing as natural scenery of a watering-place, connected with the doctrine of animal form such a transition, as is better

heat. This is a department of his known by experience than by descrip work, which he seems most maturely tion. The sun, as he approaches the to have investigated, and therefore he northern solstice, half desolates our speaks upon it with decision and ascities; attracting thousands of gay surance. We submit the following and trifling, thousands of emaciated | quotation, as expressing the author's and dying creatures, to the edge of views upon this particular; for which springs, to the banks of rivers, and we beg leave to make the author himto the shores of the ocean, where his self responsible. fervid rays are tempered by the cool- “ It may not be unseasonable to repeat the ing breeze, or evaded in the cooling conclusion to which our inquiries led us, flood.

when treating on the use of the cold bath in -- We learn from a note in the volume health, viz. to avoid the erroneous and misbefore us, that the author is of opi- chievous custom of cooling, before the act of nion, that Southsea, in the island of bathing. We have, we trust, fully shown, Portsea, is not the least among the that a large demand on the vital energies, in watering places which adorn the

such a state of exhaustion, would occasion whole circuit of our coast.

wasteful expenditure of the natural strength,

and expose the body to the most serious “The superiority of Southsea, in the island | effects. In these resorts of the invalid, (waof Portsea, for a Bathing station, consists in tering-places,) we too frequently see persons the fine shingle beach, which slopes off gra- | slowly walking down to the sea side, lest they dually into the sea, which is by consequence should become heated, and even reposing exceedingly transparent and pure. Bathing with careful solicitude on the open beach may be performed here, at any time of tide. I exposed to the keen blast until they are con The whole island is a desirable residence for | enough to bathe. Of all errors, this is ou the invalid, being defended on one side by a | the most fatal; and it were better, like a

one of

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