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marked by the leading characteristics of Bunsen's third problem, the acquisithe Shemites, yet notwithstanding the tion of a more certain basis for the hisconstant influx of Shemite blood, with tory of mankind, can only be resolved strong indications of Negro influence. if this second one is first resolved. It is clear from the monuments that the With the failure of the solution of the tendency to the Negro type was ancient- second, that of the third is of course ly stronger. The old religion of the relegated to the domain of impossiEgyptians presents the same mixed bilities, where we must admit we are characteristics. Its main features are glad to leave it. cosmic worship mixed with the lowest We now bring this long notice of fetishism, the religions of the heathen Bunsen's second and greater enterprise Shemites and of the Nigritians. It is to a close, with a mixed feeling of adstrange that the physical type and the miration and disappointment-admirareligion should point to a double origin, tion for the author's learning, energy, and that the like evidence in the and patience; disappointment at their language should be disregarded. second and more complete failure; a
We have, as we anticipated, but little failure due to the vastness of the scheme space for the minor questions Bunsen and the radical ults of Bunsen's minddiscusses in connection with this great his love of theory, hasty theorizing, and problem. We can scarcely do more fatal confidence in his results—which than state their beads. His object is to have made his enormous labor fruitless, test and confirm his main theory by the and left the most learned and largest examination of chronological, historical, minded of Egyptologists without a traditional, and mythological evidence single follower. Some may defend his bearing upon it. Of the portions relat- philological views, others may think a ing to Scripture chronology and history special chronological speculation worthy we have little to say. They are not, as of their adhesion, but no one has been many English scholars have supposed, found to give him an unqualified support. intentionally sceptical, for Bunsen, Yet the failure is a magnificent one, and though a very speculative critic, was not it will render a great service to Egyptola rationalist; yet his conjectures can ogy in showing how large a subject is only lead either to scepticism, or to that opened by the study of the monuments extremely fanciful interpretation that of Egypt. Let us reverse the exclusiveseems hereditary in his family. Bunsen's ness of the old Egyptians, the Chinese investigation of the Chinese chronology of the ancient world, and by their and of the Assyrian and Babylonian are records, shut to all their neighbors, interesting, but we doubt their novelty unlock the history of those very neighor certainty. His examination of the bors. When that is done, Bunsen's Vêndidâd and of the Indian data for place in the Walhalla of scholarship the remote history of the Arians is far will be that of the first Egyptologist less satisfactory, for in these cases he is who dared to have larger ideas than an endeavoring to extract chronological Egyptian, and who, when he looked at and historical information from data the ancient monuments of Egypt, could wholly or generally mythical. We are not forget that they were the oldest even less disposed to agree with his monuments of civilized man-perhaps, comparisons of mythologies and heathen indeed, the oldest monuments of the cosmogonies. In all these inquiries his human race. fatal habit of forcing facts is apparent. He has fixed on a period during which the one language of mankind was
Macmillan's Magazine. inorganic, and another during which it
ON THE CORRELATION OF FORCE IN ITS was only beginning to separate and had
BEARING ON MIND. not yet developed the Arian type.
BY PROFESSOR BAIN. Consequently Chinese, Egyptian, Semit. ic, Arian, must be referred to certain THE doctrine called the Correlation, ages in his scale, and it becomes neces Persistence, Equivalence, Transmutabilsary to fit the facts of the history of the ity, Indestructibility of Force, is a genraces speaking them to those ages. erality of such compass, that no single form of words seems capable of fully frame. And, in particular, it maintains expressing it; and different persons (1) a certain warmth or temperature of may prefer different statements of it. the whole mass, against the cooling My understanding of the doctrine is, power of surrounding space; it mainthat there are five chief powers or tains (2) mechanical energy, as muscular forces in nature; one mechanical or power; and it maintains (3) nervous molar, the momentum of moving mat- power, or a certain flow of the influence ter; the others molecular, or embodied circulating through the nerves, which in the molecules, also supposed in circulation of influence, besides reacting motion :these are heat, light, chemi. oa the other animal processes-muscular, cal force, electricity. To these powers, glandular, etc.-has but for its distinwhich are unquestionable and distinct, it guishing concomitant, the MIND. is usual to add vital force, of which, how- The extension of the correlation of ever, it is difficult to speak as a whole; force to mind, if at all competent, must but one member of our vital energies, the be made through the Nerve force, a Nerve Force, allied to electricity, fully genuine member of the correlated group. deserves to rank in the correlation. Very serious difficulties beset the pro
Taking the one mechanical force, and posal, but they are not insuperable. those three of the molecular named heat, The history of the doctrines relating chemical force, electricity, there has now to mind as connected with body, is in been established a definite rate of com- the highest degree curious and instrucmutation, or exchange, when any one tive; but for the purpose of the present passes into any other. The mechanical paper, we shall notice only certain leadequivalent of heat, the 772 foot pounds ing stages of the speculation. of Joule, expresses the rate of exchange Not the least important position is between mechanical momentum and the Aristotelian ; a position in some heat; the equivalent or exchange of respects sounder than what followed and heat and chemical force is given grew out of it. In Aristotle, we have a (through the researches of Andrews kind of gradation from the life of plants and others) in the figures expressing to the highest form of human intellithe heat of combinations; for example, gence. In the following diagram, the one pound of carbon burnt evolves heat continuous lines may represent the maenough to raise 8,080 pounds of water terial substance, and the dotted lines one deg. C. The combination of these the immaterial: two equivalents would show that the consumption of half a pound of carbon
A. Soul of Plants. would raise a man of average weight to
- Without consciousness. the highest summit of the Himalayas.
B. Animal Soul. It is an essential part of the doctrine, that force is never absolutely created, and
1 Body and mind inseparable. never absolutely destroyed, but merely C. Human Soul-Nous-Intellect. transmuted in form or manifestation.
I. Passive Intellect. As applied to living bodies, the following are the usual positions. In the
. ... Body and mind inseparable. growth of plants, the forces of the solar II. Active Intellect_Cognition of the highray-heat and light-are expended in
est principles. decomposing (or de-oxidizing) carbonic
...... Pure form; detached from matter; acid and water, and in building up the
the prime mover of all; immortal. living tissues from the liberated carbon and the other elements; all which force All the phases of life and mind are is given up when these tissues are con- inseparably interwoven with the body sumed either as fuel in ordinary com- (which inseparability is Aristotle's detibustion, or as food in animal combustion. nition of the soul) except the last, the
It is this animal combustion of the active Nous or intellect, which is dematter of plants, and of animals (fed on tached from corporeal matter, self-subplants)-namely, the re-oxidation of car- sisting, the essence of Deity, and an bon, hydrogen, etc.—that yields all the immortal substance, although the immanifestations of power in the animal mortality is not personal to the individual. (The immateriality of this The animal soul, B, contains sensation, higher intellectual agent was not, how- appetite, and emotion, and is a mixed or ever, that thorough-going negation of two-sided entity ; but the intellect, C, is all material attributes which we now a purely one-sided entity, the immateunderstand by the word “immaterial.") rial. This does not relieve our perplex. How such a self-subsisting and purely ities; the phenomena are still generic spiritual soul could hold communication cally allied and continuous-sensation with the body-leagued souls, Aristotle passes into intellect without any breach was at a loss to say: the difficulty re- of continuity, but as regards the agenappeared after him, and has never been cies, the transition from a mixed or got over. That there should be an united material and immaterial subagency totally apart from, and entirely stance to an immaterial substance apart, transcending, any known powers of inert is a transition to a differently constituted matter, inyolves no difficulty; for who world, to a transcendental sphere of exis to limit the possibilities of existence? istence. The perplexity arises only when this The settlement of Aquinas governed radically new and superior principle is all the schools and all the religious made to be, as it were, off and on with creeds until quite recent times; it is, the material principle; performing some for example, substantially the view of of its functions in pure isolation, and Bishop Butler. At the instance of others of an analogous kind by the aid modern physiology, however, it has of the lower principle. The difference undergone modifications. The dependbetween the active and the passive ence of purely intellectual operations, reason of Aristotle is a mere difference as memory, upon the material proof gradation : the supporting agencies cesses, has been reluctantly admitted by assumed by him are a total contrast the partisans of an immaterial principle; in kind-wide as the poles asunder. an admission incompatible with the isolaThere is no breach of continuity in the tion of the intellect in Aristotle and in phenomena, there is an impassable chasm Aquinas. This more thorough-going between their respective foundations. connection of the mental and the physi
Fifteen centuries after Aristotle, we cal has led to a new form of expressing reach what may be called the modern the relationship, which is nearer the settlement of the relations of mind truth, without being, in my judgment, and body, effected by Thomas Aquinas. quite accurate. It is now often said the He extended the domain of the inde mind and the body act upon each other; pendent immaterial principle from the that neither is allowed, so to speak, to highest intellectual soul of Aristotle pursue its course alone: there is a conto all the three souls recognized by him stant interference, a mutual influence -the vegetable or plant soul (without between the two. This view is liable to consciousness), the animal soul (with the following objections : consciousness), and the intellect through- l. In the first place, it assumes that out. The two lower souls—the vegeta- we are entitled to speak of mind apart ble and the animal-need the coöpera- from body, and to affirm its powers and tion of the body in this life; the intel properties in that separate capacity. lect works without any bodily organ But of mind apart from body we have except that it makes use of the percep- no direct experience, and absolutely no tions of the senses.
knowledge. "The wind may act upon
the sea, and the waves may react upon A. Vegetable or Nutritive Soul. the wind; but the agents are known in
Incorporates an immaterial part, separation ; they are seen to exist apart although unconscious.
before the shock of collision; but we are
not permitted to see a mind acting apart B. Animal Soul.
from its material companion. .... Has an immaterial part, with con
2. In the second place, we have every sciousness.
reason for believing that there is an
unbroken material succession, side by C. Intellect.
side with all our mental processes. ..... Purely immaterial.
From the ingress of a sensation, to the
outgoing responses in action, the mental lar mode of cerebral action henceforth succession is not for an instant dis- manifests itself. The line of mental severed from a physical succession. A sequence is thus, not mind causing new prospect bursts upon the view ; body, and body causing mind, but there is a mental result of sensations, mind-body giving birth to mind-body; emotion, thought, terminating in out- a much more intelligible position. For ward displays or speech or gesture. this double, or conjoint causation, we Parallel to this mental series is the can produce evidence; for the singlephysical series of facts, the successive handed' causation we have no evidence. agitation of the physical organs called If it were not my peculiar province the eye, the retina, the optic nerve, to endeavor to clear up the specially optic centres, cerebral hemispheres, out- metaphysical difficulties of the relationgoing nerves, muscles, etc. There is an ship of mind and body, I would pass unbroken physical circle of effects, main- over what is to me the most puzzling tained while we go the round of the circumstance of the relationship, and mental circle of sensation, emotion, and indeed the only real difficulty in the thought. It would be incompatible question. with everything we know of the cere- I say the real difficulty, for factitious bral action, to suppose that the physical difficulties in abundance have been chain ends abruptly in a physical void, made out of the subject. It is made a occupied by an immaterial substance; mystery how mental functions and which immaterial substance, after work- bodily functions should be allied toing alone, imparts its results to the gether at all. That, however, is no busother edge of the physical break, and iness of ours; we accept this alliance as determines the active response—two we do any other alliance, such as gravity shores of the material with an inter- with inert matter, or light with heat. vening ocean of the immaterial. There As a fact of the universe, the union is, is, in fact, no rupture of nervous conti properly speaking, just as acceptable, nuity. The only tenable supposition is, and as intelligible, as the separation that mental and physical proceed to would be, if that were the fact. The gether, as undivided twins. When, real difficulty is quite another thing. therefore, we speak of a mental cause, What I have in view is this : when I a mental agency, we have always a two- speak of mind as allied with body, sided cause; the effect produced is not with a brain and its nerve currents-I the effect of mind alone, but of mind in can scarcely avoid localizing the mind, company with body. That mind should giving it a local habitation. I am therehave operated on the body, is as much upon asked to explain what always puzas to say, that a two-sided phenomenon, zled the schoolmen, namely, whether one side being bodily, can influence the the mind is all in every part, or only body: it is, after all, body acting upon all in the whole ; whether in tapping body. When a shock of fear paralyses any point I may come at consciousness, digestion, it is not the emotion of fear, or whether the whole mechanism is in the abstract, or as a pure mental ex- wanted for the smallest portion of conistence, that does the harm : it is the sciousness. One might perhaps turn einotion in company with a peculiarly the question by the analogy of the teleexcited condition of the brain and ner graph wire, or the electric circuit, and vous system: and it is this condition say that a complete circle of action 18 of the brain that deranges the stomach. necessary to any mental manifestation; When physical nourishment, or a physi- which is probably true. But this does cal stimulant, acting through the blood, not meet the case. The fact is that, all quiets the mental irritation, and restores this time that we are speaking of nerves a cheerful tone, it is not a bodily fact and wires, we are not speaking of mind, causing a mental fact by a direct line of properly so called, at all; we are putting causation; the nourishment and the forward physical facts that go along stimulus determine the circulation of with it, but these physical facts are not blood to the brain, give a new direction the mental fact, and they even preclude to the nerve currents, and the mental us from thinking of the mental fact. condition corresponding to this particu. We are in this fix: mental states and
bodily states are utterly contrasted; unions, it is a paradox or a contradicthey cannot be compared, they have tion. We understand union in the nothing in common except the most sense of local connection; here is a general of all attributes, degree and union where local connection is irreleorder in time; when engaged with one vant, unsuitable, contradictory, for we we must be oblivious with all that dis- cannot think of mind without putting tinguishes the other. When I am ourselves out of the world of place. studying a brain and nerve communi. When, as in pure feeling-pleasure or cating, I am engrossed with properties pain-we change to the subject attitude exclusively belonging to the object or from the object attitude, we have undermaterial world ; I am at that moment gone a change not to be expressed by (except by very rapid transitions or place; the fact is not properly described alternations) unable to conceive a truly by the transition from the external to the mental fact, my truly mental conscious internal, for that is still a change in the ness. Our mental experience, our feel. region of the extended. The only adeings and thoughts, have no extension, quate expression is a change of state: no place, no form or outline, no me- à change from the state of the extended chanical division of parts; and we are cognition to a state of unextended cogincapable of attending to anything nition. By various theologians, heaven mental until we shut off the view of has been spoken of as not a place, but a all tbat. Walking in the country in state ; and this is the only phrase that I spring, our mind is occupied with the can find suitable to describe the vast, foliage, the bloom, and the grassy meads, though familiar and easy, transition all purely objective things; we are sud- from the material or extended, to the denly and strongly arrested by the odor immaterial or unextended side of the of the May-blossom; we give way for a universe of being. moment to the sensation of sweetness; When, therefore, we talk of incorpofor that moment the objective regards rating mind with brain, we must be held cease; we think of nothing extended; as speaking under an important reserve we are in a state where extension has or qualification. Asserting the union in no footing; there is, to us, place no the strongest manner, we must yet delonger. Such states are of short dura- prive it of the almost invincible association, mere fits, glimpses; they are con- tion of union in place. An extended stantly shifted and alternated with object organism is the condition of our passing states, but while they last and have their into a state where there is no extension. fall power we are in a different world; A human being is an extended and the material world is blotted out, material thing, attached to which is the eclipsed, for the instant unthinkable. power of becoming alive to feeling and These subject-moments are studied to thought, the extreme remove from all advantage in bursts of intense pleasure, that is material; a condition of trance or intense pain, in fits of engrossed re- wherein, while it lasts, the material flection, especially reflection upon men- drops out of view—so much so, that we • tal facts; but they are seldom sustained have not the power to represent the two in purity beyond a very short interval; extremes as lying side by side, as conwe are constantly returning to the tainer and contained, or in any other object side of things to the world mode of local conjunction. The conwhere extension and place have their dition of our existing thoroughly in the being.
one, is the momentary eclipse or extincThis, then, as it appears to me, is the tion of the other. only real difficulty of the physical and The only mode of union that is not mental relationship. There is an alli- contradictory is the union of close sucance with matter, with the object, or ex- cession in time; or of position in a contended world; but the thing allied, the tinued thread of conscious life. We are mind proper, has itself no extension, and entitled to say that the same being is, by cannot be joined in local union. Now, alternate fits, object and subject, under we have no form of language, no familiar extended and under unextended conanalogy, suited to this unique conjunc- sciousness; and that without the extion; in comparison with all ordinary tended consciousness the unextended