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Mr. James M'Donald,
Frankfort, 13th March, 1815.
SIR,-I have just finished a hasty perusal of your New Expounding Spelling book, and am much pleased with the excellent digest and methodical arrangement of your tables. The introductory chapters containing your explanation of the principles of English pronunciation; rules of orthography, and remarks on accent though brief, are I think, well drawn up, and sufficient to enable the young pupil to form a good general notion of the manner of pronoung cing and combining syllables. The large collection of words with their meanings annexed, in which consists the essential utility of your book, must, I apprehend, secure you an ample patronage from an enlightened and correctly judging public. I have no doubt, sir, but it will soon be adapt. ed as the principal book in schools and seminaries, for the instruction of our youth in orthography, and the meaning of words, which ever ought to be united in elementary works of this kind. Wishing you success in your well meant efforts to be useful, I have the pleasure to be Yours very respectfully
Louisville, March 15,-1815.
Mr. James M'Donald, SIR.I think your new Spelling-book with Expositor, ill render an important service in our schools; there are, I think several advantages it possesses which should give ita ready and general reception.
You will please accept the assurance of my best wishes and regard,
"Lexington, March 18,-1815,
Mr. M'Donald's plan of uniting a dictionary with a spelling-book must, we think, be a considerable improvement in the art of teaching, as the young mind in the use of a book of this kind, will imperceptibly acquire the habit of thinking by annexing a meaning to the words which it is learning to spell- the words and the definitions selected by Mr. M'Do. nald appear also to us to be particularly well adapted for the mind when, it first begins to unfold it's powers; one and on
ly one definition being here given, the young scholar will be free'd from the embarrassment under which he labours, in using our common English Dictionaries.
ROBT. H. BISHOP,
Professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy;
Professor of Languages,
Lexington, March 12,-1815.
HAVING agreeable to request examined Mr J. M’Donald's new Spelling book with Expositor. I find it to be a work in my opinion well adapted to the use of schools and of a kind I have long wished to see presented to the Public. JOHN P. ALDRIDGE, Lancasterian Teacher
THE following work, which comprises near fifteen thou sand useful words explained, will be found disposed in the following order. Having treated of the principles of pronunciation, of the sounds of letters, of diphthongs and tripthongs, of orthography, of the laws of simple and compound, of primitive and derivative words, of the rules for retaining or retrenching the e finalin compound words, of the terminations able and ible added to words ending with e final, having shown when the final e is to be retained or retrenched, with the principal exceptions to these general rules, of the nature and importance of accent, as far as is necessary for this work, as the words of the same number of syllables accented alike, are placed under one and the same head.
The first table shows the use of the final e in monosyllables. Table the second, contains werds of one syllable alike in sound and natural to the ear, and therefore easy to be spelled and pronounced. Table the third, contains easy and fa miliar words of two syllables accented upon the first sylla ble. Table the fourth, words of two syllables accented upon the second syllable. Table the fifth, words of one syllable explained. Table the sixth, words oftwo syllables accented A 2
upon the first. Table the seventh, words of two syllables, accented on the second. Table the eighth, words of three syllables accented upon the first. Table the ninth, words of three syllables accented upon the second. Table the tenth. words of three syllables accented upon the third. Table the eleventh, words of four syllables accented upon. the first. Table the twelfth, words of four syllables accented upon the second. Table the thirteenth, words of four syllables accented upon the third. Table the fourteenth, words of five syllables, which have the principal accent upon the second and the secondary accent upon the fourth. Table the fifteenth, words of five syllables which have the principal accent upon the third and the secondary accent upon the first. Table the sixteenth, words of six syllables accented variously. Table the seventeenth, words of seven syllables also accented variously. Table the eighteenth, contains the names of men and women. Table the nineteenth, contains numerical abbreviations.-Table the twentieth contains contractions of titles, &c.
This work, by being thus arranged, is adapted to the lowest as well as the highest classes of learners, while it dn swers the chief purpose of a Dictionary.
Principles of English Pronunciation,
PART THE FIRST, CHAP. 18
OF THE LETTERS.
Letters are the first principles of pronunciation; the let ters of the English Alphabet are in number twenty six.These are divided into vowels and consonants-the vowels are, a e io u and y and w, when they end a syllable. The consonants are b, c, d, f, g, h, j. k, l. m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, and y, and w, when they begin a word or syllable,
The following is a list of the Roman and Italic characters.
A letter is the first principle or the least, part of a word, letters compose syllables, and syllables compose words; words compose sentences, and sentences rightly combined together, form a discourse; so by these few elementary sounds, which are the first principles of articulate or human voice, we become capable of expressing and communicating our innumerable ideas and sentiments. The following is an exact definition of a vowel and consonant. A vowel is a simple articulate sound complete in itself, and formed by one effusion of the breath, without any change of position of the organs of speech, from the instant the sound, begins, until it ends. A consonant is a simple articulate sound in itself imperfect, but joined with a vowel produces a complete sound, by a contact of the organs of speech. Consonants may be divided into mutes and semi vowels, b, p, t, d, k, and c and g hard, being mutes cannot be sounded without the addition of a vowel; f, l, m, n, r, v, s, z. x, and c and g soft, being semi vowels, have an imperfect sound of themselves; 1, m, n, r, are called liquids from their flowing as it were, into the sounds of other consonants. The union of two vowels produced by a single impulse of the voice, is called a diphthong; as ou in sound. The union of three vowels in like manner, is called a triph thong; as iew in view, A proper diphthong has both the vowels sounded as oi in voice. An improper diphthong has but one of the vowels sounded, as ea in eagle.
THE SOUND OF THE LETTERS IN GENERAL
First of the Vowels,
A has four sounds, viz: the long, as in fate, the middle, as in far, father, the broad as in fall, water, the short as in fat. E has two sounds, the long e, as in here, medium : a short one as in met, it has the sound of short i, in England yes and pretty. I has two sounds, a long one as in fine, pine, a short one as in fin, pin. O has four sounds, a long one as o in note, notice, it has a long close sound, as in prove, move, a long broad sound, as in for, nor, a short broad sound as in got, not. U has three sounds, a long sound as in tube, a short one, as in tub, an obtuse, as in pull, bushel,