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♡ II. HISTORY of PAPER-MAKING,
.the European artists. The fine paper in Cuina is
softer and smoother than that of Europe ; and The EGYPTIAN PAPER is the famous paper these qualities are admirably adapted to the peoused by the ancients, which was made of a kind cil which the Chinese use in writing. of reed called papyrus, growing in Egypt on the Every province has its peculiar paper. That of banks of the Nile. It is not certain at what par- Se.tcbuen is made of linen rags as in Europe; that ticular period the ancients began to make paper of Fo-kien, of young bamboo; that of the north. of papyrus; but there are several authorities ern proyinces, of the interior bark of the mulberwhich prove the use of it in Egypt long before ry; that of the province of Kiang-dan, of the skin the time of Alexander the Great.
which is found in the webs of the filk-worm; fi. Pliny, (lib. xiii. cap. II, 12.) gives a descrip- nally, in the province of Hu-quang, the tree chu tion of the simple process of making this paper or ko chu, furnishes the materials with which they in Egypi. They divide, says he, with a kind of make paper. needle, the stem of the papyrus into thin plates The method of fabricating paper with the bark or Nender pellicles, each of them as large as the of different trees, is nearly the same with that which plant will admit. As they were separated from is followed in the bamboo, of which alone we the reed, they were extended on a table, and laid fall speak. The whole fubftance of the bamboo across each other at right angles. In this state is reduced to pulp by fteeping, boiling, and the they were moistened by the water of the Nile, mortar, and then beat together with the glutinous and while wet, were put under a press, and after. juice of a plant named Koteng till it becomes a thick wards exposed to the rays of rhe fun.
and viscous, liquor. The workmen plunge their This paper was an important branch of como forms into this liquor; take out what is sufficient merce to the Egyptians, which continued to in. for a sheet of paper; which immediately becomes creafe towards the end of the Roman republic, and firm and shining, and 18 detached from the form became ftill more extensive in the reign of Augus. by turning down the sheet on the beap of paper tus,' According to Mabillon, the paper of Egypt already made, without the interpofition of pieces was used in France and Italy, and other Europe. of woollen cloth, as in Europe. an countries. It is still a question at what particu. The Chinese paper must be dipped in a solution Iar period the fabrication of 'it totally ceased. of alum before it can take either ink or colours. Whoever wishes for a fuller account of the paper In Japan they manufactured paper from the of Egypt may consult Pliny, lib. xiii. Theophraf bark of trees of a prodigious strength. There is tus, lib. iv. chap. ix. Guillandinus, Scaliger, Sau sold at Serige, the capital of the province of Serige, maise, Kerchmayer, Nigrisoli, Hardouin's Piny; a kind of it fit for bec-bangings and wearing ap. Mabillon's De re Diplomat. ; Montfaucon's Paleo parel ; resembling so much ituffs of wool and fill, graphy, and Colle&ions ; Maffei's Isor. Diplomat.; that it is often taken for them. The following is Couni Caylus, in the Mem. of the Acad. of Infcrip. Kempser's catalogue of trees used in Japan for and Mr Bruce's Travels in Abyssinia.
the manufactory of paper. 1. The true paperIt is generally supposed that the invention of the tree, called in the Japanese language, kaadi, paper called charta bombycina, supplanted the Egyp Kempfer characterizes them thus ; Papyrus fru&y Lian paper in Greece. This paper is incompara- mori celle, five morus sativa follis urticæ mortue cor. bly more lasting, and better calculated for all the ticæ papifera. 2. The false paper tree, called by the purposes of writing. It is not precisely known at, Japinete katfi kadfire ; by Kempfer, papyrus prowhat period this art, which supposes a great ya- cumbens ļa&tejcens, folio longo, lanceata cortice chartariety of previous experiments, was first reduced to 3. The plant which the Japanese call oreni is practice, but Montfaucon proves, by incontestable named by Kempfer alva radice viscofa. flere epbemeauthorities, that paper from cotton was in use in ro magno punico. 4. The fourth tree used for pa1100. The paper produced from cotton is
per is the futa-kadjura, named by Kempfer frutex tremely white, very strong, and of a fine grain. vifcofus procumbens folio telphii vulgaris amulo frue From the pellicle, or inner coat, found in many tu racemolo. The description of these trees given frees between the bark and the wood, the ancients by Kempfer, may be of great service to lead bola. made a paper. The trees commonly in use were nists to discover the European plants and shrubs the maple, the plane-tree, the elm, the beech, the adapted, like the Japanese, for the fabrication of mulberry, and most frequently the lindin-tree. paper. The ancients wrote on this inner coat after they The Asbestos is a fibrous substance of little had separated it from the bark, beat, and dried it. Atrength, the threads of which are easily broThere are many palm trees in India and America ken. This subftance has the peculiar quality of to which botanists have given the name papyrace- supporting the action of fire without receiving aby Qus, because the natives have written with bodkins damage. A certain quantity of the asbestos is either on the leaves or the bark. Such is the Ame. pounded in a morlar of stone till it be reduced to rican palm, called tal by the Indians; and of the à substance like cotton. All the parts of earth or fume kind is the guajaraba of New Spain. Every stone remaining in the asbestos are then taken of paim, the bark of which is smooth, and the leaves by means of a fine fieve, and it is formed into theets sarge and thick, may be used for this purpose. of paper by an ordinary paper-mill. Mixing it
The art of making paper from vegetables redu. with water reduces it to ftuff; only, as it is teaced to stuif was known in China tong before it was vier than that from linen rags, it requires to be practised in Europe; and the Chinese have carried coniinually stirred when they are taking it up with is to a degree of perfection hitherto unknown to the frames. The only excellence of this paper is,
that the writing disappears when it is caft into the at the same time, provided the soft he put somefire. It must be observed, at the same time, that what later into the engine. as it is of a fiender consistency, and easily torn, it The engine is that part of the mile which per. is more an object of curiosity than use.
forms the whole action of reducing the rage to PAPER MADE FROM LINEN RAGs is manufactu pafte, or, as it may be termed, of trituration. The red through all Europe. This kind of paper was number of the engines depend on the extent of utterly unknown to the ancients. By what nation the paper-work, on the force of water, or on the and at what period the art of making our modern construction of the machinery. paper was discovered, we are ignorant. The me It will afford a sufficien: idea of the work, to rit has been ascribed to different nations without give in detail a descriprion of the different parts of any authority. All we know is that no book has the engine. See Plate CCLXVII. Fig. 1. reprebeen found written on this paper antecedent to sents the chapiter wbich cov: rs the roller. It is 4 A. D. 5270. It is discovered to have been in Ger- feet 3 inches in length, and 2 feet 8 inches in many in 1312, and in England in 1320 and 1342. breadth. The superior part is pierced with wo Sect. I. Of the Art of Paper-MAKING in Ev. openings running cross-wise, 1, 2, 3, 4, into which
enter the chaffes or wicker frames, fig 6. and 7; the
firft, made of wire-cloth, enters into the opening 3 To give a concise view of this subject, it is ne. and 4; the 21, made of hair cloth, and strengthe cessary to proceed with all the important parts of ened with several cross-bars of wood, enters into the operation in their order.
the opening 1, 2, ferves to retain the small pieces The selection of the rags and arranging them of rags which escape through the first, and preinto different lots, according to their quality, and vents them from falling into the dalot or hoie. to the demand of the paper-mill, is the first bufi. fcupper, fig. 2. This hole-lcupper is placed across ness. They are then piaced on an iron grate, the vat of the engine, parallel to the axle of the which covers a large chest, where they are beat, roller; the part 9 enters into the notch c of the anri otherwise turned, till the filth and dust pass chapiter; and the extremity h enters into the open. through the bars of the grate and fall into the ing k of the tunnel kl (fig. 3.), by which means chest.
the water dashed through the wicker-frames by The number of lots in the selection of rags must every revolution of the roller, is precipitated into be proportioned to the mass from which the selec- the canal fh, and loses itself below the engine. tion is made, aud to the kinds of paper produced The figures 4, 9, and 10. represent the roller in by the mill
. Some mills, the work of which is perspective, in plane, and in profile. It is two considerable, make 9 lots of their rags, five of feet in diameter, and 2 feet 3 inches in length, which respect the fineness, and the rest of the clean. The trundle head A is 16 inches in diameter, about ness and the colour. In ordinary mills there are half as much in length, and furnished with A lots, and in some only two.
spindles of iron, which are screwed to the end of It was formerly thought necessary to bring the the trundle head, made also of iron. The teeth rags to a state of putrefaction ; and this method or blades of the roller are 27 in number, and fit. universally prevailed til within these few years; ted strongly into the wood which composes its but it is now entirely given up. That it was in- body, parallel to its axis. They are of that thickferior to the method now in practice, is very evi- ness as to leave as much empty space as they ocdent; the rotting of the rags was peculiarly ab- cupy. The exterior face of each of the blades surd, as the paper made of fermented stuff could should be made round, and divided into two neither be so strong nor so durable, as that which is parts, with a longitudinal motion, as in the promade in the common way without putrefaction. file a a a, fig 10.
The duster is made in the form of a cylinder, The axis AB of the roller (fig. 4. and 9.) has two 41 feet in diameter, and s feet in length. It is al. parts perfectly rounded in A and in B, which per. together covered with a wire net, and put in mo- form the office of pivots. These pivots reft in the tion by its connection with some part of the ma- sockets A and B (fig. 8.) in the middle of the lechinery. A convenient quantity of rags before the vers OAH and OBH. By means of these levers selection is inclosed in the dufter, and the rapidi- they raise at pleasure, or lower the axis of the rol. ty of its motion separates the dust from them, and ler, and fit it exactly, and in a parallel manner to forces it through the wire. It is of confiderable the plate. The plates (see fig. 5.) are made of fteel advantage to use the dufter before selection, as it cut into channels, in such a manner as to corresmakes that operation less pernicious to the selectors. pond with the blades of the roller. Their chan
The tables for cutting off the knots and stitche nels are not perpendicular, but oblique; and their ing, ard for forming them into a proper shape, are are two rows of them, bx, xd, confisting of seven erected in the same place with the cutting table. or eight blades each on one plate. Those in bx, The surface both of these and of the cutting table for the purpote of changing the plate, lie in an is composed of a wire net, which in every part of opposite direction to those in xd. The levers are the operation allows the remaining dust and refuse kept in their position near the vat by bands of of every kind to escape.
iron, MN and mn; between which they are made The rags are again carried from the cutting table higher or lower by the cogged wheel H, which back to the duster, and thence to the engine, supports one of the extremities. Wedges Nnare where, in general, they are in the space of fix hours likewise employed to fix the levers at a convenireduced to the stuff proper for making paper. ent height above the plates. Finally, every engine
The hard and soft of the same quality are placed is supplied with a small fide door, which is occaÎn different lots; but they can be reduced to fuff donally raised to carry the prepared ftuff by means
of the scuppets of wood to the general reposito- necessary to retain the ftuff of which the paper is ries.
made on the cloth: and it must be exactly adaptFig. 5. is placed in the vat fig. 8.; the roller (fig. ed to the form, otherwise the edges of the paper 4.) is placed above it in such a manner that the pi- will be ragged and badly finished. The wirevots reft in the sockets of the levers ; the feupper cloth of the form is varied in proportion to the (fig. 2.) and the chapiter are disposed in the man- fineness of the paper and the nature of the stuff. ner above mentioned. The engine is charged with The felts are pieces of woollen cloth spread a proper quantity of rags, and fresh water is ad. over every sheet of paper, and upon which the mitted by a spigot placed at one of the corners. sheets are laid to detach them from the form, to In this situation, when the engine is put in motion, prevent them from adhering together, to imbibe the roller turning upon its axis draws the water part of the water with which the stuff is charged, and the rags by the least inclined plane, and ma- and to transmit the whole of it when placed unking them pass between its blades and the channels der the action of the press. The two fides of the of the plate, dashes them against the chapiter and felt are differently raised : that of which the hair the wicker frames; and, in short, part of them is longest is applied to the sheets which are laid falls back into the engine, and returns into the down; and any alteration of this dispofition circulation. The caule of this circulation is evi- would
produce a change in the texture of the pa. dently the continual void occasioned by the move- per. The stuff of which the felts are made should ment of the roller on the one side, and the return be sufficiently strong, in order that it may be of the water and the stuff on the other.
stretched exactly on the sheets without forming As all the rags are not thrown towards the part into folds; and, at the same time, sufficiently Bd of the chapiter, from whence they might fall pliant to yield in every direction, without injury, back into the engine, but a part of them to a to the wet paper. As the felts have to refift the greater distance; it is necessary to have the wick- reiterated efforts of the preis, it appears necessary er frames formerly described, not only to prevent that the warp be very strong, of combed wool, their loss, but to allow the dirty water to escape. and well twisted. On the other hand, as they The spigot at the corner of the engine continual. have to imbibe a certain quantity of water, and ly fupplies this waste of water. This operation to return it, it is necessary that the woof be of would be fufficient to whiten the rags, although 'carded wool, and drawn out into a Nack thread. the rollers were raised considerably from the plate; -These are the utensils, together with the press, and therefore the force and action of the rollers which are used in the apartment where the sheets reducing them to stuff must be much more effec- of paper are formed. tual. It requires great skill to conduct the engine, The vat
being furnished with a sufficient quanwhether it be with regard to the fir t quantity, to tity of stuff and of water, two instruments are emthe proper time for adding the softer rags, to the ployed to mix them; the one of which is a fimple augmenting or diminishing the water in propor. pole, and the other a pole armed with a piece of tion to the trituration ; or, finally, to knowing board, rounded and full of holes. This operation exactly when the stuff is reduced to a proper is repeated as often as the stuff falls to the bot. confifteney.
tom. In the principal writing mills in England, When the stuff is brought to perfection, it is they use for this purpose wbat is called a hog, conveyed into a general repository, which supplies which is a machine within the vat, that by means the vat from which the meets of paper are form- of a small wheel on the outside, is made to turn ed. This vat is made of wood, and generally constantly round, and keep the stuff in perpetual about 5 feet in diameter, and 24 in depth. , It is motion. When the stuff and water are properly kept in temperature by means of a grate introdu- mixed, it is easy to perceive whether the previ. ced by a hole, and surrounded on the inside of the ous operations have been complete. When the vat with a case of copper. For fuel to this grate, stuff foats close, and in regular flakes, it is a proof they use charcoal or wood; and, frequently to that it has been well triturated; and the parts of prevent smoke, the wall of the building comes in the rags which have escaped the rollers also apcontact with one part of the vat, and the fire has pear. no communication with the place where they After this operation the workman takes one of make the paper.
the forms, furnished with its frame, by the middle Every vat is furnished on the upper part with of the short fides, and fixing the frame round the planks, inclosed inwards, and even railed in with wire-cloth with his thumbs, he plunges it oblique. wood, to prevent any of the stuff from running ly 4 or 5 inches into the vat, beginning by the over in the operation. Across the vat is a plank long lide, which is nearest to him. After the im. which they call the trapan, pierced with holes at merfion he raises it to a level: by these movements one of the extremities, and resting on the planks he fetches up on the form a sufficient quantity of which surround the vat.
stuff; and as soon as the form is raised the water The forms or moulds are composed of wire escapes through the wire-cloth, and the fuperflucloth, and a moveable frame. It is with these ity of the stuff over the sides of the frame. The that they fetch up the stuff from the vat, in order fibrous parts of the stuff arrange themselves raguto form the sheets of paper. The fides of the larly on the wire-cloth of the form, not only in form are made of oak, which is previously ft -ep- proportion as the water escapes, but alto as the ed in water, and otherwise prepared, to prevent workman favours this effect by gently shaking the warping. The wire.cloth is made larger than the form. Afterwards, having placed the form on a sheet of paper, and the excefs of it on all fides is piece of board, the workman takes off the frame covered with a moveable frame. This frame is or deckle, and glides this form towards the couch