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ferred to antecedents and consequents: but, if it be composed of various arguments, only those parts are to be so accommodated, which belong to one and the same argument. "Thus, if 1 Cor. x. 16. be the subject of inquiry, the Antecedents and Consequents are chap. 8, 9, and 10; without an accurate collation of which, we can form no solid judgment of the text in question. Franzius, in the preface to his book, “ de Interpretatione Scripturæ Sacræ," earnestly recommends and explains this branch of Exposition, and illustrates his remarks with examples from Holy Writ. See also Danhauerus “ Herm. Sac.” p. 360, &c. 3. A Collation of the


under consideration with other parallel passages.

A Parallelism is either real or verbal.

A verbal parallelism is to be sought, when the words are attended with any obscurity, emphasis, impropriety, or ambiguity. To this belongs the use of Verbal Concordances, as those of H. Stephens and Schmidius in Greek, that of Buxtorf in Hebrew; and that of Noldius, which relates to Hebrew Particles.(a)

A real Parallelism properly appertains to Expository Reading, and, in this, some aid may be derived from Real Concordances. But, as was remarked, Chap. II. Page 46, it is better to form Concordances ourselves, by the frequent and assiduous perusal of the Scripture; and diligently to commit the Seats of subjects to memory.

A Parallelism is either adequate or inadequate. adequate, when it affects the whole subject proposed in the text; inadequate, when it affects it only in part. In Expository Reading, the former is to be decidedly preferred; but the latter, nevertheless, merits some attention, since a paraphrase furnished with such parallelisms is not without merit:--but on this point, we are to speak more fully hereafter. In the year 1682, John Canne published an English Bible, with parallel passages

annexed to the text in a continued series, for the purpose of showing that Scripture is the best interpreter of itself. It would be well, if this were added to all our bibles; and it might also be much enlarged and improved. (6)

A Parallelism may be sought in those parts which flow from the text by way of consequence; but this rather appertains to Inferential Reading and Practical Application.

4. The Analogy of Faith. This Expository help coincides with that last noticed. They, however, differ from each other, first, in extent; Verbal Parallelism not belonging to this expository help; and, secondly, in their mode of comprehending; for in the former we look for nothing but an Exposition of a particular passage, but in the latter we regard the agreement and universal harmony of the Divine Oracles. This help may, however, be very properly viewed es subordinate to the preceding; though, deeming it

of high import to use it skilfully, we have assigned a separate consideration to it.

In the exercise of this help, the student is called to guard against entertaining a false idea of the Analogy of Faith. It is a false idea, when, from a wrong interpretation of Scripture, or from tradition, we imbibe a number of human opinions; and, receiving these as the genuine doctrine of faith, endeavour to interpret Scripture agreeably to them. On this principle, the Romish Church has an Analogy of Faith; of which, this is the foundation.--" I believe what the Church believes." Here a circumlocution becomes necessary: “How do you prove that this is the sense of Scripture?"_" Because the Church believes it." “Why does the Church believe it?"_" Because the Scripture asserts it.” This will be more evident, if we advert to the whole system of Popery, as it is developed, by Puffendorf, in the Appendix of his “Introductio in Historiam, and by Ferrarius in his “Euclides Catholicus." See also Kortholt's treatise “ de Canone Scripturæ Sacræ.”

On such grounds as these, indeeed, every sect may have its Analogy of Faith; all its doctrines terminating in some assumed position, so that its partisans may not contradict themselves. When persons of this description meet with passages of Scripture that they cannot readily explain, consistently with their hypothesis, they strive to solve the difficulty by that Analogy of Faith,


which they have themselves invented. But, allowing that all their assumptions were founded in truth, it is by no means consonant with the principles of Divinity, to interpret Scripture by the hypothesis of a Church; because the Sacred Records the


mediums of ascertaining theological truth.

We ought, on the other hand, to be solicitous that we form a true and genuine idea of the Analogy of Faith. “ This Analogy,” says Danhawer, “is ex“planatory of the harmony and perfect consistency of “ the Divine Oracles; and it is founded on the univer“sal agreement of the Inspired Writersthe mouth of all the prophets.See Danhawer, who speaks largely on this point; and compare with his, the brief, but clear and perspicuous observations made by Pfeiffer, “Herm. Sac." p. 168, &c.(c)

5. A Consideration of the Affections. When this help is neglected, the Expositor of Scripture must necessarily err. This is abundantly shown by Luther, in various parts of his works; by Wolffgang Franzius, in his treatise de Interpretatione Scripturæ Sacræ,” who expounds it by a portion of Holy Writ; and by Flacius, Danhauerus, &c. Daily experience. likewise evinces, that familiar discourse derives much of its energy and perspicuity from the Affections of the speakers; and that the same words, pronounced under the influence of different emotions, convey very different meanings. This valuable help requires a se

parate consideration; for which, see the Treatise on the affections appended to this work.

6. A Consideration of the Order observed by the Sacred Penmen in proposing their Subjects. When this help is judiciously exercised, it opens the way to a deep acquaintance with the meaning of an author; when it is neglected, many things necessarily remain obscure and ambiguous. By duly adverting to it, how fully intelligible do the following passages become; 2 Pet. i. 5, 6, 7. Rom. v. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. This help indeed merits particular attention; though it is seldom obvious to those who are destitute of experience in divine things.

7. A Consideration of Circumstances;—Who? What? Where? By what means? Why? How? When? This help may act as a supplement to the others; for, when any thing is neglected that tends to explain and confirm the literal meaning, such Circumstances carefully examined, will disclose it. It is, however, better to make use of this help in applying all the others. See Danhauerus “ Hermen. Sac."

p. 358.

II. SPECIAL Helps to Exposition, are Rules formed by those who have made Scripture their study, for the purpose of assisting in the interpretation of particular texts, or in the exposition of particular books. Hence, they are of two kinds: such as are used in any part of Scripture indifferently; and such as are applied

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