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it were likewise as rational. I sbould knowledgment of jurisdiction in a hardly have mentioned the pardonable foreign potentate. But this has been mistake of the Chancellor in what the too satisfactorily explained by the Ca. Lords pray for, if it had not been a tholics, to excite any but a fictitious proof of the prejudice with which the jealousy. We can have now no more question is considered, and that the apprehension of the papal power, than dislike of these our fellow-citizens is of the cruelties of Tiberius. His founded upon any or no reason. The very existence depends on his perbest speech that has been made in the sonal merit; and the present Pope enpresent year on the subject, was, in joys all his influence, because he has my opinion, that of the Duke of Sus- displayed more than human virtue, sex; and the worst, that of the Chan- in stripes, in imprisonment, in revilcellor.
ings, &c. The most important consideration It is easy enough to perceive, that has, however, been omitted by all par | I am an enemy to continuing longer ties; and that is, the effect that our the persecution against our fellowdisputes with the Catholics has had, creatures; and I think, that if all the and still continue to have, on religion ministers had zealously and sincerely itself. It is not necessary for a stran- ratified the full rights of our Roman ger to be previously indisposed to-Catholic brethren, they would have wards Christianity, to feel disgust made a worthy epilogue to their teragainst a religion productive of somination of the continental war. What much uncharitable acrimony. If the indeed is the benefit of our victories, Catholics are right, we are guilty of if we still tremble at the fluttering of gross blasphemy, and most unneigh- a leaf? if the recovery of Job from bourly malicious conduct towards his sickness may frighten us in our them. If they are wrong to the de- strong holds, and freeze up the blood gree that, we represent them, our in- of exultation in the heart in the most structors in Christianity taught us overbearing moments of triumphant nothing but paganism and idolatry. I pride! Such a crime in the parent, may render the offspring suspicious, and give a final victory to infidelity. In sup
ESSAY 111.-ON CALORIC. pressing their writings, we do not hinder the progress of their opinions.
(Continued from col. 535.) At all events, the subject of the sa- Another effect of Caloric is vapocrament was the most unfortunate rization. When bodies are reduced that could be selected for the aliment to a state of vapour, their particles of contention. In receiving this at are separated to a greater distance the altar, we pray so to eat the flesh of from each other, than when in a state Jesus Christ, and drink his blood, of fluidity. Some substances require that our sinful bodies may be made great degrees of heat before they clean by his body. It is a subject assume this form, whilst others bethat surpasses human reason, and come vaporized at very low temperaought to be left open; but if we will tures. Thus, for example, Ether is rush in where angels fear to tread, by converted into vapour at 1049 of Fahour example infidels may justly re- renheit; Alcohol at 182o ; Water at ject what they do not understand, and 212° ; whilst Mercury requires at least throw the highest mysteries of our a temperature of 650°. It must be faith wholly out of the creed. If the observed, however, that at the mescripture asserts the real presence after dium temperature of the atmosphere, consecration of the elements of the an evaporation to a greater or less exsacrament, it is certainly true, that if tent occurs in all fluid bodies. This we reject any part of a divine revela- is called spontaneous evaporation, and tion, we falsify the whole. The union may be regarded as an aërial solution of God and Man, the Trinity, the of different fluids. Vaporization is Birth, the Resurrection, are all be- to be understood as referring to that yond the powers and conceptions of process, by means of which a body
is converted into an elastic vapour by There is one part of the question caloric alone. Vapours may be with which the Government may and again condensed by the abstraction of ought to interfere, and that is, thc ac- caloric.
Gases are those bodies which exist nation have been separated from each in an invisible elastic state, and which other; for, as some bodies require a cannot be reduced to a solid or liquid greater, and others a less degree of state by a reduction of temperature. | temperature, to bring them into a state Elasticity is one remarkable property of vapour, it is evident that a separapossessed by bodies in a state of gas tion of this kind may be easily effector vapours. By the application of ed. From this principle, the processes pressure, their volume is considerably of distillation, sublimation, and evareduced ; but, upon its removal, they poration, have arisen. Count Rumexpand to their original bulk. It is ford, and Hassenfratz, have made owing to this property, that the vapour some experiments, with a view to deof water has been employed as a me- termine the capacity of boilers best chanical power. If any fluid be heat-suited to evaporate water from a ed in a vessel from which the vapour given quantity of fuel; and the latter cannot escape, the vessel will soon has stated the comparative results of burst, although formed of the strongest evaporation at different temperatures. metal.
The result with regard to the last, is, All vapours and gases possess gra- that it is most economical to keep the vity, as they consist of solid matter liquor up to its boiling point, the rarified by caloric; the discovery of greatest quantity being thus evapo. the weight of the atmosphere was one rated with the least consumption of of the happy results of philosophical fuel. It is necessary, however, to obinvestigation. But there are some serve, that the heat must not be bodies which require the most intense raised too high, as, when this is the heat to convert them into vapour, and I case, the vapour carries with it a porothers which have not undergone this tion of the fixed body. This bas been change: these are the earths and me-remarked, even when the most fixed tals ; although, however, there are salts have been evaporated from some bodies which have not yet been water at a high temperature, it made to assume this form, still it is / The transition of fluids into vapour, presumed that they might be rendered at a temperature inferior to that at volatile, if it were possible to produce which the liquid boils, is much accea sufficient degree of temperature. | lerated by passing over their surface a
As vapours, possess elasticity to a current of air: if a liquid, whilst exvery considerable degree, it is obvious posed to heat, has but an imperfect that pressure must materially influence communication with the air, the protheir formation. When pressure is cess of evaporation goes on slowly applied, it requires a higher degree of lif, however, the air be admitted to the temperature to convert liquids into surface, a rapid disengagement of yavapour: thus, for example, under the pour ensues. Gay Lussac has made usual atmospheric pressure, water several experiments on this subject. boils at 2120 of Fahrenheit; but it If sulphuric acid, he observes, he undergoes the same change at 180°, poured on nitre, vapours of nitric when placed under the exhausted re- acid continue to be disengaged for a ceiver of an air-pump. Ether, which long time under exposure to the air ; requires a temperature of 104° when | but they soon cease, if the air is exexposed to the pressure of the atmo- cluded. If muriate of potash be kept sphere, rapidly boils at the common in fusion in an open vessel, there is a temperature of the atmosphere when considerable loss of weight from evaplaced in vacuo. By applying pres- poration, which does not happen if sure to fluids, they may be heated to a the vessel be lightly covered ; and it very high temperature: Water has been the cover be removed, vapours almost heated to above 400° in Papin's di- | immediately arise, though none apgester, which is a close iron vessel, peared to escape before from the furnished with a valve, on which a small apertures between the vessel regulated weight presses, and retains and the cover. A number of the me: the vapour without the risk of burst-tals, too, such as lead, antimony, and ing the vessel.
bismuth, give fumes at a red heat, in Another advantage has been taken, an open crucible, but afford no subliof this tendency in bodies to become mate in a closed crucible; appearing, volatile upon the application of calo- therefore, in the one case volatile, in ric: substances in a state of combi- I the other fixed. Lastly, water quickly
Essay III. On Caloric.
evaporates at a common temperature a red light is emitted ; if the temperaif exposed to the air, but cannot be ture be increased, the red light is distilled at the same temperature in mixed with yellow rays; and by a vessels imperfectly closed. He ac- still further augmentation of tempecounts for these facts, by supposing, rature, a white light is observed. The that when a liquid passes into vapour white light is the highest state of ig-, at a temperature inferior to the boil-nition, for no change is produced by ing point, it is not counteracted by any farther degree of heat. Ignition the pressure of a different elastic fluid, is also produced by friction and perbut by the pressure of its own vapour. cussion. Bodies, when converted into vapour, By applying different mineral subabsorb a quantity of caloric, which stances to the circumference of a wheel they give out upon being brought into of fine grit, Mr. Wedgwood found a state of condensation. Although, that the substance applied became however, they absorb a very large luminous, even in day-light, at the quantity of heat by assuming the touching part; if the wheel was made elastic form, there is no indication of to revolve very rapidly, a pure white an increase of temperature.
light was produced. These sparks The last effect of caloric is ignition. exploded gunpowder and inflammable When certain bodies are exposed to gas, and burnt the skin; a proof that great degrees of heat, they emit light, they were actually in a state of igniand are said to be in a state of igni- tion. Various opinions have been tion or incandescence. No chemical entertained with regard to the oause change, however, occurs when they of ignition. Some who have regarded are brought into this state; for when light and caloric as substances in most the caloric which they contain is respects similar, have conceived that emitted, they assume their original during ignition caloric is converted form. Combustion is a process differ- into light; others have supposed that ent from that of ignition. When com- light is a constituent principle of all bustible bodies are exposed to caloric, bodies, and that by the agency of a chemical action takes place; the caloric it is expelled, when bodies are combustible body, by combining with exposed to high temperatures. The one of the principles of atmospheric former supposition appears to be conair, has its form entirely changed, and tradicted by the circumstance of the is no longer combustible. Ignition is rays of light and heat having been produced by the action of caloric separated from each other. If we alone. Chemists have observed, that adopt the latter opinion, there is some the temperature at which the first stage difficulty in explaining the reason why of ignition occurs, is the same in all the emission of light during ignition bodies. Mr. Wedgwood gilded lines does not gradually diminish, and at running across a piece of earthen- length cease, since there must be a ware, and luted it to the end of a tube limited quantity of light in the body which was placed in a beated crucible; which is exposed to caloric. To get by applying the eye to the other extre- over this difficulty, it is supposed, that mity of the tube, no difference of time bodies, in a state of ignition, receive could be perceived in either the gold light, as well as caloric, from those or the earthenware beginning to shine. substances which keep up and auglo a body, which appears in the dark ment their temperature. In the proat a low red heat, no light will be per- duction of ignition by attrition, the ceived during day-light. Sir Isaac same difficulty attends an explanation Newton calculated, that bodies which of the evolution of caloric as of light. assumed a red heat in the dark, cor- It is supposed that the light which responded with 635° of Fahrenheit's does appear, may perhaps be conscale; in full red heat, with 752°; and tained in the body, and that it is exin ignition, visible in faint day-light pelled by the high temperature which with 10000 Mr. Wedgwood fixed the the friction or percussion excites. It point of red heat in tõe dark, at-1 must, after all, however, be acknowof his pyrometrical scale, which corre- ledged, that there are difficulties atsponds with 9470 of Fabrenheit; and tending the extrication of light and Ignition during day-light, he placed at caloric, which do not admit at present que commencement of his scale, or of a satisfactory solution. 1077o, In the first stage of ignition
(To be continued.) No. 30,--VOL. III.
First Report of the Mission of Huahine.
FIRST REPORT OF THE MISSION AT some months before, for the benefit HUAHINE.-.decemBER 1819. of religious instruction, and had form
ed themselves into a society, to be We doubt not that the following ar- united with the society at Huahine. ticle will prove highly interesting to The several services at the meeting, a large proportion of our numerous excited unusual attention and interest readers. It cannot but afford pleasure among the people, both on account of to all who rejoice at the prosperity of their novelty, and the perfect harmony Zion:
which pervaded the whole. From the It is nearly eighteen months since, report then read by the Secretary, the with a view to more extensive useful total amount of subscriptions for ness, that the brethren Barff, Davics, Huahine and Tabuaemanu was 3985 Ellis, Nott, Orsmond, Threlkeld, and bamboos of cocoa-nut oil, 98 pigs, and Williams, who were to form a Mis- 95 balls of arrow-root, (a bamboo of sionary station or stations among the oil containing on an average 2 quarts, Society Islands, removed from Aimeo and a ball of arrow-root 6lbs.) We to Huahine, accompanied by many rejoice in being able to say, that their of the chiefs and people, who, for the zeal has not abated; as a proof of purpose of receiving religious instruc- which, many have already paid in tion, and attending the stated preach- their subscriptions, although not due ing of the word, had been several till next May. No doubt, many among years residing there.
them subscribe from the influence of Shortly after the establishment of example, or a desire to gain the good the mission at Huahine, Tapa and opinion of their superiors, but with other chiefs from Raiatea came up to some it is certainly otherwise. Their invite some of our number down to missionary spirit springs from their their island, to instruct them and their attachment to the word of God; and it people in the word of God. After a will, we trust, on that account conshort stay with us, they returned with tinue so long as they feel a love to the the brethren Threlkeld and Williams, Saviour, or appreciate the blessing of with their families accompanying them his salvation. to Raiatea. For the benefit of me-! At Fare, the district where we redical assistance, they were soon after side, the preaching of the word has followed by brother and sister Ors- / been regularly attended ever since our mond ; the latter of whom was in a arrival. For several months past, we few months called to her eternal rest, have also had the pleasure of seeing followed by her infant daughter, I our congregation considerably increaswhose birth she survived but a few ed: two of our number have itinehours. On the 6th of October 1818, rated every Sabbath (with few excepwe had the pleasure to witness and tions) to Maeva, Parea, and Mahapu, assist in the formation of an Auxiliary three of the most populous districts in Missionary Society at Huahine, in the island. A congregation of 3 or 400 aid of the Missionary Society in Lon- usually assemble at each of these don. The people in general, and es- | places. Brethren Davies and Bari pecially the chiefs, appeared to enter have different districts: we trust their fully into its design, and esteemed it journey has awakened some to desire an honour to their island to have a the things which make for their everMissionary Society connected with it. lasting peace. They were vigilant in preparing their ! During the past year, our number subscriptions, and had most of them of scholars at this place has been concollected before the time appointed siderably augmented ; besides which for the general meeting.
we have a school at Maeva, and anIn May last, we held the first meet- other at Mahapu, under the care of ing of our Society; the principal native teachers, and superintended by Chiefs of Raiatea, Taha, and Bora- | those who visit them. We have also bora, were present to witness our pro- a Sunday School at each of the aboveceedings. Contrary winds alone pre-mentioned places, as well as at our vented some of our brethren at Raiatea residence, which we think calculated from uniting with us on this interest- to produce much good among the ing occasion. Most of the natives of children. The improvements in spel. Tabuaemanu (Sir Charles Sanders ing, reading, and knowledge of Island) had removed to this island catechism, &c, have been encouraging
considerable attention has also been considerable progress has also been paid to writing and arithmetic. The made in cultivation. Many acres number of scholars at present, is, at around us are enclosed, and stocked Fare, about 560, and 100 in the Sunday with food of various kinds. Useful school; at Maeva 300, and 80 children; tools, pit-saws, &c. together with paper at Mahapu 250, and 50 children. We and writing utensils, are in great dehave also been enabled to put another mand among them. The females esportion of the word of God into the pecially are much improved in their hands of the people, an edition of 2000 habits and appearance; when they copies of the gospel of Matthew, which procure a few yards of foreign cloth, we finished printing in October last; it is not, as formerly, carelessly bound they were sought with avidity, and round their loins, but made up into a received with gratitude by all. The gown, which gives them a much more editions of elementary books have decent appearance. Our sisters have likewise been of essential service by every means in their power conin the schools and remote districts. tributed to their improvement, and The gospel of Mark is translated, and continually at their respective houses the Psalms are in hand; several they instruct in needle-work so many other tracts are also ready for the as they can get to attend, several of press.
whom have made very considerable Brother Nott having translated the proficiency. gospel of John and the Acts of the We cannot conclude our report, Apostles, in order to avail himself of without testifying our gratitude to the the assistance of Pomare in the revis- divine Author of all good, for the ing it, removed to Tahité in July last, mercies we have received since the where he is still residing. Since commencement of the mission here; brother Nott left us, brethren Barff and we earnestly intreat an interest and Ellis have been under the neces- in the prayers of all who long for the sity of removing with their families extension of the Redeemer's kingdom for several months to Raiatea. The among men, that our feeble hands inconvenience of leaving their sta- may be strengthened by the mighty tions so long, was only overcome by God of Jacob, and we enabled, with a the reluctance felt to relinquish brother single eye to his glory, and a love for Threlkeld's attention at the time of do- immortal souls, perseveringly to hold mestic solicitude. On account of the on till he shall call us from the fields local circumstances of the Mission- of labour to the abodes of rest. That aries and people, previous to their he may make us increasingly diligent, settlement at their respective stations, and, if consistent with his will, increanone of the natives were baptized: singly successful, is our most earnest we have, however, had several under desire.
(Signed) preparatory instruction since our es
CHARLES BARFF. tablishment here; and on September
JOHN DAVIES. 12th, we had the happiness to baptize
WILLIAN ELLIS. 15 who were considered proper subjects, among whom were Mahine and
Mr. Editor. Hautia, the principal chiefs of the
SIR,--You will much oblige a constant island. There are also several candidates now under instructions, whom
reader and admirer of your excellent
Magazine, if you will insert in it the we intend soon to baptize. We have observed with peculiar
following article:pleasure the improvement in the out
Petersfield, July 16, 1821. ward condition of the people, and I am a henpecked husband, which I their progress in civilization. Seve- should not mind, but for one thing ; ral of them have finished very neatly my wife does not pay that attention plastered dwelling-houses, with doors to economy which I could wish, and and windows, and are boarding their wbich is indeed necessary in every bed-rooms; many others on the same situation of life, according to a perplan are now building. They have son's circumstances. also erected a very strong and capa-1 By living in a gentleman's family, cious place of worship, 90 feet by 60; she has unhappily acquired habits of it is plastered within and without, and extravagance incompatible with her they are sawing boards for the floor. I present situation as a tradesman