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Review-Mexican Revolution.

756 reliance on the arrival of the supply of provi | Recovering from their panic, and sions, ammanition, and men, which he hourly urged by an apprehension for the fate expected, according to the promises of Padre ofthe

of their capital, the Spaniards seized Torres, and having no doubt, likewise, that the 1) latter, as well as the other patriot chiefs, would the earliest opportunity of attacking concentrate their forces to assist him, as had Mina in bisfort; the siege, and the condibeen arranged, he determined to await the ar- tion of which, and the deplorable state rival of Linan at the fort of Sombrero. Mina's of its brave defenders, the author deliforce in the fort, at that time, had been aug

neates in the following passages. mented to five hundred rank and file.

“ At the close of the month, information was "The fort was not calculated to sustain either brought to Mina, that the troops composing the a formal siege or a vigorous assault. Padre garrison of the Villa de Leon had that morning Torres had not sent any of the expected provimarched from the town, leaving only a small sions; and a supply for ten days was all that detachment for its defence. Conceiving that the fort contained. The ammunition also was this afforded him a good opportunity to try the deficient, but twenty-five boxes remaining. Bat character of his recruits, and strike a blow the most serious evil was, that the third diviagainst the enemy, he determined to attack the sion of the enemy was so posted as to cut off place. The Villa de Leon is an extensive, all communication between the garrison and the populous, and wealthy town, situated in a plain, water in the ravine. It was, however, hoped abounding with wheat fields. After Mina's that this evil would not be seriously felt, as the arrival at Sombrero, the enemy, anticipating rainy season had commenced. The only sucan attack on Leon. strengthened its works. I cour which the garrison received from Padre Its garrison was likewise augmented to seven Torres, came about two days previous to the hundred men, who were under the command arrival of the enemy, and consisted of sixty of Brigadier Don Pedro Celestino Negrete, a cavalry, under the command of Don Miguel de man famous in the annals of the revolution for Borja. The whole force of the garrison, inacts of depravity and cruelty. The streets cluding these and a party of the cavalry of leading to the principal square of the town Encarnacion Ortiz, did not exceed six hundred were defended by a traverse composed of a and fifty. When to these were added the peawall, with a ditch on the outside. This work santry, who were employed in working parinclosed the buildings, consisting of lofty ties, and the women and children, the whole churches and heavy mansions. The place had number of souls in the fort was about nine hitherto been considered impregnable, having hundred. baffled all the efforts of the patriots to take it. “At day-break of the 31st, the enemy openFrom their massive architecture, every house ed a heavy fire of shot and shells, which conand church was in itself a fortification.

tinued incessantly till dark; their fire being * Mina, on the evening he received the in occasionally returned by the fort. This canformation, after having taken every precaution nonading continued, with little intermission, to prevent intelligence of his design being con- during the whole of the siege; and on some veyed to the enemy, marched from the fort with days, the besiegers discharged from their bathis division and some Creole cavalry, in all tery on the hill, as many as six handred shot about five hundred men, and a piece of artillery. and shells. To the besieged, this appeared a His intention was to take the enemy by sar- useless expenditure of ammunition, unless it prise, in the night. On arriving within half a was intended to display the great resources and mile of the town, a picquet of the enemy was indefatigable exertions of the enemy; for, as unexpectedly encountered; it fled, and alarmed the principal buildings were under cover of the the garrison, which, it afterwards appeared, conical hill, and the others were in such posihad been strongly reinforced by a division of tions as to be protected by the rocks, and as no Linan's army; a circumstance of which Mina one moved from his covert unless compelled was totally ignorant. On arriving near the by duty, the fire of the enemy was ineffectual, square, his troops were received by a heavy | their shot falling harmless among the rocks, or fire of artillery, and musquetry from the tops of flying entirely over the fort. Indeed, their the houses. The attack was made with vigour, | artillery was so unskilfully served, that it anbut all attempts to carry it failed, the storming noyed their own works on the south side. parties being overpowered by pambers. The | This random firing continued for several days, Guard of Honour and regiment of the Union, without any casualty occurring, except among succeeded, however, in dislodging the enemy the horses which were roaming about the fort.. from a strong barrack, and took a few pri “The enemy undoubtedly flattered himself soners; but they could not force their way any with the hope of making an easy conquest farther. At dawn, the general, finding it im the fort, expecting that the first assault would practible to carry the place, drew off his troops, produce a surrender. At two o'clock A.M. and fell back upon the fort. So well satisfied on the 5th of August, a spirited attack was were the enemy to get rid of him, that they made upon the fort, at three points, wbion was made no attempt to harass him on bis retreat. considered assailable: but it failed, and to This was the first reverse experienced by the enemy were compelled to retire, with some arms of Mina; it was severe: the killed and loss. In this affair, the general, who com wounded were nearly one hundred, and among manded in person at the main entrance, disthem were several foreigners. Some of the played his usual intrepidity. With a lance wounded, who could not be brought off, fell his hand, he was foremost in withstanding the into the hands of the enemy, and were imme enemy, and received a slight wound. diately put to death ; while, on the contrary, “But now another circumstance created the prisoners that Mina had taken were li more serious uneasiness than the assaults berated”.-pp. 1 to 7.

the enemy. The communication with the ra?

st of

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vine, on which the garrison was entirely de- / for that relief which heaven only could bestow. pendent for water, had been totally cut off, by The clouds covered the fort: no sound was the third division of the enemy, wbo had in- heard amid the general anxiety of the wretched trenched themselves in an impregnable posi- garrison, save the thunder of the enemy's ar

lose to the water ring-place, and who attillery, whose troops, with savage exultation, night posted a chain of videttes along the ra- looked down on the besieged from their posivine. Mina, as well as Mareno, bad calculated tion on the hill. The flattering clouds passed that it was practicable to cover the watering slowly over the fort,-the moment was anxiparties from the fort; and to have anticipated ously looked for, which was to ease their sufThis disaster, by preserving water within the ferings ;- a few drops fell ;- anxiety was fort, was impossible, as there was but one wrought up to the highest pitch;- but the small tank, capable of holding no more than clouds passed, and burst at a short distance was sufficient for a few hours' sapply. As the from them! Language is inadequate to derainy season had commenced, it had been sup- scribe the emotions of despair which at that posed that the garrison would not suffer for moment were depicted on every countenance want of water. All these expectations were in the fort. For several days the clouds condisappointed; for the watering parties, which tinued thus to pass, without discharging a sinwere sent out nightly, generally returned with gle drop on the parched garrison, who had the out having succeeded in their attempt, or with cruel mortification of seeing their enemies fre.. such a partial supply as was of no adequate quently drenched with rain, and the large lake use; and although it constantly rained around, of Lagos constantly in view. Such were the yet none fell in the fort. The watering parties trials experienced at this ill-fated spot. At were obliged to descend the declivity of a very length, after a lapse of four days, a slight deep barranca, which rendered it impossible to shower fell. Every article capable of containconduct these sallies with any degree of order, ing the desired fluid was in readiness, and in and the enemy were therefore always apprised | spite of the incessant fire of the enemy, a supof their approach to the rivulet, and of course ply was collected, sufficient to yield a tempoprepared to resist them. Hence no supplies rary relief to the suffering garrison. A small supof any consequence could be obtained. Those ply' was also collected in reserve.”-pp. 9 to 15. who have not seen the Mexican barrancas, can scarcely form an idea of the difficulties they

Three nights after the attempt made present at every step; abounding in immense by the enemy to enter the fort, Mina, rocks, precipices, and thick bushes, it is im with 240 men, made a sortie on the possible to conduct any military enterprise in encampment of Negrete, and carried them with compactness and order.

the redoubt which had been thrown “The small quantity of water which each individual collected on the first appearance of the up on the nin. They were, however, enemy, had been soon expended. The only compelled to retreat, leaving many well in the fort, which was at the house of Don killed and wounded on the scene of Pedro Moreno, had never contained water. I conflict. Such of the wounded as All the stagnant water in the crevices around

could not be brought off, fell into the the fort, was consumed; and the horrors of thirst became dreadful. Recourse was had to

| hands of the enemy, who, carrying

" some wild celery, which lukily grew around them in full view of the fort, caused the fort: it was plucked at the risk of life; but them to be strangled in the sight of these were only partial alleviations, for some their commiserating and enraged comof the people were four days without tasting a

esting a rades. Their bodies, stripped of their drop of water.

clothing, were thrown down the pre" The situation of the garrison was fast approaching to a crisis. The troops at their posts cipice of the barranca to become the were hourly becoming less capable of exertion, | food of vultures. from the severity of their safferings. Horses Deceived with vain expectations of and cattle were wandering about, in the great obtaining relief from sources which est distress. The cries of children, calling on their unhappy mothers for water, gave to the

had flattered his hopes, Mina, on the scene of saffering peculiar horror. The coun night which succeeded the sorties, left tenance of the general shewed how deeply he the fort with three companions, to seek sympathized in the sufferings of his associates : relief, leaving Colonel Young in combut he cheered them with the hope that the God of nature would not abandon them; he

mand of the garrison. They eluded pointed to the heavy clouds with which the

with difficulty the vigilance of the beatmosphere was loaded, as the source from siegers, and after some time Mina whence relief would speedily be obtained ; made several attempts to accomplish and such was the effeci Mina's example and his purpose; but the fort was too consoling observations inspired, that each in

strictly and strongly guarded, to perdividual strove to distinguish himself by his superior fortitude under the severity of the

| mit his efforts to command success. general distress. With anxious expectation, “ Meanwhile, the enemy prosecuted the They marked the approach of the heavily siege with vigour. The cannonading was incharged clouds, hoping that the predictions of

cessant by day, and continued occasionally at a supply from them would soon be verified. | night. A few of the besieged were killed, and Every vessel was ready to receive the grateful

several wounded. The stock of water collected

from the last shower was exhausted; and the shower. The women brought out the images sufferings of the garrison, as well from hunger of their saints, supplicating their intervention as thirst, again became intolerable. Several

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ReviewThe Welsh Non-conformist's Memorial.

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days bad again elapsed without water. The dered to be an admirable critic in the children were expiring from thirst; many of the adults had becoine delirious, and bad resorted to the last and most disgusting of all human expedients, to allay for a moment the torments of thirst; while some few, driven to

and became a zealous and devout madness, would steal down at night to the rivulet, and, flying from the death of thirst, re

and property in the completion of a ceive it at the lands of their enemies. At this juncture, a generous trait was manifested by

place of worship which had been prethe enemy. They were moved to pity by the viously begun by his father, and afterdreadful situation of the women, and allowed

wards preached in it for some time. them to descend and drink the water, but would not permit them to carry any up to the fort. He next accepted an invitation to This solitary act of humanity proved, however, assist Dr. John Ash, at Pershore, and but a ruse de guerre,' as the enemy obtained from the women correct information of the state

resigned that office to become the pasof things in the fort, and finally, on one occa tor of the Baptist society at Lynn, sion observing a large number of them at the watering place, with

where, by his studious habits, and secharacteristic perfidy they seized them, and sent them prisoners to dentary course of life, his constitution the town of Leon.

becoming much impaired, he was ob“ The besieged were suffering not only the extremity of thirst, but their provisions were

liged to resign his pastoral charge, and nearly all consumed. Every juicy weed around was suspected of heretical pravity, the fort was plucked, and some of tbe men

but this suspicion was without foundaimagined they found relief from thirst by chewing lead. The soldiers were compelled to sub tion. His publications are classed sist partially on the flesh of horses, asses, and under five heads, viz. historical, biodogs.

The stench of the animals which had died | graphical, political, controversial, and for want of food, or from the enemy's shot, and miscellaneous. His most extensive of the dead bodies of the enemy which were

work was “ The History of Lynn," in suffered to lie unburied, was almost insupportable. Large flocks of vultures, attracted by which is displayed great research, and the dismal scene, were constantly hovering

much general information. over the fort, and fortunately diminished an evil, wbich otherwise could not have been borne,

| Thus much for the author of The “Their sufferings having become intolerable, Welsh Non-conformist's Memorial. many of the troops deserted, so that not more than a hundred and fifty effective men remained.

In a dedicatory epistle, Dr. Evans, The ammunition was so far expended as only the editor, gives the following account to admit of occasional firing. The guns bad

of the posthumous work now before been for some time served with the enemy's sbot: which, dug out at night from the rubbish

us: outside of the fort, was fired back to them in

“For years previous to his death, he (Di. the morning.”

Richards) meditated a work illustrative of the (To be concluded in our next.)

ecclesiastical antiquities of the principality of Wales. The subsequent volume sbews what had been accomplished. It is at length, with its final

corrections, presented to the public, who will Review.-The Welsh Non-conformist's

please to recollect, that, had Providence permitteo him to complete his plan, (a circumstance wbicli,

in humble submission to the will of God, was the graphy. To which are prefixed, an

subject of prayer during his last illucss,) imper. fections, at present discernible, would never

have appeared. Posthumous productions are re. of the Gospel into Britain, &c. By the ceived with eandour. A discerning public is wo! late Rev. William Richards, LL. D. / wanting in liberality.” Edited, with Notes and Illustrations, " It is a treasure of biography: I was de by John Evans, LL. D.

Like the mined that it should see the light. London,

Sibylliue leaves, I have gathered the sketches 8vo. 1820, Sherwood & Co. pp. together with an hallowed vigilance." 504. 8s.

The title of the book appears to us DR. RICHARDS, the author, was born incorrect, because it conveys the idea in Pembrokeshire, in the year 1749, | of a finished or complete work, whereas and died on the 13th September, 1818. | the volume contains only detach From his infancy he was distinguished parts of an intended whole, and W for his love of knowledge, bis dili- editor has not attempted to complet gence, and seriousness. He received the work by supplying the deficien his education for the office of the links in either the biographical or h Christian ministry in the Baptist aca- | torical chain. Therefore, we sho demy at Bristol, where he continued have preferred a title nearly as 10 two years.

| lows: The Bible was his favourite study;! Materials fora Welsh Non-conform but to this he did not confine himself. ist's Memorial, &c. &c. collected by He became acquainted with the best the late Rev. Wm. Richards, LL. authors, was well versed in civil and | Edited, with Notes and Illustrations, ecclesiastical history, and was consi- | by John Evans, LL. D.'

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Review-The Welsh Non-conformist's Memorial.


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In making these remarks, we have The first of these sketches is that of no wish to withhold from Dr. Evans Vavasor Powell. the praise he merits by bringing the

“ This eminent and ever-memorable Camcontents of this volume before the pub bro-Briton, Vavayor Powell, was a native of lic. While we regret that Dr. Richards Radnorshire, of no mean origin or ignoble

descent, being related to some of the best did not live to finish his own work,

families in that country, and also in those of Dr. Evans has our best thanks for pre Montgomery and Salop. He was brought up to

learning from his childhood, and received a senting it to the public in its present

very liberal education, first in that country, shape. He has rendered an ac and afterwards at Jesus College, in Oxford, ceptable service to the religious world,

where he is said to have made considerable pro

ficiency in the learned languages, and other and has imbodied more literary in

branches of literature. He was born in 1617, formation than wo expect, or usually and went into orders in the Established Church

some time before 1640." find, in works professedly religious.

We proceed to give the reader some He soon became an itinerant puriidea of the contents of this book. Af- tan preacher. ter a dedication and preface by the “He frequently preached at two or three Editor, we arrive at the part written places in a day, and was seldom two days in

the week througbout the year, out of the pulpit ; by Dr. Richards, which commences

nay, he would sometimes ride a hundred miles with a “ Sketch of Druidism,” which in a week, and preach in every place where he we regret our limits do not suffer us

might have admittance."

. “ Even

as early as the year 1654, the Christians in Wales, to examine at length. Dr. Richards

connected with Vavasor Powell, or attached to is more favourable to Druidical insti him, were supposed to amount to no less than

twenty thousand.”

. " He was tutions than most writers have been,

there (in London) when Cromwell assumed the who have made this subject their study. supreine power and was proclaimed Lord ProThe doctrine of transmigration has tector; and took a very active part in opposing

the same. On the very day that Oliver was pro. been held by several Christians. The

claimed, he is said to haye remonstrated agaiust it to the men in power. He also preached against

it the same evening at Blackfriars Church, for God, the Creator and Governor of the

which he was taken into custody, examined beuniverse, and pervading all space; of fore the council, and detained some days.” whom the idea of a locality of ex

The reign of Charles the Second cence was deemed unworthy. Pro- was still more unpropitious to religious,

liberty. On the 28th of April, 1660, religion, but their human sacrifices he was apprehended, and from that were criminals; and this system he compares with the execution of crimi

tion of some very short intervals, till nals in the present day. Add to these, death liberated him from the Fleet the Bards generally embraced Chris- prison on the 27th October, 1670, in tianity at its first promulgation; and

the 53d year of his age. it does not appear, from any accounts

The Appendix contains “ Hints on which have been transmitted to us, | Primitive Christianity ;” “Reflections that they ever disgraced their profes-on Allegorical Preaching;" which last sion.

we recommend to the attention of Next we are presented with “ An

young Ministers. “ Wickliffe and his Account of the first Introduction of followers.” “ Sketch of Michael Serthe Gospel into Britain ; with a cur- vetus.” “ Account of the original sory view of the State of Christianity State of the Sacred Writings ;” and among the ancient Britons from that an Introduction and Postscript, by period to the time of Pelagius,” which

the Editor. is followed by“Some Account of Mor

Whatever is connected with the gant, commonly called Pelagius;” and

principality of Wales, appears to us this is succeeded by “ A Sketch of the

particularly interesting. The Welsh State of Christianity in Wales, from

are the direct descendants of the orithe time of Pelagius to that of Wick

ginal inhabitants of this Island, and liffe.” To the period of the Reforma

among them must be sought the knowtion, the author, had he lived, would

ledge of our early antiquities. Their have brought down his account.

| personal character, their simplicity The principal part of the work is and integrity, tend to increase this next in the order of succession, and interest. We receive, with pleasure, bears the title of “ Cambro-British any additional information respecting Biography, or Sketches of several them; and we recommend this volume Welsh Non-conformists of the Seven as a valuable accession to the stores teenth Century," &c.

of religious biography, No. 30.-Vol. III.


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If beepercureurs, bugut sa

nating the public offices were either nutes had elapsed, she returned to begun or renewed with ardour. The her carriage; and, having ordered it artisans and labourers who appeared, to be thrown open, rode off amidst the were dressed in their best attire ; all shouts of multitudes, the hisses of a business appeared to be suspended, few, and the astonishment of all. The and London exhibited indications of following account of her Majesty's rea general holiday.

ception at the door of Westminster Between three and four o'clock, Hall, is generally considered to be some ladies and gentlemen appeared correct: in the costume of the Court, walking Lord Hood having desired admission for her from Bridge-street towards West

Majesty, the door-keepers drew across the

entrance, and requested to see the tickets. minster Hall. About four o'clock, the

Lord Hood-i present you your Queen; surely

it is not necessary for her to have a ticket. ern side of the division from Parlia

Door.keeper -Our orders are to admit no per.

son without a Peer's ticket. ment-street to Charing-Cross. On the Lord Hood-This is your Queen: she is erother side it extended only to the

titled to admission without such a form.

The Qacen, smiling, but still in some agitation, Horse Guards.

-Yes, I am your Queen, will you admit me? Soon after four, when it became Door-keeper-My orders are specific, and I feel

myself bound to obey them. known that her Majesty's coach was

1. The Queen laughed. making ready, a large concourse col | Lord Hood-1 have a ticket. lected round her house; and on her

Door.keeper-Then, my Lord, we will let you

pass, upon producing it. appearance about five, she was greet Lord Hood now drew from bis pocket a Peer's ed with loud cheers from a vast mul ticket for one person; the original name in whose titude. The course which she took,

favour it was drawn was erased, and the name

of “ Wellington” substituted. was through Great Stanhope-street, Door.keeper-This will let one person pass, but Park-lane, Hyde Park Corner, the

no more.

Lord Hood-Will your Majesty go in alone! Green Park, St. James's Park, Bird Her Majesty first assented, but did not per Cage Walk, and along Prince's-street, severe. to Dean's Yard. The crowd every

Lord Hood-Am I to understand that you refuse

her Majesty admission? where collecting as she passed, be Door-keeper-We only act in conformity with came at length comparatively im

our orders.

Her Majesty again laughed. mense, and the soldiers on every oc- Lord Hood-Then you refuse the Queen ad. casion presented arms with the utmost mission ? .

A door-keeper of superior order then came forward, and was asked by Lord Hond, whether

any preparations had been made for her Majesty! passed the outer barrier without any

He answered respectfully in the negative.

Lord Hood-Will your Majesty enter the · obstruction, and proceeded to the Abbey without your Ladies ? King's Arms Tavern, nearly opposite

Her Majesty declined.

Lord Hood then said, that her Majesty had het. the door of Westminster Hall, where

| ter retire to her carriage. It was clear no provision had been made for her accommodation.

Her Majesty assented. to proceed.

Some persons within the porch of the Abbey

laughed, and uttered some expressions of disre. Majesty proceeded on foot, leaning on


Lord Hood-We expected to have met at least with the conduct of gentlemen. Such couduct

is neither manly nor inapnerly. mand admission at the Hall door. The

Her Majesty then retired, leaning on Lord

Hood's arm, and followed by Lady Hood and officer on guard requested to see her Lady Hamilton. ticket. She replied, that she had | She was preceded by constables back to the

platform; over wbich she returned, eutered her none; and that, as Queen of England,

carriage, and was driven off amidst reiterated she thought a ticket unnecessary. He shouts of applause and disapprobation. expressed his sorrow, but said, his In Westminster Hall, his Majesty's orders were to admit no one without throne was placed at the southern exa ticket, and that, being peremptory, I tremity of the building, immediately they must be obeyed. On finding under the fine window on that side, access thus denied, they proceeded to and erected on a spacious platform, the door of the Duchy of Lancaster, which extended over the site lately behind the Champion's stable; but occupied by the Courts of King's here they found it shut. They then Bench and Chancery. It was superbly turned round, and, leaving the carriage gilt, upon a ground of rich crimson hehind, proceded to demand admis- / velvet, and placed under a canopy de. sion at another entrance; but this also corated with every thing that could was in vain. After about twenty mi- | heighten the combined cffect of algus

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